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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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•xioi    e  .  (»o 












printed  by  NieifOLti  Son,  and  BKNTLfcv» 
lUU  Lion  Passages.  Fleet  Stn^et,  LcHulum 







or  THE 











OTRIDGB  AND  SON  ;  G.  AND  W.  fflCOL  ;  G.  WILKIB  ;  J.  WALKBR  ;  R.  LBA  ; 




X  ITT  (W^-ljam),  earl  of  Chath^kirt,  one  of  the  ino*t 
iUustrious  sutesmen  wbotn  this  countr|y  bi^s  prodii^^^y  w$^ 
tbie  son  of  Robert  Fitt,  .esq.  of  Bocopnpck  in  Cornwall,  aQ4 
grandson  of  Thomas  Pitt^  ggivernor  of  Madr^i  >w.bp  wf^ 
purchaser  of  the  celebrated  di^tnond^  afte.r\yards  called  the 
Hegent.  The  family  was  origin^}^  (ofV^/set^hijet  wher,e 
it  bad  .been  iQpg  and  respecjO^ii^  ^^tfihlr^ed.  Willi^Kia 
Pitt  was  bora  Nov.  .15,  I7<>i$^'\^njl  jeducikted  at  Pton; 
whence^  in  January  1.72^6,  he-iij^nt  $is  a/.g^ptleman-cpm- 
cDoner  to  Trinity- cpUege,  O^fora^  Ifc.h^  been  ;»8iid,  th^t 
:he  was  not  devoid  of  poetical  taied^  of  w.hicb  f^  few  fipe* 
cimens  have  been  produced ;  but  they  dp  not  amount  to 
much,  and  of  his  Latin  ver^ea  on  the  Qeor^e  th^ 
First,  it  is  natural  to  suspect  that  the  whple  .iperit  was  .pot 
his  o\yn.  When  be. quitted  the  univ^r;^ity,  Pitt  .was  for, a 
time  in  the  army,  and  served  as  a  porneji;  bpt  his  t{^lep|s 
leading  him  more  decisively  to  another  field  of  .fictip^,  he 
quitted  the  life  of  a  spldier  for  that  of  ji>t^)[<esm;»n,  s^jid 
becauie  a. member  of  parliapient  for  the  borviii^h  P^  Pld 
Saruib,;.ia  FebrAj^ry  ,1.73^.  In  thi.s  sitp^tipn  hi^  ahilities 
weresopn  disitinguished,  and  he  ^ppj^ie  with  elp^uen<;e 
against  jthe  J^pucuisb  qopventiop 4a  1 73S.  Ijt  thp  PC- 
casion  of  the  bill  fpr  if^istrii|g  se^mhcn  in  J7.40,  .which  tje 
opposed  ia^^rbitcacy .and  unjja^^tifi^&hle,  tb^t  .be  is  ^aid  to 
have  m^ade  hia  celehr^^d  .r^ply  tP  Mr.  .(Joratio  Walpole, 
who  had  att^acked  him  on  account  of  his  (thpu^i 
then  thirty-two),  adding,  that  the  discovery  of  truth  is 
little  promoted  by  pompous  diotipn  and  tbeatric>l  leqiotion* 
Mr.  Pitt  ,retprtec|,  with  gre^t  severity,  "J  w]U  uot  un- 
.dertake  to  determiae  whether  youth .  caujuitlY  jbe  impptejd 
Vol.  XXV.  B 

2  PITT. 

to  any  man  as  a  reproach ;  but  I  w^U  affirm,  tha^  the 
wretch  who,  after  having  seen  the  consequences  of  repeated 
errors,  continues  still  to  blunder,  and  whose  age  has  only 
added  obstinacy  to  stupidity,  is  surely  the  object  of 
either  abhorrence  or  contempt,  and  deserves  not  that  bis 
grey  head  should  secure  him  from  insults.  Much  more  ia 
he  to  be  abhorred,  who,  as  he  has  advanced  in  age,  has 
receded  from  virtue,  and  becomes  more  wicked  with  less 
temptation;  who  prostitutes  himself  for  money  which  he 
cannot  enjoy ;  and  spends  the  remains  of  his  life,  in  the 
ruin  of  his  country."  Something  like  this  Mr.  Pitt  might 
have  said,  but  the  language  is  that  of  Dr.  Johnson,  who 
then  reported  the  debates  for  the  Gentleman's  Magazine. 

Though  he  held  no  place  immediately  from  the  crown, 
Mr.  Pitt  had  for  some  time  enjoyed  that  of  groom  of  the 
befddbamber  to  Frederick  prince  of  Wales,  but  resigned  it 
in  1745;  and  continuing  steady  in  his  opposition  to  the 
measures  of  the  ministry,  experienced  about  the  same  time 
that  fortune,  which  more  than  once  attended  him,  of  ha- 
ving his  public  services  repaid  by  private  zeal.  The  dow- 
ager duchess  of  Marlborough  left  him  by  will  10,000/.  ex- 
pressly for  defending  the  laws  of  his  country,  and,  en- 
deavouring to  prevent  its  ruin.  It  was  thought  soon  after 
an  object  of  importance  to  obtain  his  co-operation  with 
|;overnment,  and  in  1746  he  was  made  joint  vice-treasurer 
of  Ireland ;  and  in  the  same  year  treasurer,  and  pay -mas- 
ter-general of  the  army,  and  a  privy -counsellor.  h\  1755, 
thinking  it  necessary  to  make  a  strong  opposition  to  the 
continental  connections  then  formed  by  the  ministry,  be 
resigned  his  places,  and  remained  for  some  time  out  of 
office.  But  in  December  1756,  he  was  called  to  a  higher 
situation,  being  appointed  secretary  of  state  for  the  south- 
ern department.  In  this  high  office  he  was  more  success- 
ful in  obtaining  the  confidence  of  the  public,  than  that  of 
the  king,  some  of  whose  wishes  h«  thought  himself  bound 
to  oppose.  In  consequence  of  this  he  was  soen,  removed, 
with  Mr.  Legge,  and  some  others  of  his  friends.  The  na- 
tion, however,  was  not  disposed  to  be  deprived  of  the  ser- 
vices of  Mr.  Pitt.  The  most  exalted  idea  of  hini  bad  been 
taken  up  throughout  the  kingdom  :  not  only  of  his  abilities, 
which  were  evinced  by  his  consummate  eloquence,  but  of 
his  exalted,  judicious,  and  disinterested  patriotism.  This 
general  opinion  of  him,  and  in  some  degree  of  his  col- 
leagues, was  so  strongly  expressed,  not  merely  by  per- 

PITT.  8 

so'nal  bonc^rs  conferred  on  tbem^  but  by  addresses  to'th^ 
throne  in  their  favoar,  that  the  king  thought  it  prudent  to 
restore  them  to  their  employments.     On  June  29,   1757, 
Mr.  Pitt  was  again  made  secretary  qf  state,  and  $ir.  Legge 
chancellor  of  the  exchequer,  with  other  arrangements  ac- 
eording  to  their  wishes.     Mr.  Pitt  was  now  considered  as 
prime  minister,   and  to  the  extraordinary    ability  of  his 
-measures,  and  the  vigour  of  his  whole  administration,  is 
attributed  the  great  change  which  qufckly  appeared  in  the 
state  of  public  affairs.     It  was  completely  shewn  how  much 
the  spirit  of  one  man  may  animate  a  whole  nation.  The  ac- 
tivity of  the  minister  pervaded  every  department  His  plans> 
which  were  ably  conceived,  were  executed  with  the  utmost 
promptitude ;  and  the  depression  which  had  arisen  from 
torpor  and  ill  success,  was  followed  by  exertion,  triumph, 
and  confidence.  The  whole  fortune  of  the  war  was  changed ; 
in  every  quarter  of  the  world  we  were  triumphant ;  the 
boldest  attempts  were  made  by  sea  and  land,  and  almost 
every  attempt  was  fortunate.     In  America  the  French  lost 
^lefoec;  in  Africa  their  principal  settlements  fell;  in  the 
E»it-Indies  their  power  was  abridged,  and  in  Europe  their 
armies  defeated  ;  while  their  navy,  their  commerce,  and 
their  finances,  were  little  less  than  ruined.     Amidst  this 
career  of  success  king  George  the  Second  died,  Oct.  25, 
1760.     His  present  majesty  ascended  the  throne  at  a  time 
when  ifae  policy  of  the  French  court  had  just  succeeded  in 
obtaining  the  co-operation  of  Spain.     The  family  cpmpact 
had  been  secretly  concluded ;  and  the  English  minister, 
indubitably  informed  of  the  hostile  intentions  of. Spain, 
with  his  usual  vigour  of  mind,  had  determined  on  striking 
the  first  blow,  before  the  intended  enemy  should  be  fully 
prepared  for  action.     He  proposed  in  the  privy  council  an 
immediate  declaration  of  war  against  Spain,  urgitig,  with 
l^eat  energy,  that  this  was  the  favourable  moment,  per* 
baps  never  to  be  regained,  for  humbling  the  whole  iiouse 
of  Bourbon.     In  this  measure  he  was  not  supported,  and 
the  nation  attributed  the  opposition  he  encountered  to  the 
growing  influence  of  the  earl  of  Bute.     Mr.  Pitt,  of  much 
too  high  a  spirit  to  remain  as  the  nojCninal  head  of  a  cabi- 
net which    he  was  no  longer  able  to  direct,  resigned  his 
places  on, the  5th  of  October,  1761  ;  when,  as  some  re- 
ward for  his  eminent  services,  his  wife  was  created  baro« 
Dess  of  Chatham  in  her  own  right,  and  a  pension  Of  thref 

B  2     . 

%  ^  1  t  T- 

thoiisatSa  pounds  wtLs  s^ttl^d  oh  the  lives  of  biimeif)  his  h^ 
Wnd  his  eldest  ^on. 

No  falleti  iiltirti^ter  ev6t  carried  tvith  him  more  com*- 
pletely  tfi'e  confidence  And  regrA  of  the  natkm^  over  ^bose 
councils  be  had  pi'esided  :  but  the  king  was  also  popular, 
at  this  time,  and  th'6  War  being  eodttnired  by  his  new 
ininiiftei^  With  vigour  and  siSccesS,  iio  discontent  appeared 
till  Sifter  the  conclusion  6f  peac^.  Our  trivmpbs  in  the 
West  Iirdies  oVer  b6th  Fwtivee  imd  Spain,  had  particulariy 
eliilted'thb  ^irits  6T'the  pMpte,  and  it  was  tconceived  that 
W6  ou&ht  eithclr  to  cftctate  a  peacfe  as  conquerors,  or  cwlk- 
tinue  the  war  till  our  adver^ies  shoaM  be  more  ^fFectir- 
liltytiubi^Ved.  With  these  ideas,  when  the  preliminaries 
for  pekc'e  ftreVe  di sensed  in  pdrtiament,  Mr.  Pitc^  though 
'he  bkA  been  for  somi  time  confipnfed  by  a  severe  fit  of  th^ 
^b'ut,  Wfent  ^doWii  t6  %he  -House  of  Commons,  a^d  spoke 
foV  nearly  thireb  hburs  in  \he  debate.  He  gave  his  opinioQ 
'distinfctTy  upoh  almost  e'vfei^  article  in  the  treaty,  and, 
tipon  the  Wncyle,  maintained  that  it  was  inadequate  to  the 
conquests,  knd  just  e^pectiitions  of  the  kingdom.  Peace 
Wa^  however  cdtiduded  an  tb^  lOth  of.  February,  1763^ 
and  ^M'r  Pitt  cbfftinued  tiri^mpioyed.  He  had  the  magna- 
uibiity  tiot  to  enter  ihtotbat  petulant  and  undiscriminatihg 
jptan '6f  oppositioti,  which  has  ^o'fiequentiy  disgraced  the 
ill-judging  candidates  for  power;  but  maintained  bis  popii- 
larity  in  dignified  retirement,  itnd  came  forward  only  when 
great  6ccaSioni$  appeared  to  demand  his  interference.  'One 
of  tbefse  was  the  important  question  of  general  warrants  in 
1764;  theMllegality  of  which  he  maintained  with  all  the 
energy  6f  ^bis  genius  and  eloquence.  A  search  'or  seizure 
of  papers,  without  a  specific  charge  alledged,  would  be, 
as  he  justly  contended,  reptignant  to  «v^ry  prin<!fiple  ^ 
liberty.  The  moist  innocent  man  could  not  be  secure. 
"  But  by  the  British  conStitiition,"  hfe  continued,  "  every 
man's  house  is  his  castle.  Not  that  it  is  surrounded  with 
Walk  and  battlehients.  It  may  be  a  'straw- built  shed. 
Evi^ry  wind  of  heaven  may  Whtstlerbund  it.  Ail  the  ele- 
ments of  nature  may  eilter  it.  But  the  king  cannot;  the 
king  dare  not" 

When  the  discontents  in' A inetica  began  to  tippear,  d» 
the  occasion  of  the  stanfpistct,  Mr.  PHt  again 'found  a  sub- 
ject for  his  (exertions.  The  r^pleal  iof  that  act' being  pro- 
posed in  March  1766,  by  tbb  tiew  ministry  of  ^e finking- 
ham-party,  Mr.  Pitt,   though  not  Qonnected  with  them. 

JP  I  T  f .  J 

very  r<i]«U)ly'sup[pai^leii  iht  V0fi^»r^  whipk  wi^  9am^.; 

wbetber.  wisely  or  foriupfite)y»  \tk  ^tUI  f^  m^t^  pf  disgfiutes. 

ibeat  this  time  <lie«l  sir  Wini^m  Pypsent,    of  ]6ttr(9P 

Pyriisenviii  Soan^rsetsbirey  ain^n  qf  ^Qn«id^ipable  proppfty;, 

who,  ihroagh  toeve  adu^iratipa  of  Mf.  I^^t(  irj  hU  p^^Up 

character,  disinhemed  bis  ova  r^btionsi  W^  M'^^  \iW 

heir  10  the  bulk  of  his  esiMe.     It  w»s  P«r(iliuly  a  reqnfir^r 

able  proof  of  the  very  uiicQmn^n  <|«tim?lMpn  in  wbicli  |{iiji 

statesmati  vras  held,   thai  a  (^ircm«i9lia$:e  pf  t,hui  niftfir^ 

•haufd  have  happened  to  him  at  twf)i  di#i^r$iqt  p^riq^i  plT 

his  life.. 

7be  Roekjnghaoi  feinistry  prpripg  uni^b»  tp  fo^ifitAin  i^9 
froarid,  a  nemr  adfninisiration  m9A  fnmieid,  wd  H^  VWh  IP 
1766,  was  niada  lord  privy  seal.  At  the  f4n)0  Um^  h^  Wl^ 
created  a  peer,  by  the  titles  of  Yisopunt  Pitt,  pf  Bv)rtQP 
Pynsent,  in  the  county  of  Samcr^fj  ^d.e»rl  of  CJiathaiii^ 
in  the  county  of  Kent.  Whatever  might  biS  hi^  Kiptjy.^^  fpr 
dcceptrng  this  eleration,  be  Mr^nly  9Qoi^  by  it  In  pppu- 
larity,  at  least  as  much  as  be  vf^e  in  opmin^l  dig^i^y*.  Tb^ 
great  co^amonef,  as  btf  was  someliines  stylpd,  b%d  forip^d 
ar^nkto  himself,  on  the  sole  ba^i^  pf  bia  t^le^^s  ai)jd  ft^- 
eruonft,  Gdrwfaioh  the  titulai;  hpiioursi  which  h^  ?V^i^  m^w 
to  partieipate  with  many  ot^iers,  pould  nut  iR  tbe  publip 
ppiaiou  compensate.'  Still  it  niuat  b^  .<>w4^d ^.^^  ^b^  higb 
and  hereditary  distinction  of  tb(s  peer^g^  isi  9  j))stiiDd.b^ 
nourableiebject  of  aii^bition  1^  uPriiisb  pidtm^ffU^fi  vvbicbr 
if  he  attains  it,  as  Mr.  Pitt  f^ppe^^ra  t/»  bi^vis  4<^i9^  Wii^bppt 
aay  improper  concession  or  sjtipulatipiiy  a^f^y  he  p09$ic)^rpd 
as  the  fair  reward  of  past  ser^ipes,  4l9d  $bp  0IQ3t  pi^qoj^ 
tmtit  mooiuneiit  of  public  gratiti^.  Lpr4  Ckf^thw^f  vyb^' 
ever  might  be  theeause,  did  not  lopg  Q9npi(\np  in  p^c^; 
fae  resigiied  die  place  of  lord  privy  fte^l  pn  tbe  pdpf  t^o- 
veratKer,  I7£t,  arid  k  was  tbe  laat  pid^ii;c  empfqyiBenjt  which 
he  ever  accepted.  He  does  not  indeed  appis^  jto  b4V.a 
been  desirous  of  returning  to^ofiSce*  He/w99  ^Q^^i^ty  ; 
and  the  goHi,.  by  winch  be  bad  hi^mi  long  ^Aict^d^  b^d 
become  too  frequent  and  violent  in  its  attacks,  to  siif^^  of 
close  ior  r^uiar  appiicaj^ion  ia  jbusinesi.  fp  tbp  p^rvals 
of  bis  disorder  he  comipued  oiscaj^ionaUy  to  eKC^t  bi^9<&lf» 
on  qpeations  gH  great  msgnicfide,  and  w^  par|j(Ci;lar)^ 
streno^Npa  ia  1775,  aiid  the  etoanii^g  yi&ars,  ag^/^t  tb0 
loaeasares  pursued  by  the  nuni^^jters  in  U2»3  cpn/t^^  yvitji 
Ameii^. '  Nevertheless^  in  all  tbJAgs  kii  m^^^Hl^d  bis 
native  apirit.     When  FraAce  began  tp  ipA^fof^  ip  Ib^ 

«  PITT. 

contesty  be  fired  with  indignation  at  the  insult ;  and  wheA^ 
in  1778;,  it  was  thdught  necessary,  after  the  repeated  mis- 
fortunes of  the  war,  to  acknowledge  the  incjependence  of 
America,  he  summoned  up  all  the  strength  that  remained 
within  hini,  to  pour  out  his  disapprobation  of  a  measure  so 
inglorious.  He  did  so  in  a  speech  of  considerable  energy^ 
and  being  answered  in  the  course  of  the  debate  by  the 
duke  of  Richmond,  seemed  agitated  with  a  desire  to  re- 
ply :  but  when  he  attempted  to  rise,  the  effort  proved  too 
violent  for  his  debilitated  constitution,  and  he  sunk,  in  ^ 
kind  of  fit,  into  the  arms  of  those  who  were  near  him.  This 
extraordinary  scene  of  a  great  statesman,  almost  dying  in 
the  last  exertion  of  his  talents,  has  been  perpetuated  by  tbie 
pencil^  and  will  live  for  ever  in  the  memory  of  his  country- 
men. He  did  not  long  survive  this  effort.  This  debate  hap- 
pened on  the  Sth  of  April,  1778,  and  he  died  on  the  11th 
oiF  May  ensuing. 

All  parties  appeared  now  to  contend  to  do  honour  to  his 
memory  :  a  public  funeral  and  a  monument  in  Westminster 
abbey,  at  the  national  expence,  were  immediately  voted  by 
parliament,  and  his  majesty  was  addressed  to  settle  upon 
bis  family  ^*  such  a  lasting  provision  as  he  in  his  wisdom 
and  liberality  should  think  fit,  as  a  mark  of  the  sense  the 
nation  entertains  of  the  services  done  to  this  kingdom  by 
that  able  Statesman.''  A  pension  of  4,000/.  a-year  was  ac^- 
cordingly  appointed  by  his  majesty,  out  of  the  civil  list 
revenue,  and  confirmed  in  per[^tuity  by  parliament,  to  the 
heirs  of  the  earl  of  Chatham,  to  whom  the  title  should  de- 
scend. The  monument  raised  to  his  memory  is  highly 
worthy  of  the  occasion,  being  perhaps  the  noblest  effort  of 
British  sculpture.  His  figure  appears  upon  it,  -  at  full 
length,  in  his  parliamentary  robes,  and  in  the  attitude  of 
speaking ;  the  accompaniments  are  grand  and  appropriate, 
and  the  inscription  has  a  simple  dignity,  much  more  im- 
pressive than  any  pomp  of  words,  announcing  merely, 
that  the  king  and  parliament  have  paid  this  tribute  to  hisf 

The  principal  outlines  of  lord  Chatham's  character,  sa- 
gacity, promptitude,  and  energy,  will  be  perceive^d  iu  the 
foregoing  narrative.  The  peculiar  powers  of  his  eloquence 
have  been  characterized  since  his  death  in  language  which 
will  convey  a  forcible  idea  of  it  to  every  reader.  "  They 
who  have  been  witnesses  to  the  wonders  of  his  eloquence, 
who  have  listened  to  the  music  of  his  voice^  or  trembled 

PITT.  7 

tt  itft  majesty;  who  have  seen  the  persuasive  gracefulness 
of  bis  action,  or  have  felt  its  fqrce ;  they  who  have  caught 
the  flame  of  eloquence  from  his  eye,  who  have  rejoiced  in. 
the  glories  of  his  countenance,  or  shrunk  from  his  frown^, 
will  jremember  the  resiistless  power  with   which   he  ioir 

Eressed  conviction.     But  to  those  who  have  never  seen  or 
eard  this  accomplished  orator,  the  utmost  effort  of  imagi- 
nation will  be  necessary,  to  form  a  just  idea  of  that  com- 
bination of  exceiltfnce,  which  gave  perfection  to  bis  elo* 
quence.     His  elevated  aspect,  commanding  the  awe  and 
mute  attention  of  all  who  beheld  him,  while  a  certain  grace 
in  bis  manner,  arising  from  a  consciousness  of  the  dignity 
of  bis  situation,  of  the  solemn  scene  in  which  he  acted,  as 
well  as  of  his  own  exalted  character,  seemed  to  ^cjsnow- 
ledge  and  repay  the  respect  which  he  received. — ^This  ex- 
traordinary personal  dignity,  supported  on  the  basis  of  his 
well-earned   fame,  a^t  oqce  acquired  to  his  opinions  an 
assent,  which  is  slowly  given  to  the  arguments  of  oth^r 
men.     His  assertions  rose  into  proof,  his  foresight  became 
prophecy.^— No  clue  was  necessary  to  the  labyrinth  illumi- 
nated  by  bis  geuius.     Truth  came  forth  at  bis  bidding, 
and  realised  the  wish  of  the  philosopher  ;  she  was  seen,. and 
beloved.^' — We  have  omitted  some  parts  of  this  spirited 
character  because  not  written  with  equal  judgment :  but 
the  result  pf  the  whole  is,  that  while  he  sought,  with  inde- 
fatigable diligence,  the  best  and  purest  sources  of  politi- 
cal information,  be  had  a  mind  which  threw  new  lights  upon 
every  topic,  and  directed  him  with  more  certainty  than  any 
adventitious  aid.      Another  account  of  bis  extraordinary 
powers,  more  concise,  but  drawn  with  wonderful  spira,  is 
attributed  to  the  pen  of  Mr.  Wilkes.     '^  He  was  born  an 
orator,  and  from  nature  possessed  every  outward  requisite 
to  bespeak  respect,  and  even  awe.     A  manly  figure,  with 
the  e^gje  eye  of  the  famous  Cond6,  fixed  your  attention, 
and  abnost  coipmanded  reverence  the  moment  he  appeared ; 
and  the  keen  lightnings  of  his  eye  spoke  the  high  spirit 
of  his  soul,  before   his   lips   had  prpnounced  a  syllable. 
There  was  a  kind  of  fascination  in  his  look  when  he  eyed 
any  one  askance.     Nothing  could  withstand  the   force  of 
that  contagion.    The  fluent  Murray  has  faultered,  and  even 
Fox    (afterwards  lord    Holland)    shrunk    back    appalled, 
from  an  adversary,  ^  fraught  with  fire  unquenchable,'  if  I 
may  borrow  the  expression  of  our  great  Milton.     He  had 
Dot  tbe  correctness  pf  language  so  striking  in  the  great 

g  PITT. 

ftditt^il  oMi^r  (#6  fUajr  sidd,  and  in  his  soti),  but  be  hacl 
the  verba  ardenHa^  the  b(rid  gtoivlng  W6rds.**--»L<Mrd  Cbei* 
iferfi^ld  hd»  givM  a  indre  gendrAl  ptetnre  ^  hb  ehaii^ter,- 
16  th6  following  W6rds :  '*  Mr.  Pift  im^  his  riie  to  the" 
jit(Mt  ccta^ideHtbiC!  post  iifid  power  ift  thk  kingdom,  »ingif 
tb  his  ovrii  dhilities.  In  him  thej  ftupplied  the  w«nt  of 
birth  ftiid  fdttDne,  whieh  latter,  in  others  too  often  ^opply- 
tibo  vratlt  o^  the  Fortfier.  He  was  k  younger  brother^  of  a 
v^f^  new  hthWfy  and  bis  fortone  was  only  an  annoity  of 
6t\6  biiildred  pounds  a-ye^r.  Xhe  artny  wai  his  original 
destiriation,  aOd  a  cometcy  of  horse  hi^  first  and  only 
coMmissiotl  iO  it  Thoft  Onatelsted  by  favour  or  fOrtnne, 
be  bad  no  f^owl!fftil  protector  to  introdne^  bim  into  bnsl« 
D^ss,  ^tid  (if  1  tnsiy  Use  that  eicpre^^ion)  to  do  the  bo*- 
nOUrft  of  bis  pktis ;  bnt  tbeif  oWn  strength  was  fully  suft* 
di^ni.  tli^  constiitktion  reftfsed  bim  the  nsn^l  pleasnres, 
and  bis  gtoi.ud  ferbtd  bidi  tbe  idle  dissipations  Of  yontb  ; 

tot  80  darly  ds  ^t  the  ap  of  riiteen  he  was  tbe  martyr  of 
ab  hereditary  gout.  He  thei'efore  employed  tbe  leisure 
which  that  tedious  and  painful  distemper  either  proeured 
or  allowed  bim,  in  Sicquiring  k  great  fiind  of  pngmatnre 
ahd  Useful  knowledge.  Thub  by  tbe  unaeeountable  rek«- 
tioo  of  causes  kiid  effects,  wbitt  seented  th^  greatest  mts^ 
fbrtuoe  of  his  life,  was  perhaps  tbe  prinoipal  cause  of  its 

splebdOf.  His  private  life  Was  stained  by  no  rice,  nor 
silllied  by  any  meanness.  All  bis  sentiments  were  liberal 
ahd  elevated.  His  ruling  passion  was  an  unbounded  ambi» 
tioO,  which,  when  supported  by  gteat  abilities,  and  crowned 
With  great  success,  makes  what  tbe  world  calls  a  great  man. 
He  \^a8  haughty,  imperious,  impatient  of  contradiction, 
and  Overbearing;  qualities  which  toO  often  accompany, 
but  always  Clog  great  ones.  He  had  manners  and  address/ 
but  one  might  discover  tfavough  them  too  great  a  conscious- 
ness of  his  Own  superior  talents.  He  was  a  most  agreeable 
and  lively  cbm^ianiou  in  social  life,  and  bad  such  a  tersa^ 
tility  of  wit,  that  he  Would  adapt  itto  all  sorts  of  eonver^ 
satiob.  He  had  also  a  most  happy  turn  to  poetry,  but  be 
seldom  indulged,  ahd  seldom  avowed  it.  He  came  young 
into  parliament,  and  upon  that  tbeatie  be  soon  equalled 
the  oldest  aiid  the  ablest  actors.  His  efoquence  was  of  every 
kind,  and  he  excelled  ita  the  argumentative,  as  well  as  in 
the  declamatory  way.  But  bis  invectives  were  terrible, 
and  uttered  with  such  energy  of  diction,  and  sutch  dignity 

of  action  and  countenance,  that  he  intimMated  those  wfac^ 

p  I  T  t: 

werd  the  mosl  willing  and  best  able  to  ehcofanter 
Their  arms  fell  OQt  of  tbeir  bands,  and  tbey  shrunk  under 
the  ascendant  vrbich  his  genius  gained  over  theirs.*'  As  a 
proof  of  this  wonderful  power,  it  is  related  that  sir  Robert 
Walpc^e  scarcely  heard  the  aoond  of  his  voice  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  when  he  was  alarmed  and  thunder-struck.  He 
told  his  fnends,  that  be  would  be  glad  at  any  rate,  '^  to 
muzzle  that  terrible  cornet  of  horse/'  That  minister  would, 
have  promoted  his  rise  in  the  army,  if  be  would  have 
given  up  his  seat  in  the  house. 

A  small  volume  has  recently  been  published  by  lord 
Grenville,  containing  letters  from  lord  Chatham  to  his 
nepbew,  the  late  Thomas  Pitt,  lord  Camelford,  replete  with 
excellent  advice,  in  an  easy,  affectionate,  and  not  inele^ 
gant  style.  In  early  life  it  has  been  noticed  that  be  had  a 
turn  for  poetry,  which  occupations  of  greater  moment  in* 
terrupted.  Lord  Orford,  and  his  able  continuator  Mr.  Parky 
have  mentioned  a  few  of  his  verses. ' 

PITT  (William),  second  son  of  the  preceding,  and  his' 
legitimate  successor  in  political  talents  and  celebrity,  waa 
born  May  28,  1759.  He  was  educated  at  home  under  the 
immediate  eye  of  his  father,  who,  as  he  found  him  very 
early  capable  of  receiving,  imparted  to  him  many  of  the 
principles  which  had  guided  his  own  political  conduct,  and 
in  other  respects  paid  so  much  attention  to  his  education 
that  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  he  was  found  fully  qiiahfied  for 
the  university ;  and  accordingly,  was  then  entered  of  Pem<- 
broke-hall,  Cambridge,  where  he  was  distinguished  alike 
for  the  closeness  of  his  application,  and  for  the  success  o€ 
his  efforts,  in  attaining  those  branches  of  knowledge  to 
which  Jiis  studies  were  particularly  directed ;  nor  have 
many  young  men  of  rank  passed  through  the  probation  of 
an  university  with  a  higher  character  for  morals,  abilities, 
industry,  and  regularity.  He  was  intended  by  his  father 
for  the  bar  and  the  senate,  and  his  education  was  regulated 
so  as  to  embrace  both  these  objects.  Soon  after  he  quitted 
the  university,  he  went  to  the  continent,  and  passed  a 
abort  time  at  Rbeims,  the  capital  of  Champagne.  The 
death  of  his  ittustrious  father,  while  he  was  in  his  I9tfa 
year,  eould  not  fail  to  cast  a  cloud  over  the  prospects  of  a 

^  Pwotjliag  edilioii  of  thic'  Dictiwiary,  from  ▼wriout  tour^^et.— Collias*« 
Peerage,  by  sir  £.  Brydges. — AsDual  Register,  passim. — A  life  of  lord  Chathant 
VM  ]NibfaBbed  m  three  Tolumes,  octa:To,  by  Atimm  the  beolnetler  j  but  is  a 
FmS^Md  .aMSgo  of  party  aboK,  deststiHe  af  tauy  aoitbsBtioity* 


>■  ' 

lO  PITT. 

younger  son,  but  the  foundation  was  laid  of  those  quali* 
ties  which  would  enable  him  to  clear  the  path  tO: eminence- 
by  his  own  exertions.     He  had  already  entered  himself  a 
student  of  Lincoln^s  Inn,  and  as  soon  as  he  was  of  age,  in 
1780y  he  was  called  to  the  bar,  went  the  western  circuit 
once,  and  appeared  in  a  few  causes  as  a  junior  counsel*. 
His  success  during  this  short  experiment  was  thought  to  be 
such  as  was  amply  sufficient  to  encourage  him  to  pursue 
his  legal  career,  and  to  render  him  almost  certain  of.ob- 
taining  a  high  rank  in  his  profession,     A  seat  in  parlia-r 
ment,  however,  seems  to  have  given  his  ambition  its.  pro- 
per direction,  and  at  once  placed  him  where  he.  was  best 
qualified  to  shine  and  to  excel.     At  the  general  election  iu 
1780,  he  had  been  persuaded  to  offer  himself  as  a  candi* 
date  to  represent  the  university  of  Cambridge,  but  finding 
that  his  interest  would  not  be  equal  to  carry  the  election^ 
be  declined  the  contest,  and  in  the  following  year  was, 
through  the  influence  of  sir  James  Luwtber,  returned  for 
the  borough  of  Appleby.     This  was  during  the  most  violent 
period  of  political  opposition  to  the  American .  war,  to 
which  Mr.  Pitt,  it  may  be  supposed,  had  an   hereditary 
aversion*     He  was  also,  as  most  young  men  are,  captivated 
by  certain  theories  on  the  subject  of  political  reform,  which 
were   to  operate  as  a  remedy  for  all  national  disasters. 
Among  others  of  the  more  practical  kind,  Mr.  Burke  iiad, 
at  the  commencement  of  the  session,  brought  forward  hi^ 
bill  for  making  great  retrenchments  in  the  civil  list.     On 
this  occasion   Mr.  Pitt,  on  the  26th   of  February,    1781, 
made  his  first  speech  in  the  British  senate.     The  attention 
of  the  buuse  was  naturally  fixed  on  the  son  of  the  illustrious 
Chatham,  but  in  a  few  moments  the  regi^rds  of  the  whole, 
audience  were  directed  to  the  youthful  orator  on  his  own 
account.     Unembarrassed  by  the  novelty  of  the  situation 
in  which  he  had  been  so  lately  placed,  he  delivered  him- 
self with  an  ease,  a  grace,  a   richness   of  expression,  a 
soundness  of  judgment,  a  closeness  of  argument,  and  ^ 
classical  accuracy  of  language,  which  not  only  answered, 
but  exceeded,  all  the  expectations  which  had  been  formed 
of  him,  and  drew  the  applauses  of  both  parties.     During 
the  same  and  the  subsequent  session^  be  occasionally  rose 
to  give  his  sentiments  on  public  afiairs,'  and  particularly  on 
parliamentary  reform.     This  he  urged  with  an  enthusiastn 
which  he  had  afterwards  occasion  to  repent;  for  when  more 
mature  Consideration  of  the  subject,  had  convinced  him 



PITT.  11 

ib9t  the  expedient  was  neither  safe  nor  useful,  be  was  con-* 
sidered  as  an  apostate  from  bis  early  professions.  As  a 
public  speaker,  however,  it  was  soon  evident  that  be  was 
destined  to  act  a  high  ptirt  on  the  political  stage;  yet, 
although  be  seemed  to  go  along  generally  with  the  party, 
in  opposition  to  lord  North,  he  had  not  otherwise  much 
associated  with  them,  and  therefore  when,  on  the  dissolu- 
tion of  lord  North*s,  a  new  one  was  formed,  at  the  head  of 
which  was  the  marquis  of  Rockingham,  Mr.  Pittas  name 
did  not  appear  on  the  list.  Some  say  he  was  not  invited 
to  take  a  share ;  others,  that  be  was  offered  the  place  of  a 
lord  of  the  treasury,  which  he  declined,  either  from  a  con- 
sciousness that  he  was  destined  for  a  higher  station,  or  that 
he  discerned  the  insecurity  of  the  new  ministers.  Their 
first  misfortune  was  the  death  of  the  marquis  of  Rocking- 
ham, which  occasioned  a  fatal  breach  of  union  between 
them,  respecting  the  choice  of  a  new  head.  Of  this  the 
earl  of  Shelburne  availed  himself,  and  in  July  1782,  having, 
with  a  part  of  the  former  members,  been  appointed  first 
lord  of  the  treasury,  associated  Mr.  Pitt,  who  had  just 
completed  his  2Sd  year,  as  chancellor  of  the  exchequer. 
A  general  peace  with  America,  France,  Spain,  &c.  sooti 
followed,  which  was  made  a  ground  Of  censure  by  a  very 
powerful  opposition ;  and  ia  April  1783,  the  famous  coali- 
tion ministry  took  the  places  of  those  whom  they  had  ex*- 
pelled.  Mr.  Pitt,  during  his  continuance  in  office,  had 
found  little  opportunity  to  distinguish  himself,  otherwise 
than  as  an  able  defender  of  the  measures  of  administration, 
and  a  keen  animadverter  upon  the  principles  and ,  conduct 
of  his  antagonists ;  but  a  circumstance  occurred  which  con- 
stitutes the  first  great  sera  in  his  life.  Thiii,  indeed,  was 
the  eventual  cause  not  only  of  his  return  to  office,  but  of 
bis  possession  of  a  degree  of  authority  with  the  king,'  and 
of  popularity  with  the  nation,  which  has  rarely  been  the 
4ot  of  any  minister,  and  which  he  preserved,  without  in- 
terruption, to  the  end  of  his  life,  although  his  character 
^s  supposed  to  vary  in  many  respects  from  the  opinion 
th^t  had  been  formed  of  it,  and  although  he  was  never 
known  to  stoop  to  the  common  tricks  of  popularity.  The 
coalition  adininistration,  of  which  some  notice  has  been 
taken  in  our  accounts  of  Mr.  Burke  and  Mr.  Fox,  was,  in 
its  formation,  most  revolting  to  the  opinions  of  the  people. 
Its  compositioii  was  such  as  to  afford  no  hopes  of  future 
)»enefit  to   the  nation,    and    it    was    therefore  narrowly 

It  p  It  t. 

watched  as  a.  combination  for  self-interest.  While  tht 
public  was  indulging  such  suspicions,  Mr^  Fox  introduced 
his  famous  bill  for  the  regulation  of  the  affairs  of  Ipdla^  tb^ 
leading  provision  of  which  was  \o  v^st  the  whole  manage^ 
ment  of  the  ailairs  of  the  East  India  company,  iu  seven 
eommissioners  named  in  the  act,  and  to  be  appointed  by 
the  ministry.  It  was  in  vain  thai,  thlswaa  represented  as  a 
measure  ahke  beneficial  to  the  company  and  to  the  nation  ; 
the  public  considered  it  as  trenching  too  mueb  On  the  pre- 
fogative^  as  creating  a  mass  of  ministerial  influence  whiek 
would  be  irresistible,  and  as  rendering  the  ministry  toe 
strong  for .  the  crown.  Mr.  Pitt,  who,  In  this  instance, 
had  rather  to  follow  than  to  guide  the  [Hiblie  opinion^ 
unfolded  the  hidden  mystery  of  the  vast  iaiass  of  pa* 
tronage  which  this  bill  would  give,  painted  in  the  most 
glowing  colours  its  danger  to  the  crown  and  people  on  one 
nand,  and  to  the  company  on  the  other,  whosel*  chartered 
rights  were  thus  forcibly  violated.  The  alarm  thus  be- 
coaling  general,  although  the  bill  passed  Che  House  of 
Commons  by  the  influence  which  tim  ministers  still  po3«- 
sessed  in  that  ^ssembly^  it  was  rejected  in  the  House  of 

To  reconcile  themselves  to  this  disappointment,  and 
perhaps  to  regajn  ground  .with  the  j)ublic,  the  ministers 
lodustriQusiy  circulated  the  report  that  the  bill  owed  its  re- 
jection to  secret  intrigue  atid  undue  influence.  It  was  said 
t^at  lord^  Temple,  afterwards  the  marquis  ,of  Buckinghatm, 
dad  demanded  a  private  audience  of  his  majesty,  and  re- 
presented the  danger  iti  such  alight,  that  direciiofis  were 
sent  to  ail  (he  noblemen  connected  with  the  court  to  vote 
against  it.  This,  hxiwever,  had  it  been  true  iii  it»  full  ex- 
tent, made  no  difference  in  the  public  opinion^  In  a  case 
of  such  danger,  a  departure  from  the  ordiirary  forms  was 
not  thought  to  bear  any  unfriendly  aspect  to  the  welfare 
of  the  state;  and  some  were  of  opinion  that  all  which  lord 
Temple  was  supposed  to  communicate,  must  have  already 
occurred  to  his  majesty^s  reflection.  The  consequence, 
however,  was,  that  tfa^  ministry  resigned  their  places,  aud 
in  the  new  arrangement,  Mr.  Pitt,  whosfe  fitness  for  office 
was  no  longer  a  doubt,  was  made  first  lord  of  the  treasury, 
and  chancellor  of  the  exchequer. 

His  appearance,  at  the  early  age  of  twenty-four  in  this 
Ingfa  character,  was  as  mucb  applauded  on  the  part  Of  the 
nation  at  large,  as  it  was  ridiculed  and. despised  hy  bis 


epponleats,  as  the  Wrbgafit  «stumption  of  a  i^ipltfig  mfibo  > 
o^d  to  JEKCcident  of  intrigue,  what  a  few  iveeks  or  morrtbt 
mkitt  berDaraly  deprivte  l^itn  of.  For  fiome  time,  iodeed^  all 
\lm  aetoted  nofc  very  iriaprobabl^.  T4m  adJMrents  of  the 
€oalttloii*Diiiit8tryy  in  tbe  House  of  Comaions,  had  taffered 
no  igf&x  dkniiiikion,  and  foraied'  yet  ao  considerable  a 
najority,  that  when  Mr.  Pitll;  ivtrodDced  his  own  biU  into 
the  House  for  die  reflation  of  IwlAk  affam,  it  was  re«- 
'  ^ted  by  22dfc  against  1214.  In  tins  stale  matteifs  vemaiiMd 
^  some  itBOiithsy  ^daring  wbioh  m^etrnngs  nvene  held-  of  the 
ieading  men  off  both  psrrtiiesi,  *with  a  vrew  to  a  general  ai> 
comiDodatiot) ;  bot  as  Mr.  Pittas  previotts  i^esignativii  *waa 
ddoaanded  as  a  sine  qua  non,  be  detsemtned  to  acHieve  ia 
tbe  utmost  e^remity  to  the  sovereign  by  whom  he  had 
•been 'called  into  office,  and  the  peop^  by  whom  hie' found 
Irirtiself  sapported.  After  mafny  onavaihng  efforts^  tfaene>- 
fore,  he 'determined  on  a  dteip  wsbieh^  had  his  oaase  been 
hss  popcAstj  mght  h^ve  been  fetal  to  his  tfo?ereign  as  well 
m  to  himself. ,  This  was  a  dissolution  of  psrliaaient,  wfaiok 
took  >pl ace  in  the  month  ^f  March  1784;  aAd  althougk 
during*  fbe  ^gen^ral  ^election  the  ooonnry  was  ihrown,  by 
the  struggles  df  ^tbe  tparttes,  into  a  greatser  degree  of  poliu 
tical  beat  and  iprttation  than  ever  was  known,  and  although 
•some  of  his  hig^her  opponents  greatly  embarrassed  their 
estates  and  families  l^y  the  md^t  wasteful  escpendttare,  in 
order  to,  secure  the  return  of  their  friends,  above  thirty  of 
this  latter,  all'oien  of  consideration,  werethrow^n  out,  and  %be 
minister  was  enabled  to  meet  the  new  ^parliament  wkh  a 
decided  majority,  including  atmoat  the  wliole  of  that  clasB 
Hiat  had  tbe  credit  of  patriotism  and  independence,  but 
certainly  exoludirng  a  mass  of  ^talent  such  as  few  ministers 
have  had  to 'encounter. 

The 'first  important  measure  introduced  linto  this  parlia- 
ment was  the  India  Bill  rejected  by  the  last, which  was.p;itoed; 
and,  with  some  few  alterations,  eonstitutes  the  system  by' 
Which  the  afiairs  of  the  EiKst  India  company  have  ever  ^sinee 
been  Aianaged.  Another  important  plan,  executed >by  Mr. 
Pitt,  was  that  for  the  prevention  df> smuggling.  This, 'in 
•Ul  branches  df  the  revenue,  occupied  ibis  iatiention  fbr 
sdme  years  afterwicrds,  but  his  present  ol^je^twasubeifrauds 
-an  the  revenue  in  the  article  of  tea,  which  he' obviated  by 
what  was  called  fbe 'Commutation  A«t,  which  took  off  the 
pcinoipdl  duties  from  tea,  and  supplied  the  deficiency  by^a 
kiye  ^tdditioo  to  ttie  window^'taJt.    This,  if  we  remember 

14  P  I  T  i*. 

right,  was  the  first  circumstance  which  oeeasioned  sdme 
murmuring)  and  it  was  the  first  instance  in  which'  Kfr; 
Pitt  showed  that  he  was  not  to  be  diverted  from  what  h^' 
conceived  would  be  generally  a  benefit,  by  any  dread'  of 
the  loss  of  popularity.  If  at  this  time  he  seems  ambitious 
of  any  distinctive  ministerial  character,  it  was  that  of  an 
able  and  successful  minister  of  finance ;  and  there  caiinot 
be  a  more  decided  proof  of  bis  having  attained  that  honour, 
than  that  his  plans  are  still  operating,  and  have  enabled 
the  country  to  sustain  for  upwards  of  twenty  years  a  war 
of  unexampled  expence,  and  at  the  same  time  to  supiport 
feebler  nations  in  recovering  their  independence  from  a 
tyranny  to  which  they  were  thought,  to  be  irreversibly 

In  1786,  when  few  could  have  foreseen  its  future  im- 
portance, he  introduced  a  bill  for  setting  apart  a  mitKon 
annually  for  the  purchase  of  stock,  which  sum  was  to  be 
augmented  by  the  interest  of  the  stock  so  purchased.  Per- 
severance in  this  plan,  with  occasional  improvements,  has 
already,  amidst  all  the  pressure  of  public  burdens,  extin-* 
guished  between  two  and  three  hundred  millions  of  debt, 
and  produced  a  very  considerable  revenue  to  be  applied  to 
the  same  purpose.  These  efiects  his  enemies  are  ready  to 
acknowledge,  but  with  a  view  to  detract  from  his  merit, 
they  tell  us  that  this  was  the  least  efficient  of  three  plans 
given  fo  him  by  Dr:  Richard  Price,  and  that*  for  such  an 
obligation  h^  did  not  think  it  worth  his  while  to  make  the 
smallest  public  acknowledgement.  Whatever  may  be  in 
this,  the  general  system  of  finance  now  established  was 
soon  powerfully  aided  by  various  alterations  in  the  mode 
of  collecting  taxes,  and  by  a  commercial  treaty  with  France, 
concluded  in  1787,  so  much  in  favour  of  our  merchants, 
as  to  occasion  considerable  dissatisfaction  among  those  of 

Among  the  subsequent  measures,  in  which  Mr.  Pitt  was 
personally  concerned,  we  may  notice  his  acceding  to  the 
impeachment  of  Mr.  Hastings  ;  and  his  joining  in  the  sup- 
port of  the  established  church  by  opposing  the  repeal  of 
the  Test  and  Corporation  Acts,  in  both  which  he  agreed 
with  the  majority,  although  in  the  latter  he  disappointed 
the  hopes  of  the  various  sects  of  dissenters.  His  inter- 
ference also  to  preserve  the  power  of  the  Stadtholder  in 
Holland,  was  a  popular  measure.  But  he  was  less  suc- 
.cessful  in  two  other  instances  of  interference  in  continental 

PITT.  1^ 

politic^,  the  one  to  check  the  aggrandizement  of  Russia 
under  the  empress  Catherine,  which  the  parliament  forced 
him  to  abandon  ;  and  the  other  a  dispute-  with  Spain  re^- 
tpecting  the  fur-trade  at  Nootka  Sound,  which  was  equally 
uopopular,  and  a(  length  was  adjusted  by  a  convention. 

The  second  great  «ra  of  Mr.  PitOs  public  life  was  now 
approaching,  in  which  his  power  and  popularity  arose  to 
the  greatest  height  in  the  very  moment  when  in  all  human 
.probability  he  was  ahout  to  be  deprived  of  both.     In  the 
autumn  of  1788,  the  country  was  thrown  into  a  state  of 
alarm  by  a  calamity  which  rendered  his  majesty  incapabfe 
( of  exercising  the  royal  functions.     Parliament  having  been 
prorogued  to  Nov.  20,  it  became  necessary  it  should  meet 
.  that  day,  as  the  sovereign,  by  whom  only  it  could  be  fur* 
ther  prorogued,  was  not  in  a  situation  to  assert  his  prero- 
gative.    In  the  mean  time,  the  leaders  of  the  different 
parties  who  were  interested  in  the  event,    assembled  in 
the. capital;  and  an  express  was  dispatched  to  Mr«  Fox^ 
jthen  absent  on  the  continent,  to  accelerate  his  return. 
•This  occurrence  gave  occasion  to  a  display  of  the  firmness 
.  and  decision  of  Mr.  Pitt's  character.     In  this  article  we 
cannot  enter  into  many  particulars ;  but  we  may  observe, 
that  the  6r3t  material  question  brought  up  by  this  event 
was,  in  whom  the  office  of  regent  was  vested  ?    The  prince 
of  Wales  being  then  connected  with  the  party  in  opposi- 
tion, Mr.  Foxx6ntended  that  the  regency  devolved  upon 
him  as  a  matter  of  course ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  Mr. 
Pitt  supported  the  doctrine,,  that  it  lay  in  the  two  remain-' 
iug  branches  of  the  legislature  to  fill  up  the  office,  as  they 
should  j.udge  proper;  admitting,  at  the  same  time,  that  no 
other  person  than  the  prince  could  be  thought  of  for  the 
office.     By  adopting  this  principle,  he  carried  with  him 
the  concurrence  as  well  of.  those  who  were  attached  to  the 
popular  part  of  the  constitution,  as  of  the  king's  friends^ 
whose  great  object  was  to  secure  his  return  to  power,  on 
the  cessation  of  his  malady ;  and  he  was  enabled  to  pass  a 
bill,  greatly  restricting  the  power  of  the  regent,  which  his 
majef^ty's  timely  recovery  in  the  beginning  of  1789  ren- 
dered unnecessary ;  but  such  was  the  general  conviction  of 
.  its  propriety,  that  on  a  subsequent  more  melancholy  occa* 
sLon,  the  minister  of  the  day,  Mr.  Perceval,  found  no  great 
difficulty  in  reviving  it,  and  it  became  the  rule  of  the  pre- 
.  sent,  regency.     Mr.  Pitt  was  npw  left  to  pursue  his  plans 
of  internal  economy,  without  those  iuterruptions  to  which 

16  PIT  T* 

bt  famd  kteijr  i>een  snii^ted.  He  hwi  veoeived,  daring 
the  discuwions  on  tb«  regeney,  very  decisive  tokens  of 
^esteem  from  fnany  of  the  gveat  public  bodies  in  tbe  kmg^ 
domi;  »i^d  he  iiad  the  souidactioii  of  kooiwuig,  that  tbe 
firm  End  steady  condxct  vvinch  he  obs^ved,  on  a  question 
pecniiarly  caicnUrted  ^  try  the  imneMy  steadiness,  and 
voonsisteficy  of  a  public  obaracter,  had  lObtauied  for  bim,  in 
a  irery  marberi  manner,  tbe  'confidence  of  tbeir  majesties, 
and  greatly  increased  bis  popularity  tbrotugfhout  tbe  nation. 
Tbe  third  ^reat  asra  in  Mr.  PktVlife,  and  which,  ibe-^ 
yimd  M  preceding  parts  of  hk  condoct,  will  determine  bis 
d»r3Cler  vAth  pofiteiuty,  was  tbe  French  oerolutioo,  «n 
event  the  most  momenitons  in  its  oonseqaences  that  nao- 
dern  histi»ry  pecends.  Hie  influence  of  tbis  'vast  conTul- 
sixni  cotfki  naiot  iye  viewed,  by  the  politiotan  and  tbe  minis* 
txfc  'df  a  'great  empite,  but  in  a  double  lig^ht,  as  exerted 
»pon  (France  itoeif,  and  4jpon  the  neighbouring  stakes.  I|i 
boA)  cases,  Mr.  Pvtt  took  up  the  opinion  tbat  it  afford^ 
just  «ause  for  jealousy,  and  he  was  the  more  st«!engthened 
in  ifbis  0pinton  ftom  observing  the  effects  which  ^  con- 
iduct  of  <he  French  bad  already  'psoduced  in  tbisoountry. 
'It  fis  dllow>ed  by  hM  enenwes  tbat  be  ^id  wot  precipitately 
rmh  into  war  ^with  France,  or  interfere  in  «he  ^iflEairs  of  that 
«otrntiy,  while  the  French  ^seemed  tobeoperatiti^a^change 
by  means  which  were  rational;  and  ^ile  their  only  dh- 
jectB  seemed  to  be  a  representative  government  and  a 
limited  monarchy.  It  was  >not  ^until'they  had  destroyed  tbe 
'fte0Aoa\  of  their  reprenents^ives  by  the  terrifyingiidfiuenoe 
iX/f  clubs  and  parties  more  powerful  than  tbeir  'legalised 
as^mblie^,  >and  otntil  they  had  dragged  tbeir  belpliesstfove- 
.teign  to  the  scaffold,  that  he  saw. the  danger  that  wouM 
ttocrue  to  evdf^  country  wfaeve  strch  measures  «bould  be 
x^oiisidered  as  a  preoed^trt.  In  England,  jft  might  have 
been  Ihought  that  the  ^enormities  whidh  pMceded -and  fol- 
lowed tbe  eKecotion  of  ^the  French  king,  would  bave  ex- 
ited (universal  'abhorrence ;  ttbat  a  morsil,  thinking,  and 
industrious  (people,  prosperous  beyond  till^otrher  nations  -in 
-arts  and  commerce,  cmd'secure  'beyond  {^Uxottbers  in  the 
'essentials  0f  liberty,  ^wouldbave  found  no  provocation  to 
imitate  the  most  inhuman  ^barbarities  of  tbe  darkest  ages. 
{t  aoon,  howe^ier,  appeared  tbftt  although  «tbe  majority  'Of 
*€he  nation  was  dispensed  to  ^contemplate  What  had  happened 
:in  ifiranee,  with  the  abhorreoee  it  was  -tiaturally  .ifitted  >lo 
^create,  a^party  was  arising,  'selected  iiiileed  fromi  the  lower 

pi^tt:  17 

ftncl  ilKterate  orders,  bat  guided  by  leaders  of  sofme  knoW* 
ledge,  arvd  of  great  activity  and  resolution,  who  teemed 
determined  on  a  close  imitation  of  all  the  licentiousness  o£ 
France,  and  whose  attacks  were  at  once  directed  against: 
tbe  throne,  the  state,  and  the  church.  For, some  time 
theit  sentiments  were  considerably  disguised.  They  af- 
fected moderation,  and  derived  too  much  countenance 
from  those  who  really  were  inclined  to  moderate  changes^ 
moderate  reforms ;  and,  with  no  little  art,  they  rerived 
the  popular  delusions  of  annual  parliaments  and  universal 
suffrage  ;  but  ikioderation  was  neither  the  characteristic  nor 
the  object  of  this  party  :  and  finding  themselves  for  some 
time  unnoticed  by  goremnient,  they  began  to  disdain  the 
protection  of  their  insignificance,  and  boldly  avowed  that 
they  did  not  mean  to  leave  the  accomplishment  of  theit 
projected  changes  to  any  of  the  legal  authorities.  In  imi« 
tation  of  the  Frencl>  clubs,  they  were  to  produce  the  effect 
by  self-created  societies  that  should  dictate  to  parliament, 
and  when  parliament  was  completely  overawed,  supply  its 

Such  were  tbe  effects  which  the  proceedings  in  France 
had  already  produced  in  England,  among  a  party,  which^ 
if  not  originally  numerous,  was  fast  increasing,  when  Mr; 
Pitt  thought  it  necessary  to  interfere.  In  taking  this  $tep 
he  was  accused  of  precipitation  and  of  severity  :  the  dan- 
gers he  dreaded  were  represented  as  in  a  great  measure 
imaginary  ;  and  the  plan  he  adopted  ^ls  said  to  be  preg* 
nant  with  mischief  to  the  freedom  of  the  press*  ft  ap- 
peared, however,  in  consequence  of  inquiries  instituted, 
that  had  he  exercised  a  longer  forbearance,  the  greatest  of 
the  dangers  he  apprehended  must  have  followed  in  regular 
progress.  Forbearance,  in  the  republican  language  of  the 
day,  was  ^^  timidity,  and  the  happy  consequence  of  the  vi^ 
gour  and  spirit  of  the  people.'*  It  was  time  therefore  to 
set  the  question  at  rest  by  appealing  to  the  nation  at  large; 
and  Mr  Pitt  had  no  sooner  begun  the  experiment  6f  check*- 
ing  a  licentiousness  so  dangerous  and  unprovoked,  than  he 
was  supported  by  the  general  mass  of  the  people,  who 
assembled  in  every  county,  city,  town,  and  village,  to 
testify  their  satisfaction  with  tbe  constitution  as  then  ad* 
ministered,*  and  'to  offer  their  lives  and  fortunes  in  support  ^ 
of  the  gorvernment  under  which  they  had  Sonrished.  It 
has  been  objected  to  Mr.  Pitt  by  his  opponents  tliat  iA 
s6me  instances  he  followed,  rather  than  produced^  public 

Vol.  XXV,  C 

18  PITT, 

opinion :  why  this  should  be  an  objection  with  those  woo 
hold  public  opinion  sacred,  we  know  not.  In  the  present 
instance,  however,  it  may  be  allowed  as  a  matter  of  fact, 
and  it  is  a  fact  very  honourable  to  the  people  of  England, 
that  he  had,  at  this  crisis^  only  to  anticipate  their  wishes, 
and  that  in  consequence  of  the  precautions  he  took,  harsh 
as  they  might  have  been  thought  at  any  other  time,  all  the 
dangers  of  internal  disturbance  gradually  disappeared,  and 
the  wild  theories  that  had  been  propagated  firom  the  presg 
either  appeared  ridiculous,  or  became  obsolete. 

With  respect  to  th^  origin  of  the  war  with  France,  there 
-  was  long  a  cdntroversy  turning  on  the  question,  whether  it 
might  not  have  been  avoided  by  Great  Britain  preserving 
her  relations  of  amity  with  the  republican  government  of 
that  nation.  The  party  in  opposition  to  Mr.  Pitt  contended 
that  this  .was  practicable,  and  the  minister  therefore  was 
long  censured  as  the  cause,  and  held  accountable  for  all 
the  consequences  of  that  war.  The  opinion  of  the  minister, 
however,  was,  that  enough  had  occurred  in  France  to  con- 
vince us  that  no  relations  of  amity  could  be  preserved  with 
a  country,  which  had  decreed  not  only  to  spread  its  anar- 
chical principles,  but  to  send  its  arms  to  every  people  that 
sought  its  assistance.  A  negociation,  indeed,  had  been 
opened  between  the  French  minister  in  this  country,  and 
lord  Grenville,  secretary  of  state,  but  was  conducted  on 
the  part  of  the  former  in  such  a  manner  as  to  prove  fruit- 
less. The  very  last  propositions  offered  by  the  French 
minister,  lord  Grenville  said,  involved  new  grounds  of 
offence,  which  would  prove  a  bar  to  every  kind  of  negocia* 
tion.  The  pretended  explanations,  his  lordship  added, 
were  insults  rather  than  concessions  or  apologies ;  and  the 
motives  which  had  induced  his  sovereign  to  prepare  for 
violent  extremities,  still  existed  in  full  force ;  nor  would 
the  preparations  he  discontinued  or  omitted,  ^^jwhile  the 
French  retained  that  turbulent  and  aggressive  spirit  which 
threatened  danger  to  every  nation  in  Europe. ^^  By  a  subse- 
quent communication  in  the  king's  name,  the  French  mi- 
nister was  ordered  to  quit  the  realm  within  eight  days. 
This  mandate  was  considered  by  the  French  as  equivalent 
io  a  declaration  of  war ;  and,  as  soon^  as  the  intelligence 
reached  Paris,  the  convention  declared  that  the  king  of 
Great  Britain,  and  the  Stadtholder  of  the  United  Provinces, 
were  to  be  treated  as  enemies  of  the  republic. 

What  has  beea  termed  the  system  or  the  principle  of 

*  PITT.  1» 

Mr.  Pitt  in  commencing  and  continuing  the  war  with 
France,  cannot  perhaps  be  better  e^opressed  than  in  the 
abbve  language  of  lord  Grenville.  Mr«  Pitt  considered  it 
as  our  duty  to  continue  it,  ^^  while  the  French  retained 
that  tutbulent  and  aggressive  spirit  whix^h  threatened  dan- 
ger to  every  nation  in  Europe/'  and  which  at  length  ac- 
tually destroyed  the  independence  of  every  nation  in  £u- 
k  rope,  and  ended  in  an  attempt  at  universal  empire^  and 

slavish  subjection  to  the  ruler  of  France.  It  was  Mr.  Pitt's 
opinion,  and  the  opinion  of  all  who  acted  with  hioif  of  the 
great  majority  of  parliament  and  of  the  people  at  large, 
that  no  peace  could  be  permanent  or  secure  with  France 
until  she  hiad  returned  to  her  proper  station  among  the  na« 
tions  of  Europe,  admitted  of  the  independence  of  other  na-' 
tions,  and  contented  herself  with  the  territories  she  pos« 
sessed  at  the  commencement  of  the  revolution.  On  this 
principle  the  war  was  instituted,  and  on  this  principle  it 
was  supported  at  a  risk  and  an  expense  beyond  all  prece- 
cbnt,  but  with  a  success  so  inadequate  to  prodilkce  the 
wished-fdr  result,  that  when  the  opposition  represented 
the  continuance  of  it  as  obstinacy  and  infatuation,  they 
seemed  to  speak  a  language  which  events  fully  justified. 
On  our  own  element,  our  success  was  so  great  as  to  raise 
the  character  of  our  navy  beyond  all  precedent;  under 
such  men  as  Howe,  St.  Vincent,  Duncan,  and  Nelson, 
the  navies  of  France,  Spain,  and  Holland  were  almost 
annihilated,  while  ours  bad  become,  humanly  speaking, 
invincible.  Mr.  Pitt  was  therefore  blamed  for  not  confin- 
ing biinself  to  a  naval  war,  and  his  sending  troops  to  join 
the  powers  of  Europe  in  league  against  France,  was  repre- 
sented as  a,  species  of  Quis^otism  which  would  soon  prove 
its, own  absurdity.  All  this  for  some  years  seemed  con- 
•  firmed  by. events. .  The  French  armies  not  only  out-num- 
bered those  sent  against  them,  but  acquired  a  military  skill 
absolutely  new  in  their  history.  So  freqi^ent  and  decisive 
were  their  victories  that  all  resistance,  seemed  in  vain,  and 
either  by  valour  or  treachery  they  were  enabled  to  dissolve 
every  confederapy  formed  against  them.  Still  the  English 
minister  saw  nothing  in  this  to  prove  his  original  opinion 
•to  be  wrong;  France,  he  conceived,  must  be  ruined  at 
last  by  successes  of  ^  which  she  did  not  know  how  to  make 
the  proper  use.  With  every  extension  of  territory,  she 
carried  a  portion  of  tyranny  and  a  system  of  plunder  and 
destruction,  that  must  one  day  escite  an  effectual  resist*^ 

c  2 

20  E  IT  T. 

ance  in  the  nations  which' sbe  bad  deloded  by  oflets  of 
liberty  and  friendship^-  Mr.  Pitt  and  his  supporters,  tbere;- 
fore,  persisted  in  die  opinion  that  France  miist  at  hist  yteU 
to  soihe  confederacy  or  other;  and  when  tbe  state  o£  £u«- 
rope  was  such  as  to  render  it  unwise  to  send  EngJisb  troops 
to  join  the  confederates,  he  conceived  that  no  better  use 
c6uld  be  made  of  the  annual  supplies  dian'to  subsidize  the 
powers  that  were  still  willing  to  take  the  field.  '  He  even 
determined  to  continue  the  struggle  when,  ia  1800,  Bona«- 
parte,  ttie  tnost  successful  of  the  French  generals,  had 
assumed  the  {sovereign  powder,  under  the  namd  of  codsiiI^ 
.  and  a4dressed  a  letter  to  our  king  intimatiog  a  desire  for 
peace.  The  answer  of  our  minister  was,  tfaait  it  would  be 
useless  to  negociate  while  the  French  seemed  to  cherish 
those  principles  which  had  involved  Europe  in  a  long  and 
destructive  war.  Anddltbough  be  gave  bis  assent  to  the 
«jtperimeiu  made  fay  Mr.  Addiiigton  in  ISOI^  to  conclude 
B  peace  with  the  French  goveranHent,  he'  soon  bad  reaatm 
to  revert  to  his  former  sentiments,  and:  when  recalled  into 
office  in  1 804,  again  exerted  all  the  vigour  of  his  charac- 
ter to  render  the  contest  successful. 

tfe  did  not,  however^  live  to  witness  diat  glorious  and 
wonderful  termination  which  was  at  last  brought  about  by  it 
contitidance  of  the  same  system  he  ail  alongpursued,  and 
'Which  finally  ended  in  the  conquest  of  France^  the  annibi*- 
lation  of  her  aroiies,  and  the  banishm^ent  of  her  ruler. 
The  last  event  of  importance  in  Mr«  Pitt-s  liie<-tiiiie  was 
the  fatal  battle  of  AusterlitE,  and  be  wait  at  this  time  in  a 
state  t)f  health  ill  calculated  to  meet  this  lArolce.  He  had, 
from  isin  early  period  of  life,  given  indicastions  of  inheriting 
his  father's  gouty  constitution,  with  his  talents,  and  it  had 
been  thought  nee€|ssary  to  make  the  liberal  use  of  wine  a 
part  of  his  ordinary  regimen,  a  stimulant  which,  added  to  « 
the  cares  and  exertions  of  office  during  bis  long  and  mo- 
mentous adminifftration,  broo^it  on  a  premature  exhaus- 
tion of  the  vital  powers.  In  December  1 8^5^  he  was*  re- 
commended to  go  to  Bath,  but  the  efaange^tiforded  him  no 
permanent  relief.  On  the  )  Uh  of  January  be  returned  to 
iiis  seat  at  Putney,  in  so  debilitated  a  state,  as'  to  require 
four  days  for  the  perlbriiaance  of  the  journey.  The  phy- 
aiclans,  even  yet,  saw  no  danger,  and  they  said  liiere  was 
no  disease,  but  great  weakness,  in  conseqiience  of  an  ai^ 
tack  of  the  gontk  On  the  following  Sunday  be  appeared 
better,  ^nd  entered  upon  some  points  of  public  business  with 

PITT,  Si 

Us  toHoigues  in  oftoe :  tbe  subject  wM-suppote^  to  relate 
to  the  dissolution  of  tbe  new  confederacyy  by  the  pea^e  of 
Presburgb^  which  greatly  agiMiled  ikm.  On  the  I7tb>  at 
a  consultation  of  his  physicians,  it  wa$  agreed,  that  though 
it  was  not  adfrisabte  be  i^ould  attend  j^  business  for  the 
next  two  mouths^  yet  there  W9»  hope  he  would  be  able  to 
take  a  part  in  the  House  of  CooMnqns  in  tbe  course  of  th^ 
winter.  On  tbe  20th,  however^  he  grew  .much  wor^e,  and 
his  medical  friends  now  saw  that  be  was  in  the  most  iqnmi* 
nent  danger,  and  that,  probably,  he  had  not  many  hours 
to  lire.  The  bishop  of  Lincoln^  who  never  left  him  during 
his  illness,  informed  bim  of  the  opinion  now  entertained 
by  sir  Walter  Far^bar,  and  requested  fee  administer  to 
him  the  consolations  of  religion.  Mr.  Pitt  asked  sir  WaU* 
ter,  who  stood  near  his  bed,  ^^  How  long  do  you  think  I 
have  to  live  ?"  The  physician  answered  that  he  could  not 
say,  at  the  same  time  he  expressed  a  faint  hope  of  his  re« 
covery.  A  half  smile  on  the  patient's  countenance  shewed 
that  he  placed  this  langu£^e  to  its  true  account.  In  an-> 
swer  to  the  bisbop^s  request  to  pray  with  bimy  Mr,  Fitt 
replied,  *^  I  fear  I  have,  like  too  many  other  men,  ne* 
glected  prayer  too  much,  to  have  anyground  for  hope  that 
it  can  be  efficacious  on  a  death-bed*-*but,*'  making  an 
effort  to  rise  as  he  spoke,  ^^  I  throw  myself  entirely  on  tbe 
mercy  of  God.''  The  bishop  then  read  the  prayers,  and 
ib.  Pitt  Appeared  to  join  in  them  with  a  calm  and  humble 
piety,  fle  desired  that  the  arrangement  of  his  papers  and 
the  settlement  of  his  affairs  might  be  left  to  his  brother 
and  tbe  bishop  of  Lincolu.  Adverting  to  his  nieces,  the 
daughters  of  earl  Stanhope  by  bis  elder  sister,  for  whom 
be  bad  manifested  tbe  sincerest  affection,  be  said,  ^'  t  could 
wisb>  a  thoiBand  or  fifteen  hundred  a«-year  to  be  given 
them ;  if  the  public  should  think  my  long  services  deserv- 
ing of  it."  He  expressed  also  much  anxiety  respecting 
major  Stanhope,  that  youthful  hero,  who  fell  a  sacrifice  to 
his. valour  at  Corunna,  in  company  with  bis  friend  and 
patron,  general  sir  John  Moore,  and  his  brother,  who  was 
also  at  Corunna  at  the .  same  time,  and  who  has  been  en- 
gaged in  all  the  great  battles  in  the  peninsula,  and  more 
than  once  severely:  wounded  in  his. country's  service.  Mr. 
Pitt  died  about  four  o'clock  in.  tbe  morniog  of  tbe  23d  of 
January  1806,  in  the  47th  year  of  his  age«  A  public  fu- 
neral was  decreed  to  his. honour  by  parliament,  and  40,P00/« 
to  pay  those  debts  which  be  had  incurred  in  his  country'^ 

M  i*  I  T-T. 

service. .  Public  momnnento  have  teen  «inoe  erected  to 
bis  memdry  in  Westminster-Abbef,  in  die  Guil^iall  of 
the  city  of  London,  and  by  nany  public  bodies  in  different 
parts  of  the  kingdom. 

In  this  sketch,  we  have  avoided  entering  into  those  de- 
tails which  belong  to  history,  although  convinced  that  Mr. 
Pitt's  character  as  a  statesman  can  never  be  duly  appreci- 
ated, if  detached  from  the  events  which  he  attempted  to 
controul.  Something  yet  remains  to  be  added  respecting 
his  personal  character. 

Mr.  Pitt  possessed  no  particular  advants^es  of  person  or 
physiognomy,  but  as  a  speaker  he  was  thought  to  be  with- 
out a  rival ;  such  was  the  happy  choice  of  his  words,  the- 

'judicious  arrangement  of  his  subject,  and  the  fascinating 
effect  of  a  perennial  eloquence,  that  bis  wonderful  powers 
were  acknowledged  even  by  those  who  happened  to  be 
prepossessed  against  his  arguments.  In  his  financial  speeches 
he  manii^ted  a  perspicuity,  eloquence,  and  tident,  aito^ 
gether  wonderful ;  which  carried  the  audience  along  with 
him  in  every  arithmetical  statement  left  no  calculation  ob- 

.  scure  or  ambiguous,  and  impressed  the  House,  at  its  close, 
with  tumultuous  admiration.  When  employed^  say  his  op- 
ponents, in  a  good  cause,  he  was  irresistible ;  and  in  a  bad 
one  he  could  dazzle  the  judgment,  lead  the  imagination 
captive,  and  seduce  the  heart,  even  while  the  mind  re- 
mained firm  and  unconvinced.  Yet  they  allow  that  al- 
though ambition  and  the  love  of  power  were  his  ruling 
passions,  his  mind  was  elevated  above  the  meanness  of 
avarice.  His  personal  integrity  was  unimpeached,  and  so 
far  was  be  from  making  use  of  his  opportunities  to  acquire 
wealth,  that  he  died  involved  in  debts,  wbicb  negligence, 
and  the  demands  of  his  public  station,  rather  than  extrava- 
gance, had  obliged  him  to  contract ;  for  his  tastes  were 
simple,  and  he  does  not  appear  to  have  had  a  fondness  for 
splendour  or  parade.  His  private  character  has  been  drawn 
by  a  friend  (the  right  hon.  George  Rose),  and  it  corre«« 
sponds  perfectly  with  other  accounts  that  we  have  had  from 
those  much  in  his  confidence,  and  who  were  frequently  in 
bis  company  at  times  when  the  man  and  not  the  minister 
was  displayed  in  alt  its  native  colours :  *'  With  a  manner 
somewhat  reserved  and  distant  in  what  might  be  termed 
bis  public  deportment,  no  man  was  ever  better  qualified  to 
gain,  or  more  successful  in  fixing,  the  at^cbment  of  his 
friends,  than  Mr.  Pitt.    They  saw  all  the  powerful  energies 

PITT.  23 

of  bis  character  softened  into  the  most  perfect  complacency 
and  sweetness  of  dietposition  in  the  circles  of  private  life> 
the  pleasures  of  which  no  one  more  cheerfully  enjoyed,  or 
more  agreeably  promoted,  when  the  paramount  duties  he 
conceiTed  himself  to  owe  the  public,  admitted  of  his  mix*- 
ing  in  them*  That  indignant  severity  with  which  be  met 
and  subdued  what  he  considered  unfounded  opposition; 
that  keenness  of  sarcaun  with  which  he  expelled  and 
withered,  as  it  might  be  said,  the  powers  of  most  of  his 
assailants  in  debate,  were  exchanged  in  the  society  of  hi^ 
intimate  friends  for  a  kindness  of  heart,  a  gentleness  of 
demeanour,  and  a  playfulness  of  good  humour,  which  no 
one  ever  witnessed  without  interest,  or  participated  with- 
out delight/' > 

PITTACUSy  one  of  the  seven  sages  of  Greece,  of  whom 
some  sayings  are  preserved, .  but  not  many  particulars  of 
his  life,  was  born  at  Mitylene  in  the  island  of  Lesbos^ 
about  64d  B.  C.  By  his  valour  and  abilities  be  obtained 
the  sovereignty  of  his  native  city,  which  he  employed  only 
to  lead  the  people  to  happiness,  by  giving  them  the  best 
laws  he  could  devise.  Having  fulfilled  this  task,  and  put 
his  laws  into  verse,  according  to  the  fashion  of  the  times, 
that  they  might  be  more  easily  remembered,  he  resigned 
bis  authority,  and  returned  to  a  private  life.  His  fellow- 
citizens  would  have  rewarded  his  benefits  by  a  large  dona- 
tion of  land^  but  be  positively  refused  to  accept  more  than 
a  circular  portion,  taking  the  cast  of  hia  javelin  from,  the 
centre  every  way,  as  the  measure  of  its  circumference. 
**  It  is  better,"  be  said,  **  to  convince  my  country  that  I 
am  sincerely  disinterested,  than  to  possess  great  riches." 
He  died  about  679  B.  C.  aged  seventy.  Some  of  his  say* 
it)gs  were,  **  The  first  office  of  prudence  is  to  foresee 
^hr^satening  misfortunes,  and  prevent  them.  Power  dis- 
covers the  man.  Never  talk  of  your  schemes  before  they 
are  executed  ;  lest,  if  you  fail  to  accomplish  them,  you 
be  exposed  to  the  double  mortification  of  disappointment 
and  ridicule^  Whatever  you  do,  do  it  well.  Do  not  that 
to  your  neighbour,  which  you  would  take  ill  from  him. 
Be  watchful  for  opportunities,  .&c."  ' 

PITTIS  (Thomas),  an  £nglish  divine,  was  born  in  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  and  became  a  commoner  of  Trinity  coir 

s  Oifford't  Life  of  Pitt,  Sec.  &e.  &c 

*  Fenelon's  Livey  of  tbe  Philosophers. — Brncker^ 

84  P  I  T  '^  I  S. 

legef  Oxford^  in  1652^  where,  after  takiog  the  de^ee 
of  B.  A.  be  removed  to  Lincoln  college,  and  had  the 
reputation  of  a  good  disputant.  Having  taken  his  mas- 
-ter^s  degree  be  gave  offence  to  the  then  ruling  party  in  the 
university,  by  a  speech  he  made  in  the  character  of  TenrsB 
JFilius,  for  which  he  was  expelled,  in  1658.  Oo  the  re- 
storation he  was  preferred  to  the  rectory  of  Gatcombe  ie 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  proceeded  in  his  degrees  of  B.  and  D.  D. 
and  was  made  one  of  his  majesty's  chaplaiils  in  ordinary. 
Dr.  Morley,  bishop  of  Winchester,  gave  him  afterward^ 
the  living  oJF  Holy  Rood  in  Southampton,  and  the  king  the 
rectory  of  Lutterworth  in  Leicestershire,  which  he  ex- 
•changed  for  that  of  St.  Botolph.  Bishopsgate^  London. 
This  last  he  held  at  his  death,  along  with  the  rectory  of 
Gatcombe,  his  chaplainship,  and  the  lectureship  of  Christ- 
church,  Newgate-8treet»  He  died  Dec.  28,  1.687,  and  was 
buried  at  Gatcombe.  Besides  a  few  occasional  sermons, 
he  published,  i.  *'  A  private  conference  between  a  rich 
alderman  and  a  poor  country  vtcar,'*  &c.  respecting  the  ob- 
ligation of  oaths,  Lond.  1670,  Svo.  2.  ^' A  Discourse  on 
Prayer,"^c.  1683,  8vo,  and,  which  is  still  frequently  to 
he  met  with.  3.  <<  A  discourse  concerning  the  trial  of 
Spirits,'*  against  enthusiastic  notions  of  inspiration,  1684, 
8vo. ' 

PIUS  n.  (Pope),  whose  name  was  iENEAS  Sylvius  Pic- 
iCOLOMiNi,  was  born  in  1405,  at  Corsignano  in  Sienna, 
where  his  father  liyed  in  exile.  He  was  educated  at  the 
grammar«-school  of  that  place ;  but  bis  parents  being  in  low 
circumstances,  he  was  obliged,  in  his  early  years,  to  sub- 
mit to  many  servile  employments.  In  1423,  by  the  assist- 
-ance  of  his  friends,-  be  was  enabled  to  go  to  the  uliiversity 
4)f  Sienna,  where  he  applied  himself  to  his  studies  with 
-great  success,  and  in  a  short  time  published  several  pieces 
in  the  Latin  and  Tuscan  languages.  In  1431  he  au^nded 
cardinal  Dominic  Capranica  to  the  council  of  Basil  as  his 
secretary.  He  was  likewise  in  the  same  capacity  with  car- 
dinal Albergoti,  who  seat  him  to  Scotland  to  mediate  a 
•peace  betwixt  the  English  and  Scots ;  and  he  was  in  that 
country  when  king  James  I.  was  murdered.  Upon  his  re- 
-turn  from  Scotland,  he  was  made  secretary  to  the  council 
t>f  Basil,  which  he  defended  against  the  authority  of  the 
popes,  both  by  his  speeches  and  writings,  particularly  in 

«•  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  11. 

PIUS.  25 

adiak^ue'and^pistks  which  he  wrote  to  the  rebtot  and 
UDiversity   df  Cologn*     He  was  Ukewise  made  by  that 
council  clerk  of  the  ceremonies,  abbreviator,  an4  one  of 
the  duodecemviri,  Or  twelve  men,  an  office  of  igreat  im- 
poilanee.     He  was  employed  iti  several  embassies;  btoce 
to  Trent,  another  time  to  Frahkfort,  twice  to  CoAstaocey 
and  as  often  t6  Sav.dy,  and  thrice  to  Strasburg,  where  he 
had  an  intrigue  with  a  lady,  by  whom  he  bad  a  son ;  he 
has  given  an  account  of  this  affair  in  a  letter  to  his  father^ 
in  whidh  he  endeavours  to  vindicate  himself  with  much  in^ 
deb^fit  buffoonery.     In  1439  he  was  employed  in  the  ser- 
Tice  of  pdpe  Felix ;  and  being  soon  after  sent  ambassador 
to  the  etxiperor  Frederic,  he  was  crowned  by  him  with  the 
poetic  hiurel,  and  ranked  amongst  his  friends.     In  1442 
he  wa^  sent  for  from  Basil  by  the  emperor,  who  appointed 
him  secretary  to  the  empire,  and  raised  him  to  the  senato- 
rial order.     He  could  not  at  first  be  prevailed  on  to  con- 
'demn  the  council  of  Basi],  nor  to  go  over  absolutely  to 
Eagenius^s  party,  but  remained  neuter.     However,  when 
the  emperor'  Frederic  began  to  favour  Eugenius,  iEneas 
hkewise  changed  his'  opinion   gradually.     He  afterwards 
represented  the  emperor  in  the  diet  of  Nuremberg,  when 
they  were  consulting  about  methods  to  put  an  end  to  the 
schism,  and  was  sent  ambassador  to  Eugenius  :  at  the  per- 
-saasibh   of  Thomas  Sarzanus,    the   apostolical   legate  in 
Germany,  he  submitted  to  Eugenius  entirely,  and  made 
the  following  speech  to  his  holiness,  as  related  by  John  Go- 
belin, in  his  Commentaries  of  the  life  of  Pius  II.     "  Most 
holy  father  (said  he),  before  I  declare  the  emperor's  com- 
mission, give  me  leave  to  say  one  word  concerning  myself, 
I  do  Hot  question  but  you  have  heard  a  great  many  things 
which  are  not  to -my  advantage.     They  ought  not  to  have 
been  mentioned  to  you ;  but  I  must  confess,  that  my  ac- 
cuseds have  reported  nothing  but  what  is  true.     I  own  I 
have  said,  and  done,  and  written,  at  Basil,  many  things 
against  your  interests ;  it  is  impossible  to  deny  it :  yet  all 
this  has  been  done  not  with  a  design  to  injure  you,  but  to 
serve  the  church.     I  have  beien  in  an  error,  without  ques- 
tion ;  'but  I  have  been  in  just  the  ^ame  circumstances  with 
many  great  m6n,  as  particularly  with  Julian  cardinal  of  St. 
Angelo,  with  Nicholas  archbishop  of  Palermo,  with  Lewis 
du  Pont  (Pontanus)  the  secretary  of  the  holy  see;  men 
•who  are  esteemed  the  greatest  luminaries  in  the  law,  and 
doctors  pf  the  truth ;  to  omit  mentioning  the  universities 

26  PIUS. 

and  colleges  which  are  generally  against  you.  Who  ^oiild 
not  have  erred  with  persons  of  their  character  and  merit? 
It  is  true,  that  when  I  discovered  the  error  of  those  at 
3asil,  I  did  not  at .  first  go  over  to  you,  as  the  greatest 
part  did ;  but  being  afraid  of  falling  from  one  error  to 
another,  and  by  avoiding  Charybdis,  as  the  proverb  ex- 
presses it,  to  run  upon  Scylla,  I  joined  myself,  after  a 
\^^  long  deliberation  and  conflict  within  myself,  to  those  who 
thought  proper  to  continue  in  a  state  of  neutrality.  I  lived 
three  years  in  the  emperor's  court  in  this  situation  of  mind, 
where  having  an  opportunity  of  hearing  constantly  the 
disputes  between  those  of  Basil  and  your  legates,  I  was 
convinced  that  the  truth  was  on  your  side  :  it  was  upon  this 
motive  that,  when  the  emperor  thought  fit  to  send- me  to 
your  clemency,,!  accepted  the  opportunity  with  the  utmost 
satisfaction,  in  hopes  that  I  should  be  so  happy  as  co  gain 
your  favour  again  :  I  throw  myself  therefore  at  your  feet; 
and  since  I  sinned  out  of  ignorance,  I  entreat  you  to  grant 
me  your  pardon.  After  which  I  shall  open  to  you  the  em- 
peror's intentions."  This  was  the  prelude  to  the  famous 
retraction  which  ^neas  Sylvius  made  afterwards.  The 
pope  pardoned  every  thing  that  was  past ;  and  in  a  short 
time  made  him  his  secretary,  without  obliging  him  to  quit 
the  post  which  he  had  with  the  emperor. 

He  was  sent  a  second  time  by  the  emperor  on  an  em- 
bassy to  Eugenius,  on.  the  following  occasion :  the  pepe 
,  having  deposed  Thierry  and  James,  archbishops  and  elec- 
tors of  Colpgn  and  Treves,  because  they  had  openly  de- 
clared for  Felix  and  the  council  of  Basil,  the  electors  of 
the  empire  were  highly  offended  at  this  proceeding ;  and 
at  their  desire  the  emperor  sent  £neas  Sylvius  to  prevail 
on  the  pope  to  revoke  the  sentence  of  deposition. 

Upon  the  decease  of  pope  Eugenius,  Mneas  was  chosen 
by  the  cardinals  to  preside  in  the  conclave  till  another  pope 
should  be  elected.  He  was  made  bishop  of  Trieste  by 
pope  Nicholas,  and  went  again  into  Germany,  where  he 
was  appointed  counsellor  to  the  emperor,  and  had  the  di- 
rection of  all  the  important  affairs  of  the  empire.  Four 
years  after  he  was  made  archbishop  of  Sienna;  and  in  1452 
he  attended  Frederic  to  Rome,  when  he  went  to  receive 
the  imperial  crown.  .£neas,  upon  his  return,  was  named 
legate  of  Bohemia  and  Austria.  About  1456,  being  sent 
by  the  emperor  into  Italy,  to  treat  with  pope  Callixtus  III* 
about  a  war  with  the  Turks,  he  was  made  a  cardinal. 

PIUS.  t7 

Up(Ki  the  decease  of  CaUixtus,^  in  1458  be  wan  idected 
pope  by  the  name  of  Pius  II.    After  bis  proaiotion  to  the 
papal  chair  he  published  a  bull,  retracting  all  be   had 
written  in  defence  of  the  council  of  Basil,  with  an  apolog)^ 
which  shows  how  little  he  was  influenced  by  principle : 
'^  We  are  men  (sajs  he),  and  we  have  erred  as  men ;  we 
do  .not  deny,  but  that  many  things  which  we  have  said  or 
written,  may  justly  be  condemned  <  we  have  been  seduced, 
like  Paul,  and  have  persecuted  the  church  of  God  through 
ignorance;    we  now  follow  St.  Austin's  example,  who, 
having  suffered  several  erroneous  sentiments  to  escape  him 
in  his  writings,  retracted  them ;  we  do  jmst  the  same  thing : 
we  ingenuously  confess  our  ignorance,  oeing  apprehensive 
lest  what  we  have  written  in  our  youth  should  occasion 
some  error,  which  may  prejudice  the  holy  see.     For  if  it 
is  suitable  to  any  person's  character  to  maintain  the  emi« 
nence  and  glory  of  the  first  throne  of  the  church,  it  is  cer- 
tainly so  to  ours,  whom  the  merciful  God,  out  of  pure 
goodness,  has  raised  to  the  dignity  of  vicegerent  of  Christ, 
without  any  merit  on  our  part.     For  all  these  reasons,  we 
exhort  you  and  advise  you  in  the  Lord,  not  to  pay  any 
regard  to  those  writings,  which  injure  in  any  manner  the 
authority  of  the  apostolic  see,  and  assert  opinions  which 
the  holy  Roman  church  does  not  receive.     If  you  find  any 
thing  contrary  to  this  in  our  dialogues  and  letters,  or  in 
any  other  of  our  works,  despise  such  notions,  reject  them, 
follow  what  we  maintain  now ;  believe  what  I  assert  now  I 
am  in  years,  rather  than  what  I  said  when  I  was  young : 
regard  a  pope  rather  than  a  private  man ;  in  shorty  reject 
JEneas  Sylvius,  and  receive  Pius  II." 

Pius  behaved  in  his  high  office  with  considerable  spirit 
and  activity ;  but  more  as  a  temporal  prince,  than. the  head 
of  the  church.  During  his  pontificate  he  received  ambas<- 
sadors  from  the  patriarchs  of  the  east:  the  chief  of  the 
embassy  was  one  Moses,  archdeacon  of  Austria,  a  man  well 
vemed  in  the  Greek  and  Syriac  languages,  and  of  a  distin- 
guished character.  He  appeared  before  his  holiness  in  the 
name  of  the  patriarchs  of  Antioch,  Alexandria,  and  Jeru* 
salem  ;  be  told  his  holiness,  that  the  enemy  who  sows  tares 
having  prevented  them  till  then  from  receiving  the  decree 
of  the  (council  of  Florence,  concerning  the  union  of  the 
Greek  and  Latin  churches,  God  had  at  last  inspired  them 
with  a  resolution  of  submitting  to  it;  that  it  had  been 
solempjy  agreed  to,,  in  an  assembly  called  together  for  that 

as  p  I  u  s. 


purpose ;  and  that  for  the  future  they  would  unanimously 
siibtnit  to  the  pope  as  vicegerent  of  Jesus  Christ.     Pius 
oomnsended  the  patriarchs  for  their  obedience,  aiid  or« 
dered  Moses's  speech  to  be  translated  into  Latin,  and  laid 
mp  amongst  the  archives  of  the  Roman  church.     A  few 
days  after  the  arrival  of  these  ambassadors  from  the  east, 
there  came  others  also  from  Peloponnesus,  who  offered 
obedience  to  the  pope,  and  he  received  them  in  the  name 
•f  the  church  of  Rome,  and  sent  them  a  governor, 
.    Pius,  in-  the  latter  part  of  his  pontificate,  made  great 
preparations  against  the  Turks,  for  which  purpose  he  snm<« 
fnoned  the  assistance  of  the  several  princes  in  £uit>pe ;  and 
having  raised  a  con^derable  number  of  troops,  he  went  to 
Ancona  to  see  them  embarked ;  where  he  was  seized  with 
a  fever,  and  died  the  14th  of  August,  1464,  in  the  fifty^ 
ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  the  seventh  of  his  pontificate. 
His  body  was  carried  to  Rome,  and  interred  in  the  Vati- 
can.    The  Roman   catholic,  writers  are  profuse  in  theit^ 
praises  of  this  pope,  whose  character,  however^  whether 
private  or  public,  will  not  bear  the  strictest  scrutiny.    His 
secretary,  John  Gobelin,  published  a  history  of  his  life^ 
which  is  supposed  to  have  been  written  by  this  pope  him<^ 
self:  it  was  printed  at  Rome  in  quarto  in  1584  and  1589  ; 
and  at  Francfort  in  folio  in  1614.     We  have  an  edition  of 
£neas  Sylvius's  works,  printed  at  Basil,  in  folio,  in  1551. 
They  consist  of  Memoirs  of  the  Council  of  B^ie ;    The 
History  of  the  Bohemians  from  their  origin  till  A.  D.  1458; 
Cosmography,  in  two  books;  the  History  of  Frederick  III. 
whose  vice-chancellor  he  was ;  a  Treatise  on  the  educa- 
tion of  children  ;  a  Poem  on  the  Passion  of  Jesus  Christ; 
a  collection   of  482   Letters ;  Historia  rerum  ubicunque 
gestarum ;  the  first  part  only  of  which  was  published  at 
Venice  in  1477,  fol.     Euryalus  and  Lucretia,  a  romance. 
A  collection  of  all  these,  with  his  life,  was  also  published 
at  Uelmstadt  in  1700,  fol.     He  was,  notwithstanding  the 
applauses  of  the  catholics,  a  man  of  great  ambition,  and 
great  duplicity.     He  has  been  praised  for  bis  wise  and 
witty  sayings,  but  he  was  also  famous  for  sayings  of  a  very 
different  description.    He  indulged  himself,  respecting  the 
reformers,  in  a  rancour  of  language  which  must  be  offen- 
sive to  every  sober  Christian ;  and  his  letters  show  that  be 
indulged  great  licence  in  point  of  morals.     Mr.  Gilpin, 
after  selecting  some  striking  proofs  of  this,  says,  ^^  Such  is 
the  testimony  which  ^Xneas  Sylvius  bath  given  us  of  him* 

P  I  U  S..    .  "20 

telf.  It  may  serve  to  invalidate  .what  be  hath  ^aid  of  others'; 
as  it  seems  entirely  to  show  that  his  ceosures  are  founded 
tipon  a  mere  difference  of  opinion, .  without  any  regard  to 
practice,  which  is  0110  of  the  characteristics  of  bigotry;. 
They  who .  are  not  acquainted  with  the  history  of  this 
writer  will  be  surprised  to  hear  that  the  man  of  whom  we 
have  this  authentic  character,  was  not  only  a  pope,  but  is 
acknowledged  by  the  generality  of  popish  writers,  as  one 
of  the  most  respectable  of  all  the  Roman  pontiffs."  ^ 

PIZARRO  (Francis),  the  conqueror  of  Peru,  cele«- 
brated  rather  for  his  abilities  than  for  his  virtues,  his  glory 
being  tarnished  by  the  cruelties  which  he  practised  towards 
thosq  whom  he  had  conquered,  was  the  illegitimate  son  of 
a  gentleman,  by  a  very  low  woman,  and  apparently  des«- 
tined  by  his  ungenerous  parent  not  to  rise  above  the  cons- 
ditton  of  his  mother,  being  put  to  the  mean  employment 
of  keeping  hogs.  I'he  genius  of  young  Pizarro  disdained 
this  Ipw  occupation.  He  enlisted  as  a  soldier,  served 
some  time  in  Italy,  and  then  embarked  for  America,  which 
offered  at  that  period  a  strong  allurement  to  every  active 
adventurer.  Distinguished  by^  his  utter  disdain  of  every 
hardship  and  danger,  be  was  soon  regarded,  though  so 
illiterasus  that  he  was  unable  to  read,  as  a  man  formed  for 
command ;  and  being  settled  in  Panama,  where  tb^  Spa** 
nish  emigrants  had  found  their  sanguine  expectations 
wholly  disappointed,  he  united  in  1524  with  Diego  de 
Almagro,  another  military  adventurer,  and  Hernando 
Lucque,  a  priest,  to  prosecute  discoveries  to  the  eastward 
of  that  settlement.  This  attempt  had  frequently  been  made, 
but  had  failed  through  the  inability  of  the  persons  con-^ 
cemed  in  it;  it  had  now  fallen  into  such  han4s  as  were 
calculated  to  make  it  successful,  and  their  confederacy  was 
sanctioned  by  the  governor  of  Panama.  The  enterprise 
was  begun  in  a  very  humble  manner.  Pizarro  set  sail 
with  a  single  vessel,  and,  from  universal  ignorance  of  the 
tilimate^  at  the  very  worst  season  of  the  year,  in  Novem- 
ber, when  the  periodical  winds  were  precisely  against  hia 
course.  He  had  no  success,  nor  was  his  colleague  Alma^ 
fro,  who^  followed,  more  fortunate.  After  undergoing  er- 
treoie  hai^dships,  and  obtaining  only  a  glimpse  qi'  a  better 
oountry,  the  utmost  they  could  do  was  to  establish  them- 
selves- id  an  island  near  the  coast     Nothing  could  deter 

4  Ca^y  Tol.  11.— Platioa.— Gen.  Diet. 

so  P  I  Z  A  R  Tl  O. 

Pizarro  from  his  enterprise ;  the  refusal  of  further  saDction 
from  the  governor,  the  desertion  of  all  his  associates,  ex- 
cept thirteen,  all  was  in  vain.  He  remained  with  his  small 
band,  till,  in  spite  of  all  obstacles,  they  obtained  another 
vessel,  with  some  reinforcements.  They  set  sail  again  in 
1 526,  and  on  the  twentieth  day  after  their  departure,  dis- 
covered the  fertile  coast  of  Peru.  They  were  yet  too 
weak  to  attempt  the  invasion  of  an  empire  so  populous^ 
and  Pizarro  .contented  himself  with  carrying  back,  by 
means  of  an  amicable  intercourse,,  such  specimens  of  the 
wealth  and  civilization  of  the  country  as  might  invite  others 
to  accede  to  the  enterprise.  Unable  to  bring  the  governor 
of  Panama  to  adopt  his  views,  he  returned  to  Spain,  and 
explaining  to  that  court  the  magnitude  of  the  objectj^  ob- 
tained every  grant  of  authority  he  could  wish,  but  no  other 
assistance;  and  being  left  to  his  own  resources^  could 
have  effected  nothing  had  he  not  been  assisted  with  money 
by  Cortez,  just  then  returned  from  Mexico.  It  was  Fe^ 
bruary  1531,  before  he  and  his  associates  were  again  able 
to  sail  from  Panama  on  their  great  undertaking ;  and  tbea 
their  whole  armament  consisted  only  of  three  smalL  vessels 
and  180  soldiers,  thirty-six  of  whom  were  horsemen. 
When  they  landed  in  Peru,  as  they  had  the  imprudence 
to  attack  the. natives,  ipstead  of  conciliating  them,  they 
were  at  first  exposed  to  famine,  and  several  other  cala- 
mities. Pizarro,  however,  had  the  good  fortune  to  enter 
Peru  when  the  forces  of  the  empire  were  divided  by  an 
obstinate  civil  war  between  Huascar  the  legitimate  mo- 
narch, and  Atahualpa.  (commonly  called  Atabalipa),  his 
half  brother.  By  degrees  understanding  the  state  of  the 
country, ,  Pizarro  engaged  to  be  the  ally  of  Atahualpa,  and 
under  that  pretence  was  permitted  to  penetrate  unmolested 
to  Caxamalca,  twelve  days*  journey  within  the  country*; 
He  was  received  pacifically  and  with  state,  as  the  ambas^ 
sador  of  a  great  monarch ;  but,  perfidiously  taking  advan** 
tage  of  the  unsuspecting  good  faith  of  Atahualpa,  he  made 
a  sudden  attack,  and  took  him. prisoner.  The  exaction  of 
an  immense  ransom,  the  division  of  which  served  to  invite 
new  invaders ;  the  disgraceful  breach  of  faith  by  which  the 
king  was  )^ept  a  prisoner  after  his  ransom  was  paid  ;  and 
the  detestable  murder  of  him,  a  short  time  after,  under  the 
itifamous  mockery  of  a  trial ;  with  the  insults  superadded 
by  bigotry,  to  make  him  die  a  Christian,  without  being 

P  I  Z  A  R  R  O.  %i 

tible  to  comprehend  that  faith ;  all  contribate  to  accumu- 
late disgrace  upon  the  head  of  the  treacherous  and  unfeeU 
iog  conqueror,  and  form  such  odious  additions  to  the  re- 
proachful scenes  acted  by  the  Spaniards  in  America,  as 
potliing  can  palliate  or  obliterate.     Pizarro,  favoured  by 
4he  distracted  state  of  Peru,  which  now  increased,  though 
Huascar  had  been  put  to  death  by  order  of  his  brother, 
aod  reinforced  by  more  soldiers  from  Spain,  proceeded  in 
his  conquests,  and  on  Jan.  18,  1535,  laid  the  foundation 
of  Lima,  called  by  bim  and  his  countrymen  Ciiiidad  de  ios 
Reyes.     In  15:17  he  found  a  new  enemy  in  his  original 
associate  Aimagro,  who  claiming  Cuzco,  the  ancient  ca- 
pital of  Peru,  .as  belonging  to  his  jurisdiction,  got  posses- 
sion of  it.     This,  and  other  advantages  gained  by  him,  at 
ooce  distressed  and  roused  Pizarro.     They  came  to  an 
engagement  in  1538,  in  which  Aimagro  was  defeated  and 
taken  prisoner ;  and,  after  an  interval  of  confinement,  was 
tried  and  executed.     This  was  the  last  of  the  successes  of 
Pizarro^  the  son  and  friends  of  Aimagro  conspired  against 
him,  aod  on  June  26,  1541,  he  was  assassinated  by  them 
in  his  palace,  making  a  most  resolute  defence,  well  worthy 
of  his  long-tried  courage.     He  was  at  this  time  advanced 
in  years,  though  his  exact  age  is  not  known.     The  glory 
be  justly  acquired  by  military  talents,  courage,  and  saga- 
city, would  have  placed  him  in  the  rank  of  heroes,  hdd 
not  his.  character  been  disgraced  by  the  indelible  stains  of 
perfidy  and  cruelty.  ^ 

PLACCIUS  (Vincent),  an  eminent  philologer  of  Ham^ 
bnrgb^  where  he  was  borni  in  1642,  completed  his  studies 
at  Heloistadt  and  Leipsic,  and  improved  his  talents  by  tra-' 
veiling  in  France  and  Italy.  When  he  returned,  he  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  bar,  and  afterwards  became  professor 
of.  morals  and  eloquence,  in  which  situation  he  continued 
twenty-four  years.  He  was  beloved  by  his  pupils,  and 
when  be  died,  April  6,  1699,  regretted  by  his  countrymen 
in  general,  who  hadconlsidered  him  as  an  oracle.  His  works 
are,  i.  ^'  A  Dictionary  of  anonymous  and  pseudonymous 
•  Authors/'  published  in  1708,  in  2  vols,  folio,  by  the  care 
of  Fabricius ;  a  curious  work,  but  abounding  with  faults. 
2.  *^  Dejarisconsulto  perito  Liber,''  1693,  8vo.  3.  <<  Car- 
iBina  juveoilia,"  Ams^.  1667,  12mo.  4.  <^De  arte  excer* 
pendi,"    Hamburgh,   1689,   8vo,  with  several  others,  all 

I  Robertson's  Hist  of  Am^ica. 

32  .    PL  ACE.    . 

testifying,  and  abandantly  proving,  his  talents  and  eruT 
dition. ' 

PLACE  (Francis),  a  man  of  taste  in  various  pursuits^ 
but  chiefly  known  as  an  e;igraver,  was  the  son  of  Mr, 
Rowland  Place,  of  Dinsdale,  in  the  county  of  Durham* 
He  was  at  first  intended  for  the  law,  and  was  placed  as  ft 
clerk  to  an  attorney  in  London,  with  whom  he  resided 
until  1665,  when  a  house  be  had  taken  being  shut  up  on 
account  of  the  plague,  he  left  London  and  quitted  his  pro* 
fession  at  the  same  time.  He  now  turned  projector,  and 
expended  considerable  sums  of  money  in  attempting  to 
make  pofcelaine,  which  be  put  in  practice  at  the  manor«« 
house  of  York.  In  this  it  is  probable  be  bad  .not  due  per-* 
severance ;  for  one  Clifton,  of  Pontefract,  took,  the  hint 
from  him,  and  realized  a  fortune.  Who  was  his  teacher  ;as 
an  artist  is  not  known,  and  his  works  are  very  rare,  for  he 
painted,  drew,  etched,  and  engraved,  merely  for  hia  own 
amusement ;  and  as  his  productions  prove  him  a  man  of 
great  abilities,  it  is  to  be  lamented  that  he  had  not:equai 
application,  and  left  many  valuable  designs  unfinished^  In 
the  reign  of  Charles  IL  it  is  said  he  was  offered  a  pension 
of  500/.  to  draw  the  royal  navy,  but  he  refused  this  sum, 
large  as  it  then  was,  from  a  dislike  of  confinement  and  de<- 
pendence.  He  died  in  1728,  and  his  widow,  on  quitting 
the  manor*house  at  York,  disposed  of  his  paintings ;  among 
which  was  an  admired  picture  of  fowls,  others  of  fishes 
and  flowers  unfinished,  together  with  bis  own  portrait  by  . 
himself.  He  left  behind  him  a  daughter,  who  was  manded 
to  Wadham  Wyndham,  esq.    This  lady  was  living' iu  1764. 

His  etchings,  particularly  of  landscapes  and  birds,  from 
Griffier,  are  admirable.  The  free,  style  in  which  he 
treated  the  foliage  of  his  trees,  proves  bis  judgment  and 
good  taste  ;  and  his  portraits  in  mezaotinto  are  excellent. 
Among  the  latter,  Strutt  mentions  bishop  Crew,  archbishop 
Sterne,  Dr.  Comber,  dean  of  Durham,  Henty  Gyles,  the 
artist,  and  general  Lambert.  In  Thoresby's  Topogmphy 
of  Leeds  are  some  churches  drawn  by  Place;  the. plates 
for  Godartius's  book  of  Insects  ar«e  by  him;  and  he  also 
executed  many  views  in  Yorkshire. '  .       .   .  i 

PLACE  (Joshua  de  la),  a  learned  protestant  minister, 
and  celebrated  professor  of  divinity  at  Saumur,  was  de*- 

^  Chaufepie,  an  elaborate  article.— •Diet  Hist. — MorhofiTs  Polybistor. 
3  I^rd  Orford's  Catalq|[;ofr^of  J^riiTyirs.-«<n^U'uJbt'tI>ictionary. 

PLACE.  $t 


sce&ded  from  a  Boble  and  ancient  family,  8|id  born  in 
I596n  He  gained  great  credit  by  his  writings  ifgainst  the 
SoeioiaBfly  but  beld  a  singular  opinion  concerning  the 
imputation  of  Adam^s  sini  which  was  condemned  in  a 
French  synod.  He  died  August  7,  1655,  at  Saumur>  aged 
fifty-nine.  His  works  were  reprinted  at  Franeker,  1699, 
and  1703,  4to^  2  torn.  The  first  contains  a  treatise  *^0a 
Types ;"  treatises  on  *'  The  imputation  of  Adam^s  first 
Sin,  Of,  '^  The  order  of  the  Divine  Decrees,  and  on  Free- 
will^-' with  an  '*  Abridgment  of  Theology  :^'  the  second 
Tolume  contains  his  **  Disputes  against  the  Sociniana,'*  the 
most  important  part  of  his  works.  He  also  wrote  ^' An 
Examination  of  the  arguments  for  and  against  the  Sacri- 
fice of  the  Mass,"  8vo. ' 

PLACE  (Peter  be  la),  in  Latin  Plateaxus,  a  learned 
French  writer,  was  born  at  Angoul£me  in  t526«  He  ap-« 
plied  with  success  to  the  study  of  jurisprudence,  and  in 
1548  published  a  Latin  paraphrase  on  the  titles  of  the 
Idiperial'  institutes,  ^^  De  Actionibus,  Exceptionibus  et 
Interdictis,"  in  4to.  After  this  he  was  called  to  the  bar  of 
the  paiiiament  of  Paris,  and  acquired  the  character  of  a 
learned,  eloquent,  and  virtuous  counsellor.  Francis  L 
appointed  him  advocate  of  his  court  of  aids  at  Paris,  and 
he  discharged  the  duties  of  that  office  with  so  much  talent 
and  integrity,  that  Henry  H.  nominated  him  his  first  pre- 
liidest  in  the  same  court.  He  became,  in  consequence  of 
hearing  Qalvip,  a  convert  to  the  protestant  religion  in  1554^ 
and  made  an  open  profession  of  it  on  the  death  of  Francis 
IL  On  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  war  be  retired  to  one 
«f  his  bonsisa  in  Picardy ;  but  at  the  peace  in  1562  vindi- 
cated himself  before  the  king  from  the  several  charges 
which  had  been  preferred  against  him.  He  was  now  ap- 
pmnted  by  the  prince  of  Conde  superintendant  of  the 
houselsold,  and  accompanied  his  highness  to  the  castle  of 
yi  in  the  Valois,  where  be  continued  till  Charles  IX. 
granted  the  protestants,  advantageous  terms  of  peace  in 
I54>9;.  that  he  might  the  more  easily  extirpate  them.  La 
Place,  deceived  by  this  treachery,  returned  to  Paris,  and 
wdm  executing  the  office  of  president  to  the  court  of  aids, 
when  he  was  put  to  death  in  the  most  treacherous  as  well 
as  barbarous  manner  in  the  general  massacre  of  the  pro- 
testants  on  'St.  Bartholomew's  day,  in  1572,  at  the  age  of 

>  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist« 

Vol.  XXV.  D 

8*  PLACE. 

forty •i>six.  His  clear  j  adgment  and  discrimination  adorirsbljf^ 
qualified  biin  for  the  office  of  magistrate.  His  chief  works 
are,  ^*  Commentaries  on  the  state  of  Religion,  and  of  the 
Commonwealth,  from  1556  to  1561  ;''  *•  A  Treatise  on  the 
right  use  of  Moral  Philosophy  in  connection  with  the  Christ 
tian  Doctrine  ;*'  and  **  A  Treatise  on  the  excellence  of  the 
Christian  Man."  * 

PLACENTINUS,  or  PLACENTIUS  (PETia),  is  said* 
to  have  been  the  real  name  of  a  German  author,  who,- 
under  the  fictitious  one  of  Publius  Porcius  Porcellus,  wrote' 
the  Latin  poem  entitled  ^^  Pugna  porcorum/'  consisting  of 
360  verses,  in  which  every  word  begins  with  a  P.  It  wSis 
published  separately  at  Antwerp,  in  1 530,  and  is  in  the 
^^  NugsD  venales,"  &c.  We  have  followed  Baillet  in  call-*': 
ing  him  Peter  Placentihus,  but'  Le  Clerc  says  that  his 
name  was  John  Leo  Placentius,  a  Dominican  monk,  who 
died  about  1548,  and  that  he  composed  an  history  of  the 
bishops  of  Tongres,  Maestricht,  and  Liege,  taken  out  of 
&bulous  memoirs,  and  several  poems  besides  the  *^  Pugna 
Porcorum/'  In  this  last  he  imitated  one  Theobaldus,  a 
Benedictine  monk,  who  flourished  in  the  time  of  Charted 
the  Bald,  to  .whom  be  presented  a  panegyric  on  baldness,' 
every  word  of  which  began  with  the  letter  C  \cahities^ 
baldness).  Placentinus  is  said  to  have  had  another  obj|cty 
to^satirize  the  sloth  of  the  prelates,  but  this  is  not  easily 
discoverable.  Some  discussion  on  the  ^^  Pugna  Porcorum,"^ 
if  our  readers  think  it  worthy  of  farther  inquiry,  may  be 
found  in  our  authorities. ' 

PLACETTE  (John  de  la),  a  protestant  minister  of 
great  eminence,  was  born  at  Pontac  in  Berne,  Jan*  1 9^* 
163*9 ;  and  his  father,  who  was  a  minister,  trained  him  with 
the  greatest  attention  and  care.  From  1660,  he' exercised 
the  ministry  in  France;  but,  after  the  revocation  of  the 
edict  of  Nantz  in  1685,  be  retired  to  Denmark,  where  ha 
continued  till  the  death  of  the  queen  in  1711 ;  for  that 
princess,  apprised  of  his  great  merit,,  kept  him  near  her. 
From  Denmark  he  passed  to  Holland,  and  fixed  himself 
first  at  the  Hague ;  then  removed  to  Utrecht,  where  be 
(jlied  April  25,  1718,  aged  seventy^nine.  He  was  the  au-' 
tbor  of  many  works  upon  piety  and  morality,  which  are 

•    I  Gen.  Diet*  where  is  an  interetting  aocouot  of  hit  death.— Bibl..  CcQix  d« 


s  Baillet  dee  auteun  degyisez.-^Merrick's  Tryphiodonis,  Dit»ertaUon,  p.  %S^ 
Maf ,  XLVl.  p.  511  ^nd  603  ;  and  XLVIf.  p.  70. 

P  L  A  C  E  T  T  E.  3S^ 

reckoned  excellent  in  their  kind ;  and  of  some  of  the  po-^ 
lemic  kind,  against  the  church  of  Rome,  and  particularly 
against  Bayle's  sceptical  works.  Among  these  we  may 
enumerate,  1.  *^  Nouveaux  Essais  deMorafe,'*  6  vols.  l2mo. 

2.  <<  Triiit€  de  TOrgueil,"  the  best  edition  of  which  is  16^9. 

3.  **  Traits  de  la  Conscience."  4.  "  Trait6  de  la  Restitu* 
tion."  5.  ^*  La'Communion  devote,"  the  best  edition*  of 
which  is  that  of  1699.  6.  <<  Trait^  des  bonnes  CEuvres  ea 
g^ncral,"  7.  «  Trait6  du  Serment."  8.  "  Divers  Trait^s 
^r  des  Matieres  de  Conscience/'  9.  *^  La  Mort  des 
Jttstes."  10.  "Traits  de  I'Aumdoe."  11.  «Trait6  des 
Jeux  de  Hazard."  12.  <<  La  Morale  Chretien  abr^g^e," 
1701.  13.  <*  Reflexions  Cbr^tiennes  sur  divers  Sujets  de 
Morale/'  all  in'I2mo.  14.  '^  De'Insanabili  Ecclesia  Ro<- 
man&,  Sceptitismo,  Ditoertatio,"  16d6,  or  1696,  4to;  IS. 
^*  De  rAutorit6  des  Sens  centre  la  Transubstantiation," 
12mo.  .  16.  "Traits  de  la  Fbi  divine,"  4  vol^.  4to.  17. 
**  Dissertation  sur  divers  Sujets  de  Th^ologie  et  de  Mo« 
rale,"  12mo,  &c.  Some  of  the  above  have  been  pub« 
li»hed  in  English,  particularly  the  '^  Treatise  on  Con* 
scietice,*'  and  that  on  the  **  Death  of  the  Just."  ^ 

'  PLANTIN  (Christopher),  an  eminent  printer,  was 
born  at  Mont- Louis,  near  Tours,  in  1514.  He  was  in- 
structed in  his  art  at  Caen,  under  Robert  MaCe,  whence 
hp  went  to  Antwerp,  and  formed  by  degrees  one  of  the' 
greatest  establishments  for  printing  in  Europe,  and  said 
indeed  to  be  uni<)ue  in  its  kind.  The  whole  iiras  upon  the 
most  magnificent  scale,  and  even  the  building  was  ac* 
counted  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the  city  of  Antwerp,  and 
was  so  amply  furnished  with  presses,  founts  of  letter  of 
all  sorts,  a  foundery,  and  other  matters  necessary  for  the 
<ionceriii,  as' to  have  cost  an  immense  sum  of  nnoney.  One 
of  his  biographers  informs  us -that  Plantings  ideas  were  so' 
Bo^nificent  as  that  he  cast  sonie  founts  in  silver,  and  con- 
sidered  himself  as  having  in  that  respect  done  what  no  other 
printer  bad  attempted ;  but  this  is  a  mistake^  as  Robert 
Stephens  bad  before  indulged  himself  in  the  luxury  of 
silver  types,  although  not  so  rich  a  man  as  Plantin. '  In 
1576  Tbnanuis'  pa4d  a  visit  to  Plantin;  who,  although  n6t 
now  in  such  good  circumstances,  still  had  seventeen  presses 
st#ori[,  and  the  wages  of  bis  workmen  amounted  to  200 

florias  per  day.     But  what  redounds  most  to  his  credit  was 

•      .  »  .    .         ^  -   t      •  »       

.  ,  ,    ^  NiceroOf  toI.  XI.— Moreri. 

D  2 

^8-  PLATER- 

He  possessed  an  extensive.knawledge  of  anatomy,  botany, 
natural  history,  and  other  branches  Of  science,  and  coo- 
tributed  much  to  the  celebrity  of  his  native  university,  in 
which  he  was  a  teacher  upwards  of  fifty  years.     He  died 
in  July  1614,  in  the  seventy -eighth  year  of  his  age.     He 
l^ft  the  following  works:  ^*  De  Corporis  humani  structura 
et  usu  Libri  tres,''  Basle,  1583,  and  1603,  folio ;  "  De  Fe- 
bribus  Liber,"  Francfort,  1597;  "Praxeos  Medica  Tomi 
tres,^'  Basle,  1602  ;  ^^  Observationum  MecHciualium  Libri 
ires,"  ibid.  1614,  &c. ;  "  Consilia  Medica,''  Francf.  1615, 
in  the  collection  of  Brend^Hus;  *'  De  GangraensL  Epistola,"' 
in  the  first  century  o^  the  letters  of  Hildanus.     After  bis 
death  were  published  ^*  Qus&stionum  Medicaruoi  paradox- 
arum  et  eudoxarum  Centuria  posihuma,^'  Basle,  1625,  edited 
by  his  brother,  Thomas  Plater ;  and  "  Qusestiones  Pbysip- 
]ogic8B  de  partium  in  utero  conformatione,V  Leyden,  1650.* 
PLATINA  (Bartolomeo  Sacchi)j  so  called,  a  learsjed 
Italian,  and  author  of  a  ^^  History  of  the  Popes,''  was  born 
in  1421  at  Piadena,  in  Latin  Platina,  a  village  between 
Cremona  and  Mantua ;  whence  betook  the  name  by  which 
be  is  generally  known.     He  first  embraced  a  military  life, 
which  be  followed  for  a  considerable  time ;  but  afterwards 
devoted  himself  to  literature,  and  made  a  considerable  pro- 
gress in  it.    He  went  to  Rome  under  Calixtus  HL.who  was 
piade  pope  in  1455  ;  and  procuring  an  introduction  to  car- 
dinal Bessarion,  he  obtained  some  small  benefices  of  pope 
Pius  n.  who  succeeded  Calixtus  in  1458,  and  afterwards  was 
appointed  office  which  Pius  H.  created,  called  the;  col- 
lege of  apostolical  abbrevtators.     But  when  Paul  H.  suc- 
ceeded Pius  in  1464,  Platina^s  affairs  took  a  very  unfavour- 
able turn.     Paul  hated  him  because  he  was  the!  favourite  of 
his  predecessor  Pius,  and  removed  all  the  abbreviators 
from  their  employments,  by  abolishing -their  places,  n^- 
withstanding  some  had  purchased  them  with  great  ^ums  of 
money.    On  this  Platina  ventured  to  complain  ta  the  pope^ 
and  most  humbly  besought  him  to  order  their  cause  tp  be 
judged  by  the  auditors  of  the  Rota.   The  pope  was  pffend-r 
ed  at  the  liberty,  and  gave  hini  a  very  haughty  repulse : 
**  Is  it  thus,''  said  he,  looking  at  him  sternly,  **  is  it  thus, 
that  you  summon  us  before  your  judges,  as  if  you  knew 
not  that  all  laws  were  centered  in  our  breast  i    Such  is  our 
deqr^e :  they  shall  all  go  hence,  whithersoever  they  please ; 

\  ]p:ioy,  Diet,  ^list^ 

P  L  A  T  I  N  A.  S» 

I  am  pope,  and  haye  a  right  to  ratify  or  cancel  the  acti  of 
others  at  pleasure.''  These  abbreviators,  thus  divested  of 
their  employmenU,  used  their  utmost  endeavoursi  for  some 
days,  to  obtain  audience  of  the  pope,  but  were  repulsed 
with. contempt.  Upon  this,  Platina  wrote  to  him  id  bolder 
language  :  *'  If  yon  had  a  right  to  dispossess  us,  without  a 
bearing,  of  the  employments  we  lawfully  purchased  ;  we, 
4>Q  the  other  side,  may  surely  be  permitted  to  complain  of 
the.  injustice  we  sufier,  and  the  ignominy  with  which  we 
aire  branded.  As  you  have  repulsed  us  so  contumeliously, 
\ve  will  go  to  all  the  courts  of  princes,  and  intreat  them  to 
call  a  council ;  whose  principal  business  shall  be,  to  oblige 
you  to  shew  cause,  why  you  have  divested  us  of  our  law* 
ful  possessions.''  This  letter  being  considered  as  an  act  of 
rebellion,  the  writer  was  imprisoned^  and  endured  great  hard** 
ships.  At  the  end  of  four  months  he  had  bis  liberty,  with 
orders  not  to  leave  Rome,  a^d  continued  in  quiet  for  some 
time ;  but  afterwards,  being  suspected  of  a  plot,  was  again 
imprisoned,  and,  with  many  others,  put  to  the  rack.  The 
plot  being  found  imaginary,  the  charge  was  turned  to  he- 
resy, which  also  came  to  nothing;  and  Platina  was  set  at 
liberty  some  time  after.  The  pope  then  flattered  him  with 
B.  prospect  of  preferment,  but  died  before  he  could  pe/form 
h^  fNTomises,  if  ever  he  meant  to  do  so.  On  the  accession, 
however,  of  Siztus  IV.  to  the  pontificate,  he  recompensed 
Platina  in  some  measure  by  appointing  hitn  in  1475,  keeper 
of  tbe.t  Vatican  library,  which  was  established  by  this  pope. 
It  was  a  place  of  moderate  inconie  then,  but  was  highly  ac* 
c^ptable.  to  Platina,  who  enjoyed  it  with  great  contentment 
until  1481,  when  he  was  snatched  away  by  the  plague.  He 
bequeathed  to.Pomponius  L^tus  the  houde. which  he  built 
on  the  Mons  Quirinalis,  with  the  laurel  grove,  out  of  which 
th^  poetical  crowns  were  taken.  He  was  the  author  of  se- 
veral works,  the  most  considerable  of  which  is,  '^  De  Vitis 
ac  Giastis  Summorum  Pontificum  ;"  or.  History  of  the 
Popes  from  St.  Peter  to  Sixtus  IV.  to  whom  he  dedicated 
iU  Tbi»  ^ork  is  writteti  with  an  elegance  of  style,  and 
discovers  powers  of  research  and  discrimination  which 
were  then  unknown  in  biographical  works.  He  seems 
always  desirous  of  stating  the  truth,  and  does  this  with  as 
much  boldnesses  could  be. expected  in  that  age.  The 
best  proof  of  this,  perhaps,  is  that  all  the  editions  after 
l&OO  were  mutilated  by  the  licensers  of  the  press.  The 
account  be  gives  of  his  sufferings  under  Paul  II.  has  been 

40  P  L  A  T  1  N  A. 

objected' td  him  as  a  breach  of  ibe  impartialitj  to-be  ob- 
served by  a  historian  ;  but  it  was  at  th6  same  time  no  iti* 
eoDsidetable  proof  of  bis  courage.  This  work  was  first 
printed  at  Venice  in  1479,  folio,  and  reprinted  once  or 
twice  before  1500.  Platina  wrote  also,  2.  **A  History  of 
Mantua,"  in  Latin,  which  was  first  published'  by  Lambe«- 
i^ius,  with  notes,  at  Vienna,  1675,  in  >4to.  3.  **  De  Na«^ 
turis  rerum."  4.  **  Epistolas  ad  diversos.'*  6.  "  De  ho*- 
nesta  voluptate  et  vaietudine.''  6.  <^  De  falso  et  ver^ 
bono.'*  7.  *<  Contra  amOres/*  8.  **  De  vera  nobilitatc.** 
5.  "  De  Optimo  cire."  10.  "  Panegyricus  in  Bessariooem/* 
11."  Oratio  ad  Paulum  II."  13-  *^  De  pace  Italisfc  com^ 
ponenda  et  bello  Turcico  indicendo."  13.  "  De  flo&culia 
linguae  Latias.'^  Sannazarius  wrote  an  humorous  epigrao^ 
on  the  treatise  ^'  de  bonesta  voluptate,"  including  direc->> 
tiotts  for  the  kitchen,  de  Obsonns,  which  Mr.  Oresswell  bais 
thus  translated : 

''  Each  pontiff*s  talents,  morals^  life,  and  end. 
To  scan  severa^  your  earlier  lahours  tend--^ 
■When  laie*-K)n  culinary  themes  you  shine. 
Even  pampered  pontifis  praise  the  kind  design." 

In  this  hit  at  the  popes,  Sannazarius  forgot  that  the  cas6 
was  quite  the  reverse  with  these  two  works,  the  treatise 
^^  De  honesta  volaptate"  being  in  fact  composed  before  its 
iuthor's  imprisonment  and  persecution  under  Paul  IL  and 
the  Lives  of  the  Popes  not  until  he  became  keeper  of  the 
Vatican  under  Sixtus  IV.  The  date  of  the  first  edition  of 
the  former^  14dl,  had  probably  misled  Saifnai^arius.  The 
lives  of  the  popes  was  continued  in  subsequent  editions  by 
Oauphrius  Panvinins  and  others.  We  have  likewise  ah 
English  translation  and  continuation  by  sir  Paul  RicHu^ 
which  will  be  noticed  more  particularly  hereafter.  ^ 

PLATNER  (John  Zachariah),  an  able  physician^  was 
born  at  Chemnitz,  in  Misnia^  in  August  1694.  He  waft 
first  intended  for  •  merchandize,  but  the  rapid  progresi 
which  he  made  in  bis  studies,  induced  his  father  to  consent 
that  he  should  direct  his  attention  to  medicine,  for  which 
he  bad  manifested  a  strong  inclination.  He  studied,  there* 
fore,  at  Leipsic,  for  three  years,  and  afterwards  at  Halle^. 
where  he  receiTed  the  degree  of  doctor  in  September  1716; 
He  then  travelled  through  various  parts  of  Europe,  for  four 

1  Tiraboscbi-ivBalbrt'8,Aca4^niiedei  Scienoes i-*-NicerOD,  toIs.  VUI.  sad^ 
•^Gressweirs  PoliiiaD,— Saxii  Ooomasi, 

P  L  A  T  Ji  E  R.  41 

years^  and  finally  settled  at  Leipstc  in  1*720.  In  1721  he 
was  appointed  professor  extraordinary  of  anatomy  and  sur* 
gery.  In  1724  he  obtained  the  chair  of  physiology,  which 
had  become  vacant  by  the  death  of  Rivinus;  in  1737  he 
Was  promoted  to  the  professorship  of  pathology ;  and  iii 
1747  to  that  of  therapeutics.  He  was  also  nominated  per- 
petual deaii  of  the  faculty,  and  consulting  physician  to  the 
court  of  SAxony.  He  did  not  live  long,  however,  to  enjoy 
these  flattering  distinctions ;  for  he  was  carried  off  suddenly 
on  the  19th  of  December  1747,  in  the  fifty-fourth  year  of 
his  age,  by  a  paroxysm  of  asthma. 

He  left  only  three  different  works,  the  first  of  which, 
entitled  "  Institutiones  Chirurgise  Rationalis,  turn  medicas, 
tnoi  manualis,''  Leipsic,  1745,  was  published  by  himself. 
It  passed  through  several  editions.  The  second,  entitled 
"  Opusculorum  Chirurgicorum  et  Anatomicorum  Tomi 
duo :'  Dissertationes  et  Prolusiones,*'  ibid.  1749,  was  edited 
by  his  son,  Frederic  Platner,  a  professor  of  law.  And  the 
third,  entitled  "Ars  medendi  singulis  morbis  accommoda- 
la,"  ibid.  1765,  which  had  been  bequeathed  by  the  author  to 
bis  pupil  J.  B.  Boehmer,  upon  condition  that  it  should  not 
be  published,  was  printed  by  a  bookseller,  Fritsch,  into 
whose  hands^a  copy  of  it  fell  eighteen  years  after  the  au- 
thor's death.* 

PEATO,  the  most  illustrious  of  the  Greek  philosophers, 
and  whose  sect  outlived  every  other,  was  by  descent  an 
Athenian,  but  born  in  the  island  of  iEgina,  then  subject  to 
Athens.  His  origin  is  traced  back,  on  his  father  Aristo^s 
side,  to  Codrus ;  and  on  that  of  his  mother  Pericthione, 
through  five'  generations,  to  Solon.  The  time  of  his  birth 
is  commonly  placed  in  the  first  year  of  the  eighty-eighth 
olympiad,  oi"  B.  C.  428  ;  but  Brucker  thinks,  it  may  per- 
haps be  more  accurately  fixed  in  the  third  year  of  the 
eighty-seventh  olympiad,  or  B.  C.  430.  He  gave  early 
indications  of  an  extensive  and  original  genius,  and  was, 
instructed  in  the  rudiments  of  letters  by  the  grammarian 
Dionysius,  and  trained  in  athletic  exercises  by  Aristo  of 
Argos.  He  applied  also  with  great  diligence  to  the  art6  of 
painting  and  poetry,  and  produced  an  epic  poem,  which 
he  had  the  wisdom  afterwards,  upon  comparing  it  with 
Homielr,  to  commit  to  the  flames.  At  the  age  of  twenty 
years,  he  cotaposed  a  dramatic  piece,  which  was  about  to 
be  performed  on  the  theatre,  but  the  day  before  the  in- 

1  £lo7,  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicine*— «Ree8*s  Cyclop9dia« 

*3  •    P  t  A  T  O. 

,tended  exhibi^on,  he  happened  to  hear,  a  discoarse  of  So* 
crates,  which  induced  him  to  withdraw  the  piece,  and  re<^ 
linquish  the  muses  for  the  study  pf  philosophy.  Accord* 
ingly  he  became  a  regular  pupil  of  Socrates  for  eight  years, 
and  although  he  sometimes  mixed  foreign  tenets  with  tbos^ 
of  his  master,  always  preserved  a  strong  attachment  to  bimy 
and  attended  him  at  his  trial.  During  the  imprisonment 
also  of  that  celebrated  philosopher,  Plato  bad  an  opportu- 
nity of  hearing  his  sentiments  on  the  immortality  of  the 
soul,  the  substance  of  which  be  inserted  in  his  beautiful 
dialogue  entitled  ^<  PhsDdo,''  along  with  some  of  his  own 
peculiar  opinipns.  On  the  death  of  Socrates,  he  retired, 
With  other  friends  of  Socrates,  to  Megara,  where  they  were 
hospitably  entertained  by  Euclid,  who  taught  Plato  the 
art  of  reasoning,  and  probably  increased  his  fondness  for 
disputation.  ' 

Desirous  of  making  himself  master  of  all  the  wisdom  apd 
learning  which  the  age  could  furnish,  Plato  commenced 
his  travels  with  visiting  that  part  of  Italy,  called  Magna 
Gracia^  where  he  was  instructed  in  all  the  mysteries  of  the 
Pythagorean  system,  the  subtleties  of  which  be  afterwai:ds 
too  freely  blended  with  the  more  simple  doctrine  of  So- 
crates. He  next  visited  Theodorus  of  Cyrene,  and  when 
under  this  master  he  found  himself  sufficiently  instructed 
in  the  elements  of  mathematics,  he  determined  to  study 
astronomy,  and  other  sciences,  in  Egypt,  and  that  he  might 
travel  with  safety,  he  assumed  the  character  of  a  mev* 
chant.  Wherever  he  came,  he  obtained  information  from 
the  Egyptian  priests  concerning  their  astronomical  obser- 
vations and  calculations ;  and  it  has  been  asserted,  that 
Plato  acquired  in  Egypt  his  opinions  concerning  the  origin 
of  the  world,  and  learned  the  doctrines  of  transmigration, 
and  the  immortality  of  the  soni :  but  it  is  more  probable 
that  he  learned  the  latter  doctrine  from  Socrates,  and  the 
former  from  Pythagoras.  Nor,,  according  to  Brucker,  is 
there  more  reason  for  thinking  that  he  learned  in  Egypt, 
the  doctrine  of  the  Hebrews,  and  enriched  his  system  from 
the  sacred  Scriptures,  although  the  contrary  has  b^eo 
maintained  by  several  eminent  Jewish  and  Christian  wri- 
ters, and  wa^  commonly  received  by  the  Christian  fathers. 
As  to  the  supposed  agreement  between  the  Mosaic  and 
Platonic  doctrines,  that  historian  thinks  that  either  the 
agreement  is  imaginary,  or  it  consists  in  such  particulars 
as  might  be  easily  discovered  by  the  light  of  reason* 

P  L  AT  O.  « 

;  After.  learning  what  distant  countries  could  teacfa,  Plato 
returned  to  Italy,  .to  the  Pythagorean  school  at  Tarentum, 
where  he  endeavoured  to  improve  his  own  system,  by  a 
nuzture  of  the  Pythagorean,  as  then  taught  by  Archytas, 
Timttus,  and  others.  And  afterwards,,  when  he  visited 
l^cily,  be  retained  such  an  attachment  to  the  Italic  school, 
ttbat,. through  the  bounty  of  Dionysius,  he  purchased,  at 
a  vast,  price,  several  books,  which  contained  the  doctrine 
of  Pythagoras,  from  Philoiaus,  one  of  his  followers.  In 
this  way  Plato  accumulated  his  knowledge.  His  dialectics 
he  borrowed  from  Euclid  of  Megara ;  the  principles  of  na* 
tural  philosophy  he  learned  in  the  Eleatic  school  from  Her- 
mogenes  and  Cratylus :  and  combining  these  with  the 
Pythagorean  doctrine  of  natural  causes,  he  framed  from 
both  his  system  of  metaphysics.  Mathematics  and  astro- 
nomy be  was  taught  in  the  Cyrenaic  school,  and  by  the 
Egyptian  priests.  From  Socrates  he  imbibed  the  pure 
principles  of  moral  and  political  wisdom ;  but  he  after* 
wards  obscured  their  simplicity  by  Pythagorean  specula* 

Returning  home  richly  stored  with  knowledge  of  various 
kinds,  he  settled  in  Athens,   and  formed  his  celebrated 
school  of  philosophy.     The  place  which  he  made  choice 
of  for.  this  purpose  was  a  public  grove,  called  the  Academy, 
from  Hecademus,  who  left  it  to  the  citizens  for  the  pur- 
pose of  gymnastic  exercises.     Adorned  with  statues,  tem- 
ples, and  sepulchres,  planted  with  lofty  plane-trees,  and 
intersected  by  a  gentle  stream,  it  afforded  a  delightful  re- 
treat for  philosophy  and  the  muses.     Within  this  inclosure 
be  possessed,  as  a  part  of  his  humble  patrimony,  purchased 
at  the  price  of  three  thousand  drachmas,  a  small  garden,  in 
which  he  opened  a  school,  and  to  shew  the  value  he  placed 
on  mathematical  studies,  and  how  neeessary  a  preparatioa 
be  thought  them  for  higher  speculations,  he  placed  an  in- 
scription over  the  door,  the  meaning  of  which  is,  '^  Let  no 
one^  who  is  unacquainted  with  geometry,    enter  here.^* 
He  soon  became  ranked  among  the  most  eminent  philoso- 
phers, and  his  travels  into  distant  countries,  where  learn- 
ing and  wisdom  flourished,  gave  him  celebrity  among  his 
brethren^  none  of  whom  had  ventured  to  institute  a  school 
in  Athens,  .except  Arisdppus,  the  freedom  of  whose  man- 
ners had  brought  him  into  discredit.     Plato  alone  inherited 
the  popularity  of  Socrates,  and  besides  a  crowd  of  young 
scholars^  persons  of  the  first  distinction  frequented  the 

44  P  LA  TO. 

academy, ,  females  not  excepted,  whose  curiosity  indtieed 
them  to  put  on  the  male  apparel  for  this  purpose.     Sueh' 
reputation  could  not  escape  envy  and  jealousy.     Diogenes 
the  Cynic  ridiculed  Plato's  doctrine  of  ideas  and  other  ab- 
stract speculations ;  nor  was  he  himself  without  a  tinge  of 
jealousy,  for  he  and  Xenophon,  who  had  been  fellow  pupils 
of  Socrates,   studiously  avoided   mentioning  each  other. 
Amidst  all   this,  however,    Plato's  fame  increased ;   and 
such  an  opinion  wsis  formed  of  his  political  wisdom,  that 
several  states  solicited  his  assistance  in  tiew  modelling  their 
riespective  forms  of  government.     But  while  he  gave  his 
advice  in  the  affairs  of  Elis,  and  other  Grecian  states,  and 
furnished  a  code  of  laws  for  Syracuse,  he  rejected  the  ap- 
pliqations  of  the  Arcadians  and  Thebans,    because  they 
refused  to  adopt  the  plan  of  his  republic,  which  prescribed 
an  equal  distribution  of  property.     He  was  also  in  high  es-' 
teem  with  several  princes,  particularly  Arcfaelaiis,  king  of 
Macedon,  and  Dionysius,  tyrant  of  Sicily.     At  three  dif- 
ferent periods  he  visited  the  court  of  this  hitter  prince,  and 
made  several  bold,  but  unsuccessful  attempts  to  subdue 
bis  haughty  and  tyrannical  spirit.     A  brief  relation  of  the 
particulars  of  these  visits  to  Sicily,  may  serve  to  cast  some 
light  upon  the  character  of  our' philosopher. 

The  professed  object  of  Plato's  first  visit  to  Sicily,,  which 
happened  in  the  fortieth  year  of  his  age,  during  the  reiga 
of  the  elder  Dionysius,  the  son  of  Hermocrates,  was,  to 
take  a  survey  of  the  island,  and  particularly  to  observe  the 
wonders  of  Mount  Etna.     Whilst  he  was  resident  at  Syra- 
cuse,   he  was  employed  in  the  instruction  of  Dion,  the 
king's  brother-in-law,    who  possessed  e'xcellent  abilities, 
but  had  not  escaped  the  general  depravity  of  the  court. 
Such,  however,   was  the  influence  of  Plato's  instructions, 
that  he  became  an  ardent  lover  of  wisdom,   and  hoping 
that  philosophy  might  produce  the  same  effect  upon  Dio* 
oysius,  he  procured  an  interview  between  Plato  and  the 
tyrant.     This  had  like  to  have  proved  fotal,  for  Donysins, 
perceiving    that    the   philosopher  levelled  his  discourse 
against  the  vices  and  cruelties  of  his  reign,  dismissed  him 
with  high  displeasure  from  his  presence,  and  conceived  a 
design  against  his  life.     And  although  he  did  not  accom-i 
plish  this  barbarous  intention,  he  procured  him  to  be  sold 
as  a. slave  in  the  island  of  £gina,  the  inhabitants  of  vthicli 
were  then  at  war  with  the  Athenians.     Plato,  however, 
could  not  long  remain  unnoticed :  Anicerris,  a  Cyrenaio 

PLATO.  45 

phik|sppbef ,  who  happened  to  be  at  that  time  in  the 
i^nd,  discovered  him,  and  purchasing  bU  freedooiy  sent 
bicn  home  to  Athens,  and  afterwards  refused  the  repayment 
of  the  purchase*money,  that,  as  he  $aid|  Plato's  friendly 
might  not  mpuopolize  the  honour  of  serving  so  illustrious 
a  philosopher. 

After  a  short  interval,  Dionysius,  repenting  of  his  unjuA 
resentment,  wrote  to  Plato,  inviting  him  to  return  to  Syra-» 
cuse,  to  which  Plato  answered,  with  some  contempt,  that 
philosophy  would  not  allow  him  leisure  to  think  of  Diony<^ 
aus.     He  wasf  induced,  however,  to  return  by  another  ex-« 
pedient.     Plato  had  made  Dion  a  determined  votary  of 
virtue,  and  he  naturally  wished  to  extend  this  advants^e 
to  the  younger  Dionysins,  who  also  expressed  a  most  ear<4    ' 
nest  desire  to  becod9e  acquainted  with  Plato.  Letters  weroi 
then  dispatched  to  him,  from  the  tyrant,  from  Dion  and 
spveral  followers  of  Pythagoras,  importuning  him  to  return 
tp  Syracuse,  and  take  upon  him  the  education  of  the  young- 
prince.     After  considerable  hesitation,  he  consented,  and 
is  said  to  bavQ  bad  some  kind  of  promise  on  the  part  of 
Dionysius  that  he  would  adopt  the  Platonic  form  of  go* 
vernment.     In  the  mean  time  the  enemies  of  Dion  pre* 
vailed  upon  Dionysius  to  recall  from  exile  Pbiiistus,    a 
man  of  tyrannical  principles  and  spirit,  who,  they  hoped, 
^ould  oppose  the  doctrines  and  measures  of  Plato.     The 
philosopher  in  the  mean  time  was  conducted  to  Syracuse 
with  public  honours;  the  king  himself  r^eived  him  into 
bis  chariot,  and  sacrifices  were  offered  in  congratulation  of 
his  arrival.    New  regulations  were  immediately  introduced ; 
the  licentiousness  of  the  court  was  restrained ;  moderation 
reigned  in  all  public  festivals ;  the  king  assumed  an  air  of    . 
benignity  ;^  philosophy  was  studied  by  bis  courtiers ;  and 
every  good  man  assured  himself  of  a  happy  revolution  in 
the  state  of  public  manners.     It  was  now  that  Pbilistus 
a^nd  his  adherents  found  means  to  rekindle  the  jealousy  of 
the  tyrant,  and  through  their  intrigues,  Dion  became  so 
obnoxious  to  Dionysius,  that  he  ordered  him  to  be  impri- 
soned, and  afterwards  banished  him  into  Italy.  With  Plato, 
however,  he  continued  to  keep  up  some  appearance  of 
friendship,   and   under  that  pretence   allotted   Plato  an 
apariaaent  ^n  his  palace,  but  at  the  ;iame  time  placed  a 
lecret  gnard  nbout  him,  that  no  one  might  visit  him  with- 
out his  knowledge.    At  length,  upon  the  commencement 
<^  a.  WSM^«  Dionysius  sent  Plato  back  into  his  own  country^ 


46  PL  AT  O. 

with  a  promise,  that  he  would  recal  both  him  and  Dion' 
upon  the  return  of  peace.     Part  of  this  promise  he  was 
soon  inclined  to  keep,  by  recalling  Plato  ;  but  the  philoso- 
pher received  his  solicitations  with  coolness,  pleaded  in 
excuse  his  advanced  age,  and  reminded  the  tyrant  of  the' 
violation  of  his  promise  respecting  Dion  ;  nor  was  it  until' 
the  request  of  Dionysius  was  seconded  by  the  in  treaties  of* 
the  wife  and  sister  of  Dion,  and  by  the  importunities  of 
Archytas  of  Tarentnm,   and  other  Pythagorean  philoso*' 
phers,  to  whom  the  tyrant  bad  pledged  himself  for  the 
performance  of  his  promises,  that  he  could  be  prevailed 
upon  to  return. 

On  his  third  arrival  he  was  received  with  great  respect  ' 
by  Dionysius,  who  now  seemed  wholly  divested  of  his  for-' 
mer  resentments,  listened  to  his  doctrines  with  pleasui^e, 
aiid  presented  him  with  eighty  talents  in  gold.    The  court 
indeed  was  not  much  improved,  nor  was  the  disposition  of 
the  tyrant  really  changed,  yet  Plato  supported  the  credit 
of  philosophy  with   great  dignity,  and  had  considerable 
influence  and  authority.     But  as  be  soon  found  that  he 
could  not  procure  the  recall  of  Dion,  and  that  there  wa^ 
little  sincerity  in  the  professions  of  Dionysius,  he  requested' 
permission   to   return   to   Greece^      The  permission   was' 
granted,  and  a  ship  provided  ;  but  before  it  coOld  set  sail, 
Dionysius  retracted  his  promise,  and  detained  Plato  in 
Syracuse.     This  conduct  being  attended  with  complaints 
on  the  part  of  Plato,  the  tyrant  vVas  so  irritated  as  to  dis- 
oniss  him  from  his  court,  and  put  him  under  a  guard  of 
soldiers,  whom  false  rumours  had  incensed  against  him. 
His  Pythagorean  friends  at  Tarentum,  being  informed  of 
his  dangerous  situation,  immediately  dispatched  an   em- 
bassy to  Dionysius:,  demanding  an  instant  completion  of 
his  promise  to  Archytas.     The  tyrant,  not  daring  to  refuse 
this  demand,  with  a  view  to  pacify  Plato  gave  him  a  mag- 
nificent entertainment,  and  sent  him  away  loaded  with  rich 

Plato,  now  restored  to  his  country  and  his  school,  de- 
voted himself-  to  science,  and  spent  the  latst  years  of  a 
long  life  in  the  instruction  of  youth.  Having  enjoyed  the . 
advantage  of  an  athletic  constitution,  and  lived  all  bis  days 
temperately,  he  arrived  at  the  eighty-first,  or,  accoiding 
to  some  writers,  the  seventy-ninth,  year  of  his  age,  and 
died,  through  the  mere  decay  of  nature,  in  the  first  y^Or 
of  the  hundred  and  eighth  olympiad.     He  p^sed  hb  whdle 

PLATO.  47 


life  in  a  state  of  celibacy,  and  therefore  left  no  natural 
heirs,  but  transferred  hU  effects  by  will  to  bin  friend  Adi- 
amantus.  The  grove  and  gardenj  which  had  been  the 
scene  of  his  philosophical  labours,  at  last  afforded  him  a 
sepulchre.  Statues  and  altars  were  erected  to  his  memory ; 
the  day  of  his  birth  long  continued  to  be  celebrated  as  a 
festival  by  his  followers ;  and  his  portrait  is  to  this  day* 
preserved  in  gems. 

The  personal  character  of  Plato  has  been  very  differently 
represented.  On  the  one  hand,  his  encomiasts  have  not 
foiled  to  adorn  him  with  every  excellence,  and  to  express 
the  most  superstitious  veneration  for  his  memory.  His  ene- 
mies, on  the  other,  have  not  scrupled  to  load  him  with  re- 
proach, and  to  charge  him  with  practices  inconsistent  with 
the  purity  of  the  philosophical  character.  Several  anec- 
dotes, however,  are  preserved,  which  reflect  honour  upon 
his  morals  and  principles.  He  had  in  particular  an  extra- 
ordinary command  of  temper.  When  he  was  told  that  his 
enemies  were  busily  employed  in  circulating  reports  to  his 
disadvantage,  he  said,  *^  I  will  live  so,  that  none  shall 
believe  them.''  One  of  his  friends  remarking,  that  he' 
seemed  as  desirous  to  learn  himself^  as  to  teach  others, 
asked  him,  how  long  he  intended  to  be  a  scholar  ?  ^<  As 
long,"  says  he,  *^  as  I  am  not  ashamed  to  grow  wiser  and 

It  is  from  the  writings  of  Plato,  chiefly,  that  we  are  to 
form  a  judgment  of  his  merit  as  a  philosopher,  and  of  the 
service  which  he  rendered  to  science.  No  one  can  beeon- 
versant  with  these  without  perceiving,  that  his  diction 
always  retained,  a  strong,  tincture  of  that  poetical  spirit 
which  he  discovered  in  his  first  productions.  This  is  the 
principal  ground  of  those  lofty  encomiums,-  which  both 
antient  and  modern  critics  have  passed  upon  his  language, 
&nd,  particularly,  of' the -high  estimation  in  which  it  was 
held  by  Cicero,  who,  treating  on  the  subject  of  language, 
says,  that  **  if  Jupiter  were  to  speak  in  the  Greek  tongue^ 
he  would  borrow  the  style  of  Plato."  The  accurate  Stagy- 
rite  describes  it,  as  **  a  middle  species  of  diction,  between 
verse  and  prose.'*  Some  of  his  dialogues  are  elevated  by 
luch  sublime  and  glowing  conceptions,  are  enriched  with 
<ucfa  c6pioos  and  splendid  diction,  and  flow  in  so  harmo- 
ftioos  a  rytbmus,  that  they  may  truly  be  pronounced  highly 
poetical.  Most  of  them  are  justly  admired  for  their  lite^ 
laryttierit;  the  intrpductioos  are  pertinent  and  amusing; 


48  PLATO. 

the  course  of  the  debate,  or  conversation],  is  clearly  marii^ejii  ; 
the  characters  are  accurately  supported ;  every  speaker 
has  his  proper  place,  language,  and  manners;  the  scenery 
of  the  conference  is  painted  in  lively  colouring ;  and  the 
whole  is,  with  admirable  art,  adorned  and  enlivened  by 
those  minute  embellishments,  which  render  the  colloquial 
mode  of  writing  so  peculiarly  pleasing.  Even  upon  ab- 
stract subjects,  whether  moral,  metaphysical,  or  ^matha^ 
matical,  the  lauguage  of  Pla|o  is  often  clear  as  the  running 
stream,  and  in  simplicity  and  sweetness  vies^  with  the  hum* 
l)le  violet  which  perfumes  the  vale.  In  the^e  beautiful 
partii  of  his  works,  it  has  been  conjectured,  not  without 
probability,  that  Socrates  and  Lysias  were  his  models.  At 
other  times,  however,  we  6nd  him  swelling  into  the  turgid 
style,  a  tipcture  of  which  he  seems  to  have  retained  from 
l^is  juvenile  studies,  and  involving  himself  in  obscurities,, 
which  were  the  offspring  of  a  lofty  fancy,  or  were  borrowed 
from  the  Italic  school.  Several  ancient  critics  have  noticed 
tbese  blemishes  in  the  writings  of  Plato.  Dionysius  Haliv 
carnassensis  particularly  censures  Plato  for  the  barsbnesa 
of  his  metaphors,  and  bis  bold  innovations  in  the  use  of 
t^rms,  and  quotes  from  bis  Phasdrus  eicamples  of  the  bom- 
bast^ the  pnerile,  $ind  the  frigid  style.  The  same  inequality, 
which  is  so  apparent  in  the  style  pf  Plato,  may  also  be  ob- 
served in  his  conceptions.  Whilst  he  adheres  to  the  school 
Qf  Socrates,  and  discourses  upon  moral  topics,  be  is  much 
more  pleasing  than  when  be  los^s  himself,  with  Pythagoras, 
in  abstruse  speculations. 

The  Dialogues  of  Plato,  which  treat  of  various  subjects, 
and  were  written  with  different  views,  are  classed  by  the 
ancients  uyiider  the  two  beads  of  didactic  and  i^auisiTive. 
The  Didai;tic,  are  subdivided  into  Speculative,  including^ 
physical  and  logical ;  apd  Practical,  comprehending  ethical 
a|id  political.  The  second  class,  the  inquisitive,  is  cha- 
racterii^ed  by  terms  taken  from  the  athletic  art,  and  divided 
intojbtie  Gymnastic,  and  the  Agonistic ;  the  dialogues  termed 
Gymnastic  were  imagined  to  be  similar  to  the  exercise, 
and  were  subdivided  into  the  Mai/^utio,  as  resembling  tbo 
teaching  of  the  rudiments  of  the  art;  and  the  Peirastic,  as 
represented  by  a  skirmish,  or  trial  of  proficiency.  The 
Agonistic  dialogues,  supposed  to  resemble  the  combat,  were 
either  Endeictic,  exhibiting  a  specimen  of  skill ;  or  Ana* 
treptic,  presenting  the  spectacle  of  a  perfect  defeait.  lo*-^ 
sf;ead  of  this  ifhimsical  classificatiou,  an  aarraDgemcDi  ^  tbe^ 


PLATO.  49 


dialogues,  taken  from  the  subjects  on  which  tb^y  treat, 
would  be  much  more  obvious  and  useful.  They  may  not 
improperly  be  divided  into  physical,  logical,  ethical,  and 

The  writings  of  Plato  were  originally  collected  by  Her- 
luodorus,  one  of  bis  pupils :  they  consist  of  thirty-five 
dialogues,  and  thirteen  epistles.  They  were  first  published 
by  Aldus  Manutius,  at  Venice,  in  1513,  2  vols,  folio.  The 
subsequent  editions  of  Ficiuus  and  Serranus  are  the  most 
valuable ;  but  the  notes  and  interpretation^  of  both  are  to 
be  read  with  caution^  as  not  representing  Plato's  sentiments 
with  fidelity.  The  Deux  Ponts  edition  of  1781,  12  vols. 
8vo,  is  a  copy  of  the  Greek  of  Serranus,  and  the  Latin  of 
Ficinus.  Of  the  ^^  Dialogues  of  Plato,'*  an  edition  was 
published  fay  Foster  at  Oxford,  1745,  8vo,  reprinted  in 
1752  and  1765.  In  1771,  Etwail  published,  at  the  same 
place,  the  '*  Alcibiades,'*  and  ^^  Hipparchus  ;*'  to  which 
he  prefixed. the  life  of  Plato  by  Olympiodorus,  and  the  in* 
tcoductiofl  jof  Albinus.  The  ^^  Euthydemus"'  and  *^  Gor« 
gias"  were  also  published  at  Oxford  in  1784,  by  the  very 
learned  Dr.  Routh,  president  of  Magdelen  college.  There 
are  many  English  translationa.of  the  Dialogues,  but  none 
(uperior  to  those  by  Floyer  Sydenham^  published  in  four 
volumes,  from  1767  to  1780.'  Mr.  Thomas  Taylor  has 
since  published  a  translation  of  the  whole  works  of  Plata, 
including  Sydenham's  share,  with  copious  notes,  &c.  1804, 
5  vols.   4to. 

On  the  philosophy  of  Plato  it  is  not  our  intention  to 
enter.  The  most  moderate*  account  we  have  seen  would 
exceed  our  limits ;  and  as  treated  by  modern  writers  it  forms 
the  history,  not  only  of  a  sect,  but  of  the  various  con** 
troveraies  which  have  arisen  out  of  it  in  the  Christian  world. 
Our  readers  may  be  referred,  with  confidence,  to  Brucker, 
whom  we  have  principally  followed  in  the  preceding  part, 
and  to  an  elaborate  article  in  the  '^  Encyclopedia  Britan-; 
nica."  In  the  seventeenth  century.  Gale,  Ctidworth,  and 
More,  perplexed  themselves  with  the  doctrinfta  of  Plato^ 
which,  however,  are  now  less  studied  and  less  respected; 
In  such  a  wonderful  maze  of  words,  says  Brucker,  does 
Plato  involve  his  notiqns,  that  none  of  his  disciples,  notr 
even  the  sagacious  Stagyrite,  could  unfold  them  ^  and  yet 
we. receive  them  as  sacred  mysteries,  and,  if  we  do  not 
perfectly  comprehend  them,  imagine  that  our  iiUellects 
are  too  feeble  to  penetrate  the  conceptions  of  this  divine 

Vot.  XXV.  E 

50  PLATO* 

philosopher,  and  that  our  eyes  are  blinded  by  that  resplen^  ^ 
dent  blaze  of  truth,  upon  which  his  eagle  sight  could  gaze 
without  injury. 

The  truth  appears  to  have  been^  that  Plato,  ambitious 
of  the  honour  of  forming  a  new  sect,  and  endued  by  nature 
with  more  brilliancy  of  fancy  than  strength  of  judgment, 
collected  the  tenets  of  other  philosophers,  which  were,  in 
many  particulars,  contradictory,  and  could  by  no  exertion 
of  ingenuity  be  brought  to  coalesce ;  and  that,  out  of  this 
heterogeneous  mass,  he  framed  a  confused  system,  desti- 
tute of  form  or  consistency.  This  will  be  acknowledged 
•by  every  one,  who,  in  perusing  the  philosophical  writings 
of  Plato,  is  capable  of  divesting  himself  of  that  blind  re* 
spect  for  antiquity,  by  which  the  learned  so  frequently 
suffer  themselves  to  be  misled.  The  followers,  too,  of 
Plato,  far  from  dispersing  the  clouds  which  from  the  first, 
hung  over  his  system,  appear  to  have  entered  into  a  ge- 
neral combination  to  increase  its  obscurity.  The  succes- 
sive changes,  which  took  place  in  the  academy  after  the- , 
death  of  its  founder,  by  introducing  a  succession  of  new 
opinions,  continually  increased  the  difficulty  of  arriving  at 
the  true  sense  of  Plato.  And  when,  in  a  subsequent  pe- 
riod, the  Platonic  philosophy  was  professed  in  Alexandria, 
it  was  still  further  adulterated  by  an  injudicious  and  absurd 
attempt  to  mould  into  one  system  the  doctrines  of  Plato,* 
the  traditionary  tenets  of  Egypt  and  the  eastern  nations, 
and  the  sacred  creeds  of  the  Jews  and  Christians :  a  coali^ 
tion  which  proved  exceedingly  injurious  both  to  philosophy 
and  religion.  ^ 

PLAUTUS  (Makcus  Accius),  a  comic  writer  of  an- 
cient Rome,  was  bom  at  Sarsina,  a  small  town  in  Umbria, 
a  province  of  Italy ;  his  proper  name  was  Marcus  Accius : 
he  is  supposed  to  nave  acquired  the  surname  of  Phmtus, 
from  having  broad  and  ill-formed  feet  His  parentage 
seems  to  have  been  mean ;  and  some  have  thought  him  the 
son  of  a  slave.  Few  circumstances  of  his  life  are  known ; 
Cicero  has  told  us  in  general  that  he  was  some  years 
younger  than  Nsevius  or  Ennius,  and  that  he  died  the  first 
year  of  the  elder  Cato*s  censorship,  when  Claudius  Pul- 
cher  and  Lucius  Portius  Licinius  were  consuls.  This  was 
about  the  year  of  Rome  569,  when  Terence  was  about 
nine  years  old,  and  184  years  B,  C.    A.  Gellius  says,  thai 

>  Bracker.— Encydopvdia  Britannica  (Dr.  Gkif'i  •ditioo)^  vol.  XV. 

1^  L  A  U  T  U  S.  SL 


f^Uutu^.waa  distinguished  at  the  same  time  for  his  poetry 
upon  the  theatre,  thai  Oato  was  for  his  eloquence  in  the 
fbrum ;  and  obsertes  elsewhere,  from  Varro,  that  he  was 
so  well  paid  for  his  plays,  as  to  think  of  doubling  his  stock 
by  trading;  in  which,  however,  he  was  so  unfortunate, 
that  he  lost  all  he  had  got  by  the  Muses,  and  for  his  sub- 
sistence, was  reduced,  iu  the  time  of  a  general  famine, 
to  work  at  the  mill.  How  long  he  continued  in  this  dis-. 
tress,  is  uncertain ;  but  Varro  adds,  that  the  poet^s  wit  was 
bis  best  support,  and  that  he  composed  three  plays  during 
this  daily  drudgery. 

It  is  doubtful  how  many  plays  he  composed.  We  have 
ooly  twenty  extant,  and  not  all  entire.  Varro  allowed 
t9^enty-six  to  be  of  his  composition,  which  were  all  extant 
in  Gellius's  time.  Some  made  the  number  of  his  plays  to 
exceed  an  hundred  \  but  this  might  arise  from  his  revising 
the  plays  of  other  poets,  which  Gellius  supposes  he  did ; 
siud  Varro^s  account  ought  to  be  decisive.  This  learned 
Soman  bad  written  a  particular  treatise  on  Plautus's  works, 
from  the  second  book  .of  which,  quoted  by  Gellius,  the 
preceding  particulars  are  taken.  Many  other  critics  are 
there  mentioned  by  Gellius,  who  hsid  all  written  some 
pieces  upon  Plautus,  which  shew  the  great  admiration  in 
which  he  wIeis  held  by  the  Romans  ;  and  it  should  seem  as 
if  thia  admiration  continued  long ;  for  there  is  a  passage  ia 
ArnQl>ius,  whence  it  seems  reasonable  to  infer  that  some 
of  his  plays  were  acted  on  solemn  occasions,  so  late  as  the 
reign  of  I)ioclesian.  Two  circumstances  contributed  to 
bis  fame;  the  one,  his  style,  which  was  thought  the 
standard  of  the  purest  Latin,  for  the  learned  Varro  did 
ttot  scruple  to  say,  that  were  the  Muses  to  speak  Latin^; 
they  would  certainly  speak  in  the  language  of  Plautus; 
the  other,  the  exquisite  humour  of  his  characters,  which, 
let  him  above  alll  the  Roman  comic  writers.  This  is  the 
constant  opinion  of  Varro,  Cicero,  Gellius,  Macrobius, 
and  the  nnost  eminent  modern  critics,  as  Lipsius.  the  Sca- 
ligers,  Muretus,  Turnebns,  &c.  Horace  only  blames  the 
coarseness  of  his  wit,  in  which  opinion  a  modern  reader  of 
taste  will  perhaps  be  inclined  to  join.  Bonnell  Thornton 
endeavoured  to  naturalize  them  by  a  translation,  which 
however  is  ^)o  liberal  to  afford  the  mere  English  reader  an 
id^  of  the  humour  which  delighted  a  Roman  audience. 

The  first  edition  of  Plautus  was  edited  by  George  Me- 
fulayi^lid  pttblisbed  at  Venice  in  1472,  fol.    Ttie  most 

B   2 

«  P  L  A  U  T  U  S. 

valuable  of  the  subsequent  editions  are,  that  of  Camtera-^ 
riusy  Basil,  1551,  and  155S,  8vo ;  of  Lambinus,  Paris, 
1577,  fol. ;  of  Taubman,  Francfort  and  Wittemberg, 
1605^  1612,  and  1622,  4to;  the  Variorum  by  Gronovius, 
Amst.  1684,  Svo;  of  Ernesti,  Leipsic,  1760,  2^018.  8vo; 
and  of  Schmeider,  at  Gottingen,  1804,  2  vols.  Svo.* 

PLAYFORD  (John),  a  man  distinguished  in  the  mu- 
iical  world,  was  born  in  1613.  He  was  a  stationer  and  a 
seller  of  musical  instruments,  iniisic-books,  and  music-^ 
pAper,  and  was  clerk  of  the  Temple  church.  What  hit 
education  had  been,  is  not  known ;  but  that  he  had  at- 
tained to  a  considerable  proficiency  in  the  practice  of 
music  and  musical  composition,  is  certain.  His  skill  in 
music  was  not  so  great  as  to  entitle  him  to  the  appellation 
of  a  master  ;  he  knew  nothing  of  the  theory  of  the  science, 
but  was  very  well  versed  in  the  practice,  and  understood 
the  rules  of  composition  well  enough  to  write  good  har- 
mony. He  was  also  the  first  and  the  most  intelligent 
printer  of  music  during  the  seventeenth  century ;  and  be 
and  his  ^n  Henry,  appear,  without  a  special  licence,  or 
authorized  monopoly,  to  have  had  almost  the  whole  busi- 
ness of  furnishing  the  nation  with  musical  instruments, 
music  books,  and  music  paper,  to  themselves.  In  165S 
he  published  the  first  edition  of  his  ^'  Introduction  to  the 
Skill  of  Music,"  a  compendium  compiled  from  Morley, 
Butler,  and  other  more  bulky  and  abstruse  books,  which 
had  so  rapid  a  sale,  that  in  1683  ten  editions  of  it  had 
been  circulated  through  the  kingdom.  The  book,  indeed, 
contained  no  late  discoveries  or  new  doctrines,  either  in 
the  theory  or  practice  of  the  art ;  yet  the  form,  price,  and 
style,  were  so  suited  to  every  kind  of  musical  readers,  that 
it  seems  to  have  been  more  generally  purchased  and  read, 
than  any  elementary  musical  tract  that  ever  appeared  in 
this  or  in  any  other  country. 

In  the  same  year  this  diligent  editor  also  published,  in 
two  separate  books,  small  Svo,  "  Court  Ayres,  by  Dr. 
Charles  Colman,  William  Lawes,  John  Jenkins,  Simpson, 
Child,  Cook,  Rogers,^'  &c.  These  being  published  at  a 
time  when  there  was  properly  no  court,  were  probably 
tunes  which  had  been  used  in  the  masques  performed  at 
Whitehall  during  the  life  of  Charles  I.  In  1671  he  pub- 
lished the  first  edition  of  his  *'  Psalms  and  Hymns  in  solemn 

1  Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.-«Vo89.  de  Poet.  Lat— >Cru8i08's  LiT«t  of  4h«  lUmi*' 
PatU.— -jCHbdia't  Claasica,  and  Bibl.  Spenceriana. — Sazii  OnomasL 

P  L  A  t  F  O  R  a  51 

Mu8icky.<  in  faure  Pasts,  on  <tbe  common  Tunes  'to  Psalms 
in  Metre  u^ed  in  Parish  churches.  Also  six  Hymns  for 
one  Voice  to  the  Organ,''  folio.  The  several  editions  of 
this  virork^  published  in  various  forms,  at  a  small  price,  ren-* 
dered  its  sale  very  general,  and  psalm-singing  in  parts,  a 
favourite  amusement  in  almost  every  village  in  the  king-" 
dom.  He  die^  about  1693,  and  Tate,  then  poet-laureat,^ 
wrote  an  elegy  upon  him. 

His  second ^OU],  Henry,  succeeded  his  father  asa  music-^ 
seller,  at  fir^t  at  his  shop  in  the  Temple,  but  afterwards  in 
the  Temple  Exchange,  Fleet^street ;  but  the  music-books 
advertised  by  him  were  few  compared  with  those  published 
by  his  father,  ^mqng  them  were  the  "Orpheus  Britan- 
nicus,''  and  the  tei|  sopatas  and  airs  of  Purcell.  He  pub- 
lished, in  1701,  what  he  called  the  second  book  of  the 
"  Pleasant  Musical  Coipp^nion,  .being  a  choice  collection 
of  catches  for  threp  or  four  voices  ;*'  published  chiefly  for 
the.. encouragement  of  the  musical  societies,  which,  he 
said,  would  be  speedily  set  up  in  the  chief  cities  and  towns  * 
of  Englfind.  We  know  not  that  this  was  the  ease,  but 
certainly  the  pqblication  of  Purcell's  catches  in  two  sn^all 
volumes  of  the  elder  Walsh  in  queen  Anne's  time,  was  the 
ffieaqs  of  es|:ablishing  catch-clubs  in  alniost  every  town  in 
the  kingdom.  It  is  cpnjectured  that  Henry  Playford  sur- 
viv^4  ^i^  father  but  a  short  time,  for  we  meet  with  no  pub- 
lication by  him  after  1710.* 

PLPMPiyS  (VoPiscus  FoRTUNATUsj,  an  eminent  phy- 
sici^^n^  was  born  at  Amsterdam  in  December  1601.  He 
studied  at  Ghent^>Louvain,  Leyden,  Padua,  and  Bologna, 
at  which  last  university  be  took  his  degree  of  doctor. 
On  his  return  tq  Holland,  he  began  practice,  but  was  in- 
4pced  to  acc/ept  the  vacant  professorship  of  the  Institutes 
of  Medicine,  at  Louvain^  of  \yhicb  he  took  possession  in 
1633.  At  the  same  time  he  abjured  the  Protestant  faith, 
became  a  Catholic,  and  took  a  new  degree  of  doctor,  in 
conformity  with  the  rules  of  the  university.  In  |the  fol- 
lowing year,  however,  he  quitted  this  chair,  for  the  pro^ 
fessorship  of  pathology.  He  was  soon  afterwards  nominated 
principal  of  the  college  of  Breugel.  He  died  at  Louvain, 
in  December  1.671^  aged  seventy. 

Pl/empius  left  the  following  works  :  ^*  A  Treatise  on  the 
Muscles/'  in  Dutch.     '<  Ophthalmographia,  sive  de  Oculi 

*  Hawkini  aod  Burnay'i  Hiit.  of  Miisic 


Fabric^,  ^ctione,  et  tJsu,"  Anast.  1632;  Lovsn.  i648* 
A  translation  pf  the  Anatomy  of  Cabrolius  into  ButcbV' 
with  notes,  Amst.  1633.  '*  Fundamenta,  sen  Institutiones 
Medicins/'  Lov.  1638,  1644,  &c.  In  the  first  edition  of 
this  vforky  Plempi us  doubted  the  circulation  of  the  blood  ; 
but  ia  the  second^  he  was  9  strenuous  advocate  for  thatf 
doctrine.  '*  Animadversion6s  in  veram  Praxim  curandae 
Tertianss  propositam  i  Ooctore  Petro  Barba;*'  ibid.  1642. 
'*  Antimus  Coningius  Peruvflfni  pulveris  defensor,  repulsun 
i  Melippp  FrptyniQ;''  ibid.  1655.  Coningius  is  the  as- 
sumed name  pf  JHonoratus  Fabri ;  Protymns  was  that  as- 
sumed by  Plenipius,  in  order  to  decry  the  use  of  cinchona, 
*<  Avic^nnas  Ganonis  Liber  primus  et  secundus  ex  Arabicft 
Lingua  in  (.atinam  translatus,"  ibid.  1658.  ^'  Tractatus 
de  Aflfectuum  Pilorum  et  Unguium,'*  ibid.  1662.  "  De 
Togatorum  Valetudiqe  tuendft  Commentarius,**  Brux. 
1670.  The  two  following  are  generally  ascribed  to  thitf 
author,  though  Mangetus  and  Lipeuius  (probably  misintpr. 
preting  the  initial)  ascribe  them  to  Francis  Plempius,  yiz. 
**  Munitio  Fundamentprum  Medicinae  V.  F.  Plempii  ad- 
versus  Jacobum  Primerosium,'*  Amst.  1659.  "  Loimograi 
pbia,  sive,  Tractatus  de  Peste,**  ibid.  1664.* 

PLINIUS  SECUNDUS  (Caius),  called/the  elder,  to 
distinguish  him  from  his  nephew,  was  one  of  the  i^ost 
learned  of  the  ancient  Roms^n  writefs,  and  was  born  in  the 
reign  of  Tiberius  Caesar,  about  the  year  of  Christ  2$.  His 
birtn-place  was  Verona,  as  appears  from  his  calling  Catut^ 
lus  bis  countryman,  who  was  unquestionably  of  that  city. 
Tho  ancient  writer  of  his  life,  ascribed  to  Suetonius,  and, 
after  him,  St  Jerom,  have  made  hiip  ^  native  of  Rome; 
father  Hardpuin  has  also  taken  some  pains  to  confirm  this 
notion,  which  however  has  not  prevailed.  We  can  more 
readily  believe  Aulus  Gellius,  who  represents  him  as  one  pf 
the  most  ingenious  mep  of  his  age ;  and  what  is  related  (jf 
his  application  by  his  nephew  the  younger  P)iny,  is  almost 
incredible.  Yet  his  excessive  love  of  study  did  not  spoil 
the  man  of  business,  nor  prevent,  him  from  filling  the 
most  important  offices  with  credit  He  was  a  procurator, 
or  manager  of  the  emperor's  revenue,  in  the  provinces  ojf 
Spain  and  Africa ;  and  was  advanced  to  the  high  dignity 
of  augur.  He  had  also  several  considerable  commands  in 
the  army,  and  was  distinguished  by  his  courage  in  the 
field,  a^  well  as  by  his  eloquence  at  the  bar. 

>  £loy»  Diet  Hi»t— Rces's  Cyclopsdnr. 

P  L  I  N  I  U  1  U 

His  immner  of  life,  as  it  is  described  by  bis  nephew^ 
exhibits  a  degree  of  ii^dustry  and  perseverance  scarcely  to 
4>e  paralleled.  In  suminer  he  always  began  bis  studies  as 
«oon  as  it  was  night:  in  winter,  generally  at  one  in  the 
morning,  but  never  later  than  two,  and  often  at  midnight 
No  man  ever  spent  less  time  inr  bed;  and  sometimes  he 
would,  without  retiring  from  his  books,  indulge  in  a  short 
sl^p,  and  then  pursue  his  studies.  Before  day-break,  it 
<was  his  custom  to  wait  upon  Vespasian,  who  likewise  chose 
that  season  to  transact  business :  and  when  he  had  finished 
the  affairs  which  the  emperor  committed  to  his  charge,  he 
returned  home  again  to  bis  studies.  After  a  slender  repast 
at  noon,  he  would  frequently,  in  the  summer,  if  he  was 
disengaged  from  business,  recline  in  the  sun:  during 
which  time  some  author  was  read  to  him,  from  which  he 
made  extracts  and  observations.  This  was  his  constant 
method,  whatever  book  he  rea,d :  for  it  was  a  ma^im  of 
his,  that  '^  no  book  was  so  bad,  but  something  might  be 
learned  from  it.^  When  this  was  over,  he  generally  went 
into  the  cold-bath^  after  which  he  took  a  slight  refresh* 
meot  of  food  and  rest ;  and  then,  as  if  it  had  been  a  new 
day,  resumed  his  studies  till  supper- time,  when  a  book 
was  again  read  to  him,  upon  which  he  would  make  some 
remarks  as  they!«went  on«  His  nephew  mentions  a  singular 
instance  to  shew  how  parsimonious  he  was  of  his  time,  and 
bow  covetous  of  knowledge.  His  reader  having  pro- 
nounced a  word  wrong,  some  person  at  the  table  made 
him  repeat  it :  upon  which,  Pliny  asked  that  person  if  he 
understood  it?  and  when  he  acknowledged  that  he  did, 
'^  Why  then,''  said  he,  '^  would  you  make  him  go  back 
again  ?  we  have  lost,  by  this  interruption,  above  ten  lines.'' 
In  summer,  he  always  rose  from  supper  by  day-light ;  and 
in  winter,  as  soon  as  it  was  dark.  Such  was  his  way  of  life 
amidst  the  noise  and  hurry  of  the  town  ;  but  in  the  country 
his  whole  time  was  devoted  to  study  without  intermission, 
excepting  only  when  he  bathed,  that  is,  was  actually  in 
the  bath;  for  during  the  operation  of  rubbing  and  wiping,: 
be  was  employed  either  in.  hearing  some  book  read  to  him, 
or  in  dictating  himself.  In  his  journeys,  he  lost  no  time 
from  his  studies,  his  mind  at  those  seasons  being  disen^ 
gaged  from  all  other  thoughts,  and  a  secretary  or  amanti* 
^eiisis  constantly  attended  him  in  his  chariot;  and  that  he 
might  suffer  the  less  interruption  to  his  studies,  instead  of 
wall^ing^  be  always  used  a  carriage  in  Rome.     By  ibis 

56  P  L  I  N  I  U  S, 


extraordinary  application  he  found  leisur^■  to  write  a  great 
many  volumes. 

The  circumstances  of  his  death,  like  his  mantier  of  liv- 
ing,  were  very  singular,  and  are  also  described  at  large  by 
the  elegant  pen  of  his  nephew.  He  was  at  that  time,  with 
a  ;fleet  under  his  command,  at  Misenuro,  in  the  gulf  cf 
Naples ;  his  sister  and  her  son,  the  younger  Pliny,  beiuf^ 
with  him.  On  the  24th  of  August,  in  the  year  79,  about 
one  in  the  afternoon,  his  sister  desired  him  to  observe  a 
cloud  of  a  very  unusual  size  and  shape.  He  was  in  his 
study  ;  but  immediately  arose,  and  went  out  Upon  an  emir 
fience  to  view  it  more  distinctly.  It  was  not  at  that  dis^ 
tance  discernible  from  wh^t  mountain  this  cloud  isaued, 
but  it  was  found  afterwards  to  ascend  from  mount  Vesuvius. 
Its  figure  resembled  that  of  a  pine-tree ;  for  it  shot  up  to  a 
great  height  in  the  form  of  a  trunk,  which  extended  itself  at 
the  top  into  a  sort  of  branches ;  and  it  appeared  sometimes 
bright,  and  sometimes  dark  and  spotted,  as  it  was  either 
more  or  less  impregnated  with  earth  and  cinders.  This  was  a 
noble  phaenomenon  for  the:  philosophic  Pliny,  who  iinmedi- 
ately  ordered  a  light  vessel  to  be  got  ready ;  but  as  he  was 
coming  out  of  the  house,  with  his  tablets  for  his  observa<^ 
tions,  the  mariners  belonging  to  the  gallies  stationed  ac 
Retina,  earnestly  intreated  him  to  come  to  their  assLstance, 
since  that  port  being  situated  at  the  foot  of  mount  Vesu<- 
vius,  there  was  no  way  for  them  to  escape,  but  by  sea. 
He  therefore  ordered  the  gallies  to  put  to  sea,  and  went 
himself  on  board,  with  intention  of  assisting  not  only  Re- 
tina, but  several  other  towns,  situated  upon  that  beautiful 
coast.  He  steered  directly  to  the  point  of  danger^  wbience 
ethers  fled  with  the  utmost  terror;  and  with  so  much  calm<- 
ness  and  presence  of  mind,  as  to  be  able  to  make  and 
dictate  his  observations  upon  the  motion  and  figure  of  that 
dreadful  scene.  He  went  so  nigh  the  mountain,  that  the 
cinders,  which  grew  thicker  and  hotter  the  nearer  he  ap- 
proached, fell  into  the  ships,  together  with  pumice-stones, 
and  black  pieces  of  burning  rock :  they  were  likewise  in 
danger,  ftot  only  of  being  aground  by  the  sudden  retreat 
of  the  sea,  but  also  from  the  vast  fragments  which  rolled 
down  from  the  mountain,  and  obstructed  all  the  shore. 
Here  he  stopped  to  consider,  whether  he  should  return ; 
to  which  the  pilot  advising  him,  "  Fortune,"  said  he,  *^  be* 
friends  the  brave ;  cari;y  me  to  Pomponianus."  Pompo-* 
nianus  was  then  at  Stabips,  a  town  separated  by.  a  gulfj^ 

P  L  I  N  I  U  S;  «7 

which  the  sea,  after  several  windiogs,  forms  upon,  thai: 
shore.     He  foupd  him  in  the  greatest  consternation,  but 
exhorted  him  to  keep  up  his  spirits }  and,  the  more  to 
dissipate  his  fears^  he  ordered,  with  an  air  of  unconcern, 
the  baths  to  be  got  ready  ;  when,  after  having  bathed,  h^ 
sat  down  to  supper  with  apparent  cheerfulnet^s.     In  the 
mean  while,  the  eruption   from  Vesuvius   A^med  out  in 
seFera)  places  with  much  violence,  which  the  darkness  of 
the  night  contributed  to   render  still  more  visible  aqd 
dreadful     Pliny,  to  soothe  the  apprehensions  of  his  friend, 
assured  him  it  was  only  the  burning  of  the  villages,  which. 
the  country  people  had  abandoned  to  the  flames;,  after 
this  be  retired,  and  had  some  sleep.     The  court   whiqh 
led  to  bis  apartment  being  in  the  meantime  almost,  filled 
with  stones  and  ashes,   if  he  had  continued  there  any 
longer,  it  would  have  been  impossible  for.  him  to  have 
made  his  way  out:  it  was  therefore  thought  proper  to 
av?aken  him.     He  got.  up,  and  went  to  Pomponi(tous  and 
the  rest  of  the  company,  who  were  not.unconcerAed  enough 
to  think  of  going  to  bed.     They  consulted  together,  whe- 
ther it  would  be  most  prudent  to  trust  to  the  houses,  which 
now  shook  from  side  to  side  with  frequent  and   violent 
rockings ;  or  to  fly  to  the  open  fields,  where  the  calcined 
stones  and  cinders,  though  light  indeed,  yet  fell  in  large 
showers,  and  threatened  destruction.     In  this  distress  they 
resolved  for  the  fields,  as  the  less  dangerous  situation  of 
the  two;  and  went  out,  having  pillows  tied  upon   their 
heads  with  napkins,  which  was  all  their  defence  against  the 
storms  of  stones. that  fell  around  them.     It  was  now  day 
every  where  else,  but  there  a  deeper  darkness  prevailed 
than  in  the  most  obscure  night;  which,  however,  was  in 
some  degree  dissipated  by  torches,  and  other  lights  of  va* 
rious  kinds.     They  thought  proper  to  go  down  farther  upon 
the  shore,  to  observe  if  they  might  safely  put  out  to  sea; 
but  they  found  the  waves  still  run  extremely  high  and 
boisterous.     There  Pliny,  taking  a  draught  or  two  of  water, 
threw  himself  down  upon  a  cloth  which  was  spread  for  him; 
when  immediately  the  flames  and  a  strong  smell  of  sulphur, 
which  was  the  forerunner  of  them,  dispersed  the  rest  of 
the  company,  and  obliged  him  to  arise.     He  raised  him- 
self, with  the  assistance  of  two  of  his  serviants,  for  be  was 
corpulent,.'  and  instantly  fell  down  dead :  suffocated,  as  his 
nephew  conjectures,  by  some  gross  and  noxious  vapour ; 
for  heh^d  always  yreak  lungs,  and  was. frequently  subjeol: 

ir«  1^  L  I  N  I  u  & 

to  a  difficulty  of  breathing.  As  soon  as  it  was  light  again, 
which  was  not  till  the  third  day  after,  his  body  was^  found 
^entire,  add -without  any  jBarks  of  violence  upon  it;  ex* 
actly  in  the  same  posture  that  he  fell,  and  looking  more 
like  a  man  asleep  than  dead. 

The  sister  and  nephew,  whom  the  uncle  left  at  Misenura, 
continued  there  that  night,  but  had  their  rest  extremely 
broken  and  disturbed.  There  had  been  for  many  days  ^ 
before  some  shocks  of  an  earthquake,  which  was  the  l^ss 
surprising,  as  they  were  always  extremely  frequent  ia 
Campania :  but  they  were  so  particularly  violent  that  night, 
that  they  seemed  to  threaten  a  total  destruction.  When 
the  'morning  came,  the  light  was  exceedingly  faint  and 
languid,  and  the  buildings  continued  to  totter ;  so  that 
Pliny  and  bis  mother  resolved  to  quit  the  town,-  and  the 
people  followed  them  in  the  utmost  consternation.  When 
at  a  convenient  distance  from  the  houlies,  they  stood  stilly 
in  the  midst  of  a  most  dangerous- and  dreadful  scene.  The 
chariots,  they  had  ordered  to  be  drawn  out,  were  so  agi-» 
tated  backwards  and  forwards,  though  upon  the  most  level 
ground,  that  they  could  not  keep  them  stedfast,  even-  hf 
supporting  them  with  large  stones.  The  sea  seemed  to 
roll  back  upon  itself,  and  to  be  driven  from  its  banks  by 
the  convulsive  motion  of  the  earth ;  it  was  certain  at  leasts 
the  shore  was  considerably  enlarged,  and  several  sea  ^m*' 
inals  were  left  upon  it.  On  the  other  side,  a  black  aod 
dreadful  cloud,  bursting  with  an  igneous  serpentine  va«^ 
pour,  darted  out  a  long  train  of  fire,  resembling  flashes  oC 
lightning,  but  much  larger.  Soon  afterwards,  the  cloud 
seemed  to  descend,  and  cover  the  whole  ocean ;  as  indeed^* 
it  entirely  hid  the  island  of  Capreae,  and  the  promontory 
of  Misenum.  Pliny's  mother  earnestly  conjured  him  to 
make  his  escape,  which,  being  young,  for  he  was  only 
eighteen  years  of  age,  he  might  easily  do ;  as  for  herself, 
she  said,  her  age  and  unwieldy  person  rendered  all  at* 
tempts  of  that  sort  impossible:  but  he  refused  to  leave 
her,  and,  taking  her  by  the  band,  led  her  on.  The  ashes 
began  to  fall  upon  them,  though  in  no  great  quantity :  but 
a  thick  smoke,  like  a  torrent,  came  rolling  after  them. 
Pliny  proposed,  while  they  had  any  light,  to  turn  out  of 
the  high  road,  lest  his  mother  should  be  pressed  to  death 
in  the  dark,  by  the  crowd  that  followed  them :  and  they 
had  scarce  stepped  out  of  the  path,  when  utter  darkness 
•ntirely  overspread  them.    Nothing  then  was  to  be  heardy 

P  L  I  N  I  U  S.  59 

»y$  PliiTjry  but  the  shrieks  of  women^  the  screams  of 
children,  and  the  cries  of  men :  some  calling  for  their 
children,  others  for  their  parents,  others  for  their  husbands^ 
and  only  distingnishing  each  other  by  their  voices ;  one 
lamenting  his  own  fate,  another  that  of  his  family,  some 
wishing  to  die  from  the  very  fear  of  dying,  some  lifting  up 
ttfetr  hands  to  the  gods,  but  the  greater  part  imagining 
that  the  last  and  eternal  night  was  comcj  which  was  to  de- 
stroy both  the  gods  and  the  world  together.  At  length  a 
gHmmering  light  appeared,  not  the  return  of  day,  but 
bnly  the  forerunner  of  an  approaching  burst  of  flames, 
which,  however,  fell  at  a  distance  from  them ;  then  s^gain 
they  were' immersed  in  thick  darkness,  and  a  heavy  shower 
of  ashes  rained  upon  them,  which  they  were  obliged  every 
now  and  then  to  shake  off,  to  prevent  being  buried  in  the 
heap.  At  length  this  dreadful  darkness  was  dissipated  by 
degrees,  like  a  cloud  or  smoke:  the  real  day  returned, 
ana  even  the  sun  appeared,  though  very  faintly,  and  as 
when  an  eclipse  is  coming  on  ;  and  every  object  seemed 
changed,  being  covered  over  with  white  ashes,  as  with  a 
deep  snow.  Pliny  owns  very  frankly,  that  his  support^ 
during  this  terrible  phasnomenon,  was  chiefly  founded  in 
that  miserable,  though  strong  consolation,  that  all  man** 
kind  were  involved  in  the  same  calamity,  and  that  the 
world  ttsdf  was  perishing.  They  returned  to  Misenum; 
luft  wltbout  yet-  getting  rid  of  their  fears ;  for  the  earth* 
quake  still  continued,  while,  as  was  extremely  natural  in 
sach  a  situation,  several  enthusiastic  people  ran  up  and 
down,  heightening  their  own  and  their  friends  calamities 
by  terrible  predictions. 

This  event  happened  A.D.  79,  in  the  first  year  of  the 
^peror  Titus;  and  was  probably  the  first  eruption  of 
mount  Vesuvius,  at  least  of  any  consequence,  as  it  is  cer- 
tain we  have  no  particular  accounts  of  any  preceding  erup- 
tion. Dio,  indeed,  and  other  ancient  authors,  speak  of 
this  mountain  as  burning  before ;  but  still  they  describe  it 
is  covered  with  trees  and  vines,  so  that  the  eruptions 
must  have  been  inconsiderable. 

As  to  the  writings  of  Pliny,  his  nephew  informs  us  that 
the  first  book  he  published  was,  a  treatise,  ^'  Concerning 
the  art  of  using  the  javelin  on  horseback,*'  written  when 
he  commanded  ft  troop  of  horse.  He  also  was  the  author 
j^f  ^^  The  Life  of  Pompontus  Secundus,'V  who  was  his 
friend  f  and  ^^  The  history  of  the  Wars  in  Germany ;''  ia 

60  PL  I  N  I  U  S* 

\vbich  be  gave  an  account  of  all  the.  batUes  tUe  Rema^nf 
bad  had  with  the  Germans.  His  nephew  sajs>  ibat  s^ 
dreaxn^  which  occurred  when  he  served  in  the  army  in 
Germany,  first  sqggested  to  him  the  design  of  this  worj^  : 
it  was,  that  Drusus  Nero,  who.  extended  his  conquests 
very  far  into  that  country,  and  there  lost  his  life,  appeared 
to  him,  and  conjured  him  i\6%  to  suffer  bis  memory  to  be 
buried  in  oblivion.  He  wrote  likewise /^  A  treati^se  .uppq 
Eloquence  ;  and  a  piece  of  criticism  '^  concerrung  duhiousi 
Latinity."  This  last  work,  which  w^  publisjied  iu  Ji^ro'« 
reign,  when  the  tyranny  of  the  tim^s  made  it  dangerous  to 
engage  in  studiesf  of  a  freei:  kind,  i^  often  Pris?- 
cian.  He  completed  a  history  which  Axifidii^s  Bassus  lefijt 
unfinished,  by  adding  to  it  thirty  bpok?,  which  conti^ine4 
th^  history  of  his  own  times.  Lastly;  be  left  thirty-se^ven 
books  upon  the. subject  of  naturfd  history:. a  wor^  sayf 
bis  nephew,  of  great  compass  and  learning^  and  almost  ^  . 
full  of  variety  as  nature  herself.  It  is  indeed  a.n^ost.valiiy 
able  treasury  of  ancient  knowledge.  For  its  defects,  wbiph 
ih  t)ije  estimation  of  modem  studept^  of  n^tur^l  history 
must  unavoidably  be  numerous,  be  thus  apologiv;^Sy,in  tb^ 
dedication  to  Vespasian:  ^^  The  patb  which  I  hav.a  taken 
has  hitherto  been,  in  a  great  measur^^*  UQtroddep ;  and 
holds  fourth  tp  the  traveller  few  enticenye^t^s.  .  Npne  .of  our 
own  writer^  have,  so  much  as  attempted  tb^ese  subjects; 
and  even  among  the  Greeks  no  one  ba^  treated  of,  tbein  ip 
their  full  extent.  Tbe  generality  pf  autboris  ip  their  pur,- 
suits  attend  chiefly  to  amuseoient;  and  those  who.h^ve  the 
character  of  writing  with  great,  depth  and  re^nement  ar^ 
involved  in  impenetrable  obscurity.  Such  is,  the  extent  of 
my  undertaking,  that  it  comprehends  every  topic  which 
tbe  Greeks  include  under  tbe  name  oiEncyclopadia.;  qf 
which,  however,  some  are  as  yet  utterly  u;ikuown,  and 
others  have  been  rendered  uncertaia  by  excessive  subtletjf. 
Oiher  parts  of  my  subject  have  been  so  often  handled,  that 
readers  are  become  cloyed  with  tbemf^  Arduous  indeed  U 
the  task  to  give  what  is  old  an  appearance  of  novelty ;  to 
add  weight  and  authority  to  what  is  new  \  \o  cast  a.  iuist.ra 
upon  subjects  which  time. has  obscured;  to  rjender  accept- 
able what  is  become  trite  and  disgusting ;  to  obtain  credit 
to  doubtful  relations ;  and,  in  a  word,  to  rep^^»ent  eviery 
-thing  according  to  nature,  and  witli  all  its  toatural  proper- 
ties. A  design  like  this,  even  though  incompletely  exfs- 
cuted,  will  b#.  allowed  to  bis  grand  apd  noble."     He  a4da 

P  L  I  N  I  U  S.  61 

aftemardsy  **  Many  defects  and  errors  bave,  I  doubt  not, 
escaped  me ;  /for,  besides  that  I  partake  of  the  common 
infirmities  of  human  nature,  I  have  written  this  work  in  the 
midst  of  engagements,  at  broken  periods  which  I  have 
stolen  from  sleep/* 

It  would  be  unjust  to  the  memory  of  this  great  man,  not 
to  admit  this  apology  in  its  full  extent;  and  it  would  be 
rtill  more  unjust,  to  judge  of  the  merit  of  his  work,  by  com- 
paring it  with  modern  productions  in  natural  history,  writ- 
ten after  the  additional  observations  of  seventeen  hundred 
years.  Some  allowance  ought  also  to  be  made  for  the 
carelessness  atid  ignorance  of  transcribers,  who  have  so 
mutilated  and  corrupted  this  work,  that,  in  many  places, 
the  author*s  meaning  lies  almost  beyond  the  reach  of  con- 

With  respect  to  philosophical  opinioiis,  Pliny  did  not 
rigidly  adherfe  to  any  sect,  but  occasionally  borrowed  such 
ttsnets  from  each,  as' suited  his  present  inclination  or  pur- 
pose. He  reprobates  the  Epicurean  tenet  of  an  infinity  o^ 
worlds ;  favours  the  Pythagorean  notion  of  the  harn\ony  of 
the  spheres;  speaks  of  the  universe  as  God,  after  the  man- 
ner of  the  stoics  ;' and  sometimes  seems  to  pass  over  into 
the  field  of  tli^  sceptics."  For  the  most  part,  however,  he 
leans  tbwardstb^  docWne  of  Epicurus. 

1*0  the  works  of  this  author  may  be  added  a  vast  quan- 
tity of  manuscripts,  which  he  left  to  hiiS  nephew,  and  for 
which  he  had  been  offered  by  Largius  Licinius  400,000 
lesterces,  that  Is,  about  3200/.  of  our  money.  "You  will 
wonder,*'  siays  his  hejphew,  **  hdw  a  man,  so  engaged  as 
hie  was,  could  find  time  to  compose  such  a  number  of 
books;  and  som^  of  them  too'  upon  abstruse  subjects. 
Your  surprise  will  rise  still 'higher,  when  yoii  hear,  that 
for  some  time  he  engaged  in  the'  profession  of  an  advocate^ 
that  he  died  in  his  56th  yeaf,  that  from  the  time  of  his 
q\!iitting  the  bar  to  his  death  he  was  employed  in  the 
highest  post^,  and  in  the  service  of  his  prince :  but  he  had 
a  quick  apprehension,  joined  to  an  unwearied  application.'* 
Ep.  lii.  5.  Hence  he  became  not  only  a  master  in  polite 
literature,  in  grammar,  eloquence,  and  history,  but  pos- 
sessed a  knowledge  of  the'  various  arts  and  sciences,  geo- 
graphy, mathematics,  philosophy,  astronomy,  medicine,  bo- 
tany, sculpture,  painting,  architecture,  &c.  for  of  all  these 
things  has  he  treated  in  the  very  important  work  that  be 
lias  left  us. 

^8  P  L  1  N  i  U  S» 

The-first  edition  of  Pliny's  <<  Naturalis  HUtom*'  am^ 
from  the  press  of  Spira  at  Venice  in  1469,  and  is  reckoned 
one  of  tbq  most  beautiful,  rare,  and  valuable  publications 
of  the  fifteenth  century.  Mr.  Dibdin  describes  the  copy 
in  lord  Spencer's  library  as  the  finest  extant.  Five  otbef. 
editions  were  published  from  1470  to  1476,  such  was  the 
demand  for  this  store-house  of  natural  history.  Of  theu 
modern  editions^  the  preference  is  usually  given  to  that 
by  the  celebrated  father  Hardouin,  of  which  there  are  two^ 
the  first  ^^iu  usum  Delphini,"  Paris,  5  vols.  4to;  the  se-' 
cond^  1723,  3  vols,  folio,  which  is  a  more  copious,  splen* 
did,  and  critical  performance.  Since  that,  we  have  an 
excellent  edition  by  Franzius,  Leipsic,  1778 — 91,  10  voLs^ 
Avo.  Another  by  Brotier,  Paris,  1779,  6  vols.  3ycr« 
And  a  third,  Bipont,  1783,  6  vols,  8vo.  There  are  trans**^ 
latioBs  of  it,  or  of  parts,  in  all  languages.  That  endles* 
translator  Philemon  Holland  exerted  his  own  andhis  read<^ 
ers*  patience  on  a  version  into  English,  published  in  1601^ 
folio.  ^ 

PLINIUS  CiECILlUS  SECUNDUS  (Caius),  nephew 
of  the'  preceding,  was  born  A.^D.  62,  at  Novocomum,  a 
town  upon  the  lake  Larius,  near  which  he  had  several 
beautiful  villas.  Cscilius  was  the  name  of  his  father,  and 
Plinius  Secundus  that  of  his  mother^s  brother,  who  adopted 
him.  He  discovered  from  his  infancy,  good  talents  and 
an  elegant  taste,  which  he  did  not  fail  to  cultivate,  and  in-, 
forms  us  himself  that  he  wrote  a  Greek  tragedy  at  fourteen 
years  of  age.  He  lost  his  father  when  he  was  young,  and 
had  the  famous  Virginius  for  his  tutor  or  guardian,  of  whom 
he  gives  a  high  character.  He  frequented  the  schools  of 
the  rhetoricians,  and  heard  Quintilian ;  for  whom  he  eveif 
after  entertained  so  high  an  esteem,  that  he  bestowed  a 
considerable  portion  upon  ^his  daughter  at  her  marriage* 
He  was  in  his  eighteenth  year  when  his  uncle  died ;  and  it 
was  then  that  he  began  to  plead  in  the  forum,  the  usuaf 
road  to .  promotion.  About  a  year  after,  he  assumed  the" 
military  character,  and.  went  into  Syria  with  the  commis- 
sion of  tribune :  but  as  this  did  not  suit  his  tast^,  he  re** 
turned  after  a  campaign,  or,  two.  He  tells  Us^  that  in  hi* 
passage  homewards  he  was  detained  by  contrary  winds  at 
the  island  Icaria,  and  that  he  employed  himself  in  making 

1  Plioii  Epistolae.— MelmolVf  Plioy.— tracker.— Saxii  OoottAit— 'DibdiaH 
CiMsici  and  Bibl.  Speocer. 

P  L  I  N  1  US.  e» 

veirses :  h^  efilarges,  in  the  same  places  upon  hisr  poetical^ 
efibrt*;  but  in  this  respect,  like  Cicero,  he  valaed  biraselrf. 
upon  a  talent  which  he  did  not  eminently  possess. 

Upon  his  return  from  Syria,  he  settled  at  Rome,  in  the 
reign  of  Domitian.  During  this  most  perilous  time,  he 
codtiflued  to  plead  in  the  forum,  where  he  was  distin« 
guished,  not  more  by  his  uncommon  abilities  and  eloquence, 
than  by  bis  great  resolution  and  courage,  which  enabled, 
htm  to  speak  boldly,  when  hardly  any  one  else  could  ven« 
tore  to  speak  at  alL  On  these  accounts  he  was  often  singled 
out  by  the  senate,  to  defend  the  plundered  provinces 
against  their  oppressive  governors,  and  to  manage  other 
causes  of  a  like  important  and  dangerous  nature.  One  of 
these  causes  was  in  favour  of  the  province  of  Bsetica,  in 
their  prosecution  of  Bsbius  Massa ;  in  which  he  acquired 
so  general  an  applause,  that  the  emperor  Nerva,  then  a 
private  man,  and  in  banishment  at  Tarentum,  wrote  him  a 
letter,  in  which  he  congratulated,  not  only  Pliny,  but  the 
age  which  had  produced  an  example  so  much  in  the  spi- 
rit oftte  ancients.  Pliny  relates  this  aflPair,  in  a  letter  to 
Tacitus;  uod  he  was  so. pleased  with  it  himself,  that  ha 
eoDild  not  help  informing  his  correspondent  that  he  should 
not  be- sorry  to  find  it  recorded  in  his  history.  He  obtained 
the  offices  of  questor  and  tribune,  and  escaped  the  pro- 
scriptions of  the.  tyrannical  reign  of  Domitian.  I'here  it^ 
however,  reason  to  believe  that  he  owed  his  safety  to  the 
death  of  the  emperor,  as  his  name  was  afterwards  found  in 
that  savage^s  tablets  among  the  number  of  those  who  were 
destined  to  detraction. 

He  had  married, on  settling  at  Ron;ie,  but  losing  his  wife 
in  the  beginning  of  Nerva's  reign,  he  soon  after  took  his 
beloved  Calphurnia;  of  whom  we  read  so  much  in  his 
Epistles.  He  had  not  however  any  children  by  either  of 
his  wives ;  and  hence  we  find  him  thanking  Trajan  for  the 
JUS  trium  liberarum,  which  he  afterwards  obtained  of  that 
emperor  for  his  friend  Suetonius  Tranquillus.  He  was  pro* 
moted  to  the  consulate  by  Trajan  in  the  year  100,  when  he 
was  thirty*eight  years  of  age :  and  in  this  office  pronounced 
that  famous  panegyric,  which  has  ever  since  been  ad- 
mired, as  well  for  the  copiousness  of  the  topics,  as  the  ele- 
gance of  address.  He  was  then  elected  augur,  and  after- 
wards made  proconsul  of  Bithynia;  whence  he  wrote  to 
Trajan  that  curious  letter  concerning  the  primitive  Chris«< 
lians,   wjiiicb,   with  Trajan's  rescript,   is  happily  extant 

64  P  L  I  N  I  U  S. 

among  his  "  Epistles."  "  Pliny's  letter,'*  as  Melofioth  ob- 
serves, in  a  note  upon  the  passage,  ^^  is  esteemed  as  al- 
most the  only  genuine  monument  of  ecclesiastical  anti- 
quity, relating  to  the  times  immediately  succeeding  the 
apostles,  it  being  written  at  most  not  above  forty  years 
after  the  death  of  iSt.  Paul.  It  was  preserved  by  the 
Christians  themselves,  as  a  clear  and  unsuspicious  evidence 
of  the  purity  of  their  doctrines  ;  and  is  frequently  appealed 
to  hf  the  early  writers  of  the  church,  against  the  calum- 
nies of  their  adversaries.'*  It  is  not  known  what  became  of 
Pliny,  after  his  return  from  Bithynia  ;  nor  have  we  any  in- 
formation as  to  the  time  of  his  death  ;  but  it  is  conjectured 
that  he  died  either  a  little  before,  or  soon  after,  his  patron 
^he  emperor  Trajan,  that  is,  about  A.  D.  1 16. 

Pliuy  was  unquestionably  a  man  of  talents,  and  various' 
accomplishments,  and  a  man  of  virtue  ;  but  in  >dj$iike 
of  the  Christians  he  seems  to  have  indulged  equally  hi^ 
master  Trajan,  whose  liberal  sentiments  respecting  infor- 
mers in  his  short  letter  cannot  be  sufficiently  admired. 
Pliny  wrote  and  published  a  great  number  of  books :  but 
nothing  has  escaped  the  wreck  of  time,  except  the  books 
of  Epistles,  and  the  **  Panegyric  upon  Trajan,"  which  has 
ever  been  considered  as  a  nraster-piece.  His  Letters  seem 
to  have  been  intended  for  the  public  ;  and  in  them  he  may 
be  considered  as  writing  his  own  memoirs.  Every  epistle 
is  a  kind  of  historical  sketch,  in  which  we  have  a  view  of 
him  in  some  striking  attitude,  either  of  active  or  contem* 
plative  life.  In  them  are  preserved  anecdotes  of  many 
eniinent  persons,  whose  works  are  come  down  to  u^s,  as 
Suetonius,  Silius  Italicus,  Martial,  Tacitus,  knd  Quinti- 
lian ;  and  of  curious  facts,  which  throw  great  light  upon 
the  history  of  those  times.  They  are  written  with  great 
politeness  and  spirit ;  and,  if  they  abound  too  much  in 
turn  and  metaphor,  we  must  impute  it  to  that  degeneracy 
of  taste,  which  was  then  accompanying  the  degenerate 
manners  of  Rome.  Pliny,  however,  seems  to  have  pre- 
served himself  in  this  latter  respect  frotin  the  general  con-  ' 
tagion  :  whatever  the  manners  of  the  Romans  were,  his 
were  pure  and  incorrupt.  His  writings  breathe  a  spirit  of 
great  goodness  and  humanity  :  his  only  imperfection  is,  h^ 
was  too  desirous  that  the  public  and  posterity  should  know 
bow  humane  and  good  he  was ;  and  while  he  represents 
himself,  as  he  does,  calling  for  Livj*,  reading  him  at  his 
leisure,  and  even  making  extracts  from  him,  when  the  erup<> 

P  L  I  N  I  U  S.  66 

tion  of  Vesuvius  was  shaking  the  ground  beneath  htm,  and 
•striking  terror  through  the  hearts  of  mortals  by  appearances 
unheard  of  before,  it  is  not  possible  to  avoid  being  of  the 
opinion  of  those,  who  think  that  he  had^  with  all  his  virtues, 
something  of  affectation* 

The  ^^  Epistles*'  have  been  translated  into  English  by 
lord  Orrery  ;  but  this  gave  way  to  the  more  elegant  trans- 
lation of  Melmoth ;  some  of  whose  opinions  appear  to 
have  been. borrowed  by  our  predecessors  in  this  and  the 
preceding  life.  The  first  edition  of  the  original  *<  Epis- 
tols'*  is  that  of  Carbo,  printed  probably  by  Valdarfer  at 
Venice^  in  1471,  ifolio.  O/  the  modern  editions,  the  Va- 
riorum, at  Leyden,  1669,  6vo,  is  praised  by  Dr  Har* 
wood  as  one  of  the  scarcest  and  most  valuable  of  the  oc- 
tavo variorum  classics.  There  are  also  correct  and  critical 
editions  by  Thomasius,  Leipsic,  1675,  8vo;  by  Hearne, 
Oxford,  1703,  8vo;  by  Loogolius,  Amst.  1734,  4to;  by 
Gesoer,  Leipsic,  1770,  8vo;  a  beautiful  edition  published 
by  Mr.  Pa^ne  in  1790,  edited  by  Mr.  Homer ;  and  a  very 
recent  one  by  Gierigius,  Leipsic,  1 806,  2  vols.  4to«  Most 
of  these  are  accompanied  by  the  <^  Panegyricus,'*  which 
was  first  printed  separately,  in  1476,  quarto,  without  place 
or  printer's  name.  The  best  edition  since  is  that  of  Schwarz, 
at  Nuremberg,  1746,  4to.^ 

PLOT  (Robert),  eminent  for  being  the  first  who  formed 
a  plan  for  a  natural  history  of  Englahd,  the  son  of  Robert 
Plot,  esq.  captain  of  the  militia,  in  the  hundred  of  Milton, 
la  Kent,  was  bom  in  1640,  at  Sutton  Baron,  in  the 
parish  of  Borden,  in  that  county,  and  educated  at  the 
free-school  of  Wye,  in  the  same  county.  In  March  1658,, 
•be  went  to' Magdaten-hall,  in  Oxford,  where  Josiah  PuUen 
was  his  tutor;  took  a  bachelor  of  arts  degree  in  1661,  a 
master's  in  1664,  and  both  the  degrees  in  law  in  1671. 
He  removed  afterwards  to  University-college,  where  he 
9ras  at  the  expenc^  of  placing  the  statue  of  king  Alfred 
over  the  ball-door.  His  general  knowledge  and  acuteness, 
and. particularly  his  attachment  to  natural  history,  procured 
his  being  chosen,  in  1677,  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society; 
and  in  1682,  elected  one  of  the  secretaries  of  that  learned 
body. .  He  published  their  ^^  Philosophical  Transactions,'* 
from  No.  143^  to  No.  166,  inclusive.     In  1683,  EliasAsh- 

■    ' 

^  VotBiiisde  Hist.  Lat—Melmoth's  translation- —^Life  prefixed   to  tb«  Vari- 
•nuB  dlltiob.-^Dibdia*!  Classics^  itnd  Bibl.  Spenceriana. 

Vot.  XXV.  F  . 

.  I 

66  PLOT. 

mole)  esq.  appointed  him  the  first  keeper  of  his  museum  ^^ 
and  about  the  same  time  be  was  .noqiiinated  by  the  vice-, 
chancellor  the  first  reader  in  chemistry  in  that  university. 
In  1687,  he  was  made  secretary  to  the  earl-marshal,  or 
court  of  chivalry,  which  was  then  renewed,  after  it  had 
lain  dormant  from  the  year  1641.  In  1690,  he  resigned  his 
professorship  of  chemistry,  and  also  his  place  of  keeper  of 
the  museum ;  which  he  then  augmented  by  a  very  largfe 
collection  of  natural  curiosities,  being  such  as  he  had 
figured  and  described  in  his  Histories  of  Oxfordshire  and 
Staffordshire,  and  there  distinguished  by  the  names  of 
"  Scrinium  Plotianum  Oxoniense,"  and."  Scrioium  Plo- 
tfanum  Staffordiense.'*  In  1688  he  received  the  title  of 
Historiographer  to  James  II.  which  he  could  not  long  re- 
tain, as  this  was  just  before  the  abdication  of  that  sovjereigfi. 
In  16d4*'5,  Heory  Howard,  earl-marshal,  nominated  him 
Mowbray  herald  extraordinary ;  and  two  days  after,  he  was 
constituted  registrar  of  the  court  of  honour.  He  died  of 
the  stone,  April  30,  1696,  at  his  house  in  Borden,  and 
was. buried  in  the  .church  there,  where  a  monument  was 
afterwards  erected  to  his  memory.  He  left  two  sons  by 
•his  wife  Rebecca,  widow  of  Henry  Burman,  to  whom  he 

wa^  married  in  August  1690. 

Natural  history  was  his  delight;  and  he  gave  very  agree- 
able specimens  of  it,  in  his  "  Natural  Histories  of  Oxford- 
shire and  Staffordshire."  The  former  was  published  at 
Oxford,  in  1677,  folio,  aqd  reprinted.  1705,  with  additions 
and .  corrections,  by  John  Burman,  M.  A.  fellow,  of  Uni- 
versity-college, his.  step-sou,  and  afterwards  vicar  of 
Nevyington,  Iq  Kent ;  the  latter  was  printed  also  at  Ox^ 
ford,  1686,  in  the  samesize.^..  These  were  intended  a^ 
essays  towards  **  A  Natural  History  of  England;"  for,  in 
order  to  discover  antiquities  and  other  curiosities,  and  to 
promote  learning  and  trade,  he  formed  a  design  of  travel- 
ling through  England  and  Wales*  By  such  researches,,  he 
wa$  persuaded  that  many  additions  made  to  Cam* 

-  .  • 

*  **  Ineachof  these  volumes  be  re-  scriptioo  for  Plot's  Sloffordsbire  was, 

cords  the  rare  plants  of  tke  countyf  a  penny  a  sheet,  a  penny  a  plate^  and 

^escribes  the  dubious  ones,  and  such  six-pence  <he  m^p.^'  '"Dr.  Plot  was  tht 

as  he  took  fornon-iiescTipts^aud  figures  first  author  of  a  separate  ruluipe  oy 

isever^X  of  them.     To  thcfe  works  the  Prorindal  Natiiral  History;  fn  which* 

English  botanist  owes  the  -Orst  kuuw-  it  is  but  justice  to  add,  that,  with  due 

ledge  of  some  £ngiish  plants."     Put-  allowance  for  the  time  be  mnQte,  h^ 

lency's  Sketches.    Dr.  Pulteney  adds*  l^^*  n^t  been  excelled  by  a^y  subse* 

"  It  is  amusiug  lo  remark  the  price  of  qoent  writer."     IbiA, 

literature  «  century  9go.    The  sub-  .         \  ^ 

PLOT.  67 

^eD*s  Britannia,  and  other  works,  concerning  tfae  history 
and  antiquities  of  England,     He  drew  up  a  plan  of  his 
scheme  in  a  letter  to  bishop  Fell,  which  may  be  seen  at 
the  end  of  the  second  volume  of  Leland's  Itinerary,  of  the 
edition  of  1744.     In  these  Histories,  whatever  is  visible  iu 
the  heavens,'  earth,  and  waters ;  whatever  is  dug  out  of 
the  ground,  whatever  is  natural  or  unnatural ;  and  what- 
ever is  observable  in  art  and  science,  were  the  objects  of 
his  speculation  and  inquiry ;  and  various  and  dissimilar  as 
his  matter  is,  it  is  in   general  well  connected ;  and   his 
transitions  are  easy.     His  books  indeed  deserve  to  be  called 
the  "  natural  and   artificial   histories**  of  these  counties. 
Iq  the  eagerMss  and  rapidity  of  his  various  pursuits,  he 
tQok  upon  tmst,  and  committed  to  writing,  some  things 
which,  upon  mature  consideration,  he  must  have  rejected. 
He  did  not,  perhaps,  know  enough  of  experimental  phi- 
losophy to  exert  a  proper  degree  of  scepticism  in  the  in- 
formation given  Vo  him.     Besides  these  works,  he  was  the 
author  of  several  other  productions.     In   1685,  he  pub- 
lished "  De  Origine  Fontium,  Tentamen  Philosophicum,*' 
8vo;  and  the  nine  following  papers  of  his  are  inserted  in 
the  "Philosophical  Transactions:''  1.  •*  Ari  Account  of 
Eldcn  Hole,  in  Derbyshire,"  No.  2.     2.  "  The  Formation 
of  Salt  and  Sand  from  Brine,*'  No.  145.     3.  "  Discourse 
concerning  the  Effects  of  the  great  Frost  on  Trees  and 
other  Plants,  in   1683,"  No.   165.     4.  "  A  Discourse  of 
perpetual  Lamps,"  No.   166.      5.  **  The  History  of  the 
Weather  at  Oxford,  in  1684  ;  or  the  Observations  of  a  full 
Year,  made  by  Order  of  the  Philosophical  Society  at  Ox- 
ford," No.  169.     6.;  "  A  large  and  curious  Account  of  the 
Amianthos  or  Asbestine  Linen,"   No.  1708.      7.  "  Dis- 
course concerning  the  most  seasonable  Time  of  felling  Tim- 
ber, written  at  the  request  of  Samuel  Pepys,esq.  secretary  of 
the  admiralty,"  No.  192.     8.  **  Of  an  Irishman  of  an  extra- 
ordinary ^^^,  viz.  Edward  Mallone,  nineteen  years  old, 
seven  feet  six  inches  high,"  No.  240.    9.  "  A  Catalogue  of 
Electrical    Bodies,"    No.   245.      In   1680,    he   published 
'''The -Clog,  or  Staffordshire  Almanack,"  engraven  on  a 
copper-plate,  and  inserted  afterwards  in  his  ^*  History  of 

Since  his  decease,  there  have  been  published  two  let- 
ters of  his  )  one  '*  giving  an  Account  of  some  Antiqui- 
ties ;  in  the  County  of  Kjent,"  in  1714,  -8vo,  and  pre- 
served   in    the   "  Bibllotheca    Topographica,''    No,  Vl.; 

F  2 

««,  P  L  O  T. 

another  to  the  earl  of  Arlington,  "  Goncemiog  Thetfori},** 
printed  at  the  end  of  "  The  History  and  Antiquities  of 
Gjastonbury/'  published  by  Hearne,  172P,  8vo. 
.  He  left  several  manuscripts  behind  hioi ;  among  which 
Vere  large  Qiateriais  fpr  *^  The  Natural  Htstpry  of  Keilt^ 
of  ^iddlesex^  and  of  the  City  of  I^ondon/'  which  \m  de? 
afigned  (o  have  writt;en  in  the  sitipe  manner  as  he  had  writ* 
ten  the  histories  of  Oxfordshire  and  Staffordshire*  Hi« 
friend  Dr.  Charlett^  master  of  Univ^ersjty-poUege,  puob 
wished  him  to  undertake  an  edition  of  Pli^y*s  <^  Natural 
History/'  and  a  select  volun^e  pf  fiSS.  froo)  the  A^bmo^ 
l^an,Musebm,  which  he  says  would  be  agreeable  enough 
to  him^  but  too  expensive,  a^  rfsquir^tig  bis  residence  ia 
Oxfordi  where  he  could  PQt  pi^^ptain  hi^  family  so  cheap 
as  at  Sutton  Baron-' 

PLOTINUS,  a  celebrated  Platppic  philosopher,  VM 
born  at  Lycopolis,  in  Egypt,  in  the  year  20^f  but  conr 
cerning  bis  family  or  edu9ation,  nothing  i^  known.  About 
the  age  of  twenty,  he  f\jf^t  pt\idied  philosophy  at  the  dif«> 
fe^^nt  school^  of  Alexandris^,  hut  attached  hiipself  partis 
puiarly  to  Anfimpniqs,  in  whorp  he  found  a  disposition  ta 
superstition  and  fanaticism  lil^e  hi^  own.  On  the  death  of 
^his  preceptor,  having  in  bis  sghoo)  fnsqMenUy  heard  the 
jOrienti^l  philosophy  ^oun^mend^d^  and  expecting  to  find  ia 
it  thsi^t  kipd  of  doPtfine  cono^rnipg  divine  natures  which  he 
was  most  desirous  fif  studying,  he  determined  to  travel 
into  Persia  apd  India,  tp  tearn  wi<«dom  ,of  the  Magi  and 
.Gyrpnosopi|is^ ;  and  M  the  emperor  Gordit^n  was  at  this 
time  undertaking  an  expedition  against  the  Parthians,  PIq- 
tinus  seized  the  ocpasio^),  find  in  the  year  243  joined  the 
eniperor's  army ;  bi^t  the  emperor  being  killed,  Plotinus 
fled  to  Antioch,  and  thenc§  came  to  Rome,  where  Philip 
was  npw  emperor. 

Fo^  some  time  Plotinus  remained  silent,  ip  consec[ueace 
of  the  oath  o£  secrecy  which  he  had  t^ken  in  the  school  of 
^mmpnius;  but  after  bis  f^Uow  disciples,  Herennius  and 
Origines,  had  disclosed  the  ipysteries  of  their  master,  he 
thought  himself  no  longer  boiind  by  his  promisie,  and  l^e- 
'  came  a  public  precep^Q?  in  philosophy,  upon  ecleetie  prin- 
ciples.    During  a  period  of  ten  yearjs,  he  delivered  all  in 

1  Biog.  Brit.— -Ath.  Ox.  vol.  Il.-^haw's  Suffords^ire,  apd  Ifatted'a  K«at<^ 
•OeifyL  Mag.  LXV.  where  is  a  view  of  bis  bouse,  a^  maay  particulars  of  bu 
fismUy. — Granger. — Letters  of  Eminett  Persoa%  3  foil.  Sro.-v^oble^  C«Heg« 
•f  Arms*— Go^gh's  Topography. 

P  L  a  T  I  N  u  s.  «# 

tbe  way  of  convcfsstioB^'  but  at  last  be  fdond  it  neeta^^y 
lo  commit  tbe  substattde  of  bis  lectures  to  vrficifig ;  and 
ihis  being  suffered  to  pass  into  tbe  bands  of  his  pupils  whbdbt 
being  transcribed^  we  cannot  be  surpriced  at  tbe  gresfct  ob- 
scprity  and  confusion  which  mie  still  found  in  bis  wi'iting^, 
ftfi^  all  the  paifM  that  Porphyry  took  to  correct  them.  Uh 
works  are  diattiboted  under  six  classes,  called  Enn^ad^. 
Proobs  Wi^ote  Gommentarieft  upon  tbem,  and  Dexippvls  de^ 
leaded  tbem  against  the  Peripatetics^ 

Although  Plotinus'a  plaft  was  new$  it  was  oi>scure,  and 
be  had  but  few  dtscipWs.  He  Wz§  rtot  the  less  ifssiduotii, 
bowerer^  in  teaching,  and  stadierd  tery  hafd,  preparing 
bimself  by  w j^tcbiirg  and  fastrng.  He  was  $o  re^peeidd  fbr 
itisdofn  and  imegrity,  that  inany  pi^iyate  quarrels  were  te^ 
ferred  to  bis  arbhraiion,  aild  parents  on  their  death-ib^ds 
wene  very  desirous  of  consigning  their  children  to  bis  C8lr€^. 
During  bis  residence  of  iwetity-^ix  year^  at  Rootei  he  be- 
came a  fs^votirite  #itbOriienifs,  airrd  «^duld  bstve  persuaded 
tbat  eufpetor  to  re-build  a  eitiy  in  Campania,  and  people 
it  with  pbijoaophers,  to  be  goverued  by  the  lawsr  5f  Plato ; 
but  this  was  not  effected.  Although  akiHed  in  the  medical 
ar^  be  had  sueh  a  contempt  for  the  body,  ihnt  he  would 
\HBsnsr  take  any  medicines  when  iirdisposerd  ;•  nor  fof  tbe 
same  reason  would  he  suffer  hi^birtb-day  ^  be  ceAebraied, 
or  any  portrait  to  be  taken  of  his  persofi.  Hits  pupil  Ame- 
bu%  bowei'er,  procured  one  by  stealtb^  pai^Affed  while  he 
was  lectwring.  Such  a))stin^cey  and  negkect  of  health, 
turougbt  him  into  a  state  of  disease  and  iinfiriAity^  which 
rendered  the  latter  part  of  his  life  exceedingly  painful. 
When  be  found  his  end  approacbifyg,  be  said  to  Eusto- 
ehius,  ^^  The  divine  principle  within  f&e  is  now  hastening 
to  ntAie  itself  witb  that  divine  being  which  animates  tbc^ 
universe  ;^*  herein  expressing  a  leading  principle  of  hid 
philosophy,  that  tbe  bumaln  soul  is  an  emanation  fi*otti  tbe 
divine  natute,  mid  will  return  to  the  source  whenc!^  it  pfo^ 
toeded,  Plotinus  di^d  iff  the  year  270,  aged  iix^y-^ 
years.  Porphyry  repreieats  bim  as  haviag  been  possessied 
Ipfmiraculons  pdwers,  but  there  is  Mofe  reason  to  couiclude 
from  his  life  and  writings,  that  he  belonged  to  the  class  of 
famttics*  His  natural  tetop^er,  his  education,  his  dyitetby 
all  inclined  him  to  fadaticism.  Suffering  himself  to  be  I^ 
astray  by  a  yolatHe  imagiuation,  from  tbe  pli^A  p&ih  of 
good  sense,  be  poured  forth  crude  and  confused  concept 
tions,  jn  obscute  and  incoherent  language.     Sometime? 

70  P  L  O  T  I  N  U  S. 

he  soared  in  extattc  flights  iiito  the  regions  of  mjrstiGisnf. 
Porphyry  relates^  that  be  ascended  through  all  the  Piatonie 
steps  of  divine  contemplation,  to  the  actual  vision  of  the 
deity  himself,  and  was  admitted  to  such  intercourse  with 
Jiim,  as  no  other  philosopher  ever  enjoyed.  They  who 
are  well  acquainted  with  human  nature,  will  easily  perceive 
in  these  flights,  unequivocal  proofs  of  a  feeble  or  disordered 
mind,  and  will  not  wonder  that  the  system  of  Plotinus  was 
mystical,  and  his  writings  obscure.  It  is  much  to  be  re« 
gretted  that  such  a  man  should  have  becoine,  in  a  great 
degree,  the  preceptor  of  the  world,  and  should,  by  means 
of  his  disciples,  have  every  where  disseminated  a  species 
pf  false  philosophy,  which  was  compounded  of  superstition, 
enthusiasm,  and  imposture.  The  muddy  waters  sent  forth 
from  this  polluted  spring,  were  spread  through  the  most 
celebrated  seats  of  learning,  and  were  even  permitted  to 
mingle  with  the  pure  stream  of  Christian  doctrine.^ 

PLOWDEN  (Edmund),  a  celebrated  lawyer,  the  son 
of  Humphrey  Plowden,  of  Plowden,  in  Shropshire,^  of  au 
ancient  and.  genteel  family^  was  born  in  that  county,  in 
1517,  and  first  studied  philosophy  and  medicine  for  three 
years  at  Cambridge  ;  but  removed  after  a  time  to  Oxford, 
where  he  continued  his  former  studies  for  four  years  more,^ 
and  in  1552,  according  to  Wood,  was  admitted  to  the 
practice  of  physic  and  surgery.  Tanfter  says,  that  when 
he  left  Cambridge,  he  entered  himself  of  the  Middle 
Temple,  and  resuming  the  study  of  physic,  went  then  to 
Oxford.  It  appears,  however,  that  he  finally  determined 
on  the  law  as  a  profession,  and  entered  the  Middle  Temple, 
where  he  sbpn  became  reader.  His  first  reading  was  in 
autumn,  4  and  5  of  Philip  and  Mary ;  and  his  second  was 
in  Lent,  3  Eliz.  In  queen  Mary's  time  he  was  called  to 
the  degree  of  serjeant;  but,  being  zealously  attached  to 
the  Romish  persuasion,,  lost  all  further  hopes  of  prefer*- 
nient, .  on .  the  accession  of  Elizabeth.  He  continued  to 
be  much  consulted  in  private  as  a  counsellor.  He  died 
Feb.  6,  15S4-5,  and  was  buried  in  the  Middle  Temple 
church.  By  a  MS  note  on  a  copy  of  his  Reports  once  im 
the  possession  of  Dr:  Ducarel,  it  appears  thathe  was  trea- 
surer-of  the  Middle  Temple  in. 1572,  the  year  in  which: 
the  hall  was  built.  It  is  added  that  ^^he  was  a  man  of  great 
gravity,  knowledge,  and  integrity ;    in  his  youth .  excess 

'  Gen.  Diet.— Brocker, — Life  b^  Porphyry. — Saxii  Oaoma9t. 

•P  L  O  W  D  E  N.  71 

sively  studious,  so  that  (we  have  it  by  tradition)  in.  three 
years  space  be  went  not  once  out  of  the  Temple." 

The  work  by  which  Mr.  Plowden  is  best  known  by  the 
profession,  is  his  *<  Comoientaries  or  Reports,  containing 
clivers  cases  upon  matters  of  law,  argued  and  determined 
HI  the  reigns  of  Edwa'rd  VI.,  Mary,  Philip  and  Mary,  and 
Eliz."  These  were  originally  written  in  French,  and  the 
edicions  of  1^71,  1578,  1599,  1613,  and  168^,  were  pub- 
lished in  that  language.  It  was  not  until  1761,  that  an 
Eogliah  translation  appeared,  improved  by  many  original 
notes  and  references  to  the  ancient  and  modern  Common 
Law.  books.  To  this  edition  were  added  his  *^  Queries,  'or 
Moot^rBook  for  young  Students,"  and  '*  The  Argument,*' 
in  the.  case  of  William  Morgan  et  al.  v.  Sir  Rice  ManxelL 
Mr.  Elaines  Barrington  calls  Plowden  the  most  accurate  of 
all  reporters ;  and  Mr.  Hargrave  says  that  his  '^  Commen- 
taries'' deservedly  bear  as  high  a  character  k»  any  book  of 
reports  ever  published  in  our  law.V 

PLUCHE  (Antony),  a  French  writer,  born  at  Rheinfis, 
m  1688,  was  early  distinguished  by  his  progress  in  polite 
letters,  and  by  his  amiable  character,  qualities  which  pro- 
cured him  to  be  appointed  classical  professor  in  the  uni- 
versity of  Rheims.  Some  time  after,  he  was  removed  to 
the  professorship  of  rhetoric,'  and  admitted  into  holy'or- 
ders.  Clermont,  bishop  of  Laon,  being  made  acquainted 
with  bis  merit,  offered  him  the  place  of  director  of  the 
college  of  Clermont,  and  he^was  advancing  the  reputation 
of  this  seminary,  when  the  peculiar  opinions  he  held  re- 
specting some  subjects  which  then  interested  the  public, 
obliged  him  to  leave  his  situation.  On  this,  Gasville,  the 
iatendant  of  Rouen,  'appointed  him  tutor  to  his  son,  upon 
the  recommendation  of  the  celebrated  Rollin.  After  this, 
he  webt  to  Parjs,,  where  he  first  gave  lectures  upon  history 
and  geography,  and  then  jicquired  a  considerable  repuia- 
tipu  by  some  works  which  he  published  :  I.  His  *^  Spec- 
tacle de  la  Nature^'  is  generally  known,  having  been  trans- 
lated into  perhaps  all  the  European  languages,  and  was  no 
^faere  more  popular  than  in  England  for  many  years.  This 
work  is  written  with  perspicuity  and  elegance,  and  is  equally 
.  iastructive  and  agreeable ;  its  only  fault  is,  that  the  author 
uses  too  many  words  for  bis  matter,  which,  however,  is 

•  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.   new  edit. — Fuller*a  Worthies. — ^Tanner. — Lloyd's   StaU 
\    Woitfaies.— Dodd^fl  Ch.  Hist. — Brid^maii^s  Legal  Bibliography. 


P  L  U  CHE. 

perhaps  unavoidable  in  the  diaIog;ue  form  of  wriung.    H.* 
<<  Histoire  du  Ciel/'  in  2  voIa«  12mOy  is  another  work  o^ 
tht.  abb^  Plucbe^  a  kind  of  mythological  history  of  the 
h^aveoSf  Goosisting  of  two  parts^  almost  independent  of 
on.e  another.    The  first,  which  contains  some  learned  la- 
quiriQS  into  the  origin  of  thift  poetic  heavens,  and  an  at- 
tempt to  prov^  that  the  pagan  deities  had  not  been  real 
men,  was  animadverted  upon  by  M.  Silouette,  in  ^<  Ob- 
servation^  on  the  Abb6  Pluche's  History,"  &c.  an  actouat 
of  which  may  be  seen  in  the  *^  History  of  the  Works  of  the' 
Learned*^  for  April  1743,  with  notes  by  Warburton.     3. 
He  wrote  a  tract    also  ^^  De*  artificio  linguarum,''  1735, 
I^moy  which  he  translated  himself,  under  the  title  ci  *^  La 
M^chanique  des  Langaes,*'  in  which  he  prc^oses  a  short 
i^nd  easy  method  of  learning  languages,   by  the  use  of 
translations  instead  of  themes  or  exercises.    4.  <^  Concorde 
de  la  Geographie  des  differens  ages,''  1764,  12mo,  a  post* 
humous  work,  well  conceived,  but  executed  superficially. 
5.  ^^  Harm^nie  des  Pseaumes  et  de  TEvangile,''  1764, 12mo9 
a  translation  of  the  Psalms,  remarkable  for  its  fidelity  and 
elegance,  with  many  learned  notes  of  reference  and  iUos«« 
tration  from  other  partS'  of  Scripture,     Pluche  had  ob*' 
tained  the  abbey  of  Yarenne  St  Maur,  to  which  he  retired 
in  1749,  and  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  devotion  and- 
study,  which  was  a  happy  relief  to  him^  as  be  lost  all  the 
pleasures  of  literary  society,  by  an  incttrable  deafness.    He 
died  of  an  apoplexy,  Nov»20,  1761.     He  was  a  beli0ver 
in  all  the  mysteries  of  his  church,  even  to  an  extreme ; 
and  when  some  free-thinkers  used  to  expre^  their  ajitonish- 
ment  that  a  man  of  abbe  Pinchers  force  of  understanding 
could  think  so  like  the  vulgar,  he  used  to  say,  *^  I  glory 
in  this  :  it  is  more  reasonable  to  believe  the  word  of  God, 
than  to  follow  the  vain  and  uncertain  lights  of  reason."^ 

PI4UKENET  (Leonard),  a  celebrated  English  botanist,  = 
was  born,  as  he  himself  has  recorded,  in  1642,  but  where 
he  was  educated^  oc  in  what  university  he.recieived  bit 
degrees,  has  not  been  ascertained.  It  has  been  conjec- 
tured, from  a  few  circumstances,  that  it  was  at  Cambridge^- 
His  name  seems  of  French  extraction,  plus  fue  net^  afKtbas 
been  Latinized  plus,  quant  nitidus.  He  dates  the  prefaces 
to  bis  works  from  Old  Palace^yard,  WestminM^er,  where 
he  seems  to  have  had  a  small  garden.     It  does  not  appear 

»  Diet.  Hilt. 

P  L  U  K  E  N  E  T-  t  J 

tfast  Jie  tttatned  to  anjr.  codaideraUe  eminence  mhisfprO'^ 

fMion  of  pbjrsic,  and  it  b  snspected  be  was  orAy  an  ap<>^ 

theeary,  hmt  be  was  absorbed  in  the  study  of  plant9,  and 

de?oted  ail  his  leisure  to  tbe  composition  of  his  **  Pbyto-* 

gii^)bia."     He  apured  no. puns  to  procure  specino^ns  of 

rsie.and  itevr  plaBts^  bad  correspondents  in  all  parts  of  the 

world,  and  access  to  the  gardens  of  Hampton-cotirfj  tbenf 

tery  flourishing,  and  all  others  that  were  enriousw     Kq-* 

ketlet  was  one  of  those  to  whom  Ray  was  indebted  foi^  a^^ 

sistance  in^  tbe  arrangeraeDt  of  tbe  second  volume  of  bi# 

histoxy^  and  that  eminent  man  erery  where   bears  the 

stinogest  testimoDy  to  bis  merit.    Yet  he  was  in  want  of 

patronage,  and  felt  that  wafit  severely.     With  Sloane  and 

PetiTer,  two  of  the  first  botanists  of  his  own  age^  he  seeoHf 

to  have  been  at  variance;,  and  censures  their  writings  with 

toe  itiiieh  asperity.     ^<  Plokenet,'*  says  sir  J.  E.  Smieh,' 

whose  opinion  in  such  matters  we  ate  always  happy  to*' 

follow,  ^was,  apparently,  a  man  of  more  solid  learning 

tton  either  of  those  distuigussbed  writers,  aod  having  bfeen 

Itesprosperoos  than  either,  he  was  perhaps  less  dlspo^red 

to  palliate  their  errevs.    As  far  as  we  have  examined,  hh 

Griticisms,  however  severe,  are  not  unjust."    'No  obstat^esi 

daaaped  die  ardour  of  Pluhenet  in  his  fitvourite  pursUir. 

He  was  himself  atthe  charge  of  his  engravings,  and  printed* 

the  whole  work  at  his  own  expence,  with  the  Exception 

of  a  small  subacriplion  of  about  fifty-five  guineas,  whieb 

he  obtainisd  oear  the  conclusion  of  it.     Towards  the  close' 

of  bis  life  he*  is  said  to  hove  been  assisted  by  the  queen, 

ami  to  have  obtained  theMperintendaiice  of  the  garden  at 

Hampton-court.     He  was  also  honoured  with  the  title  of 

myai:  pibfessor  of  botany.    The  time  of  his  decease  i^  not 

pieciisely  ascertained,  but  it  is  probable'  that  he  did  notf 

long  survive  hb  last  ptfblicationy  whrch  appeared  t^  1705. 

tts  works- were,  i;  ^^  Phytographia,  sive  stirpium  illu^tr^um 

^aimsat  cogastoruiH  icones,'^  169'! — 1696,  published  irr 

btir  partsv  and  centakiing  328  plates,  lit  41a.     2.  **  Afma** 

(pestam  BMlanfcuoi,  sive  Phytographi»  Plukenetianas  Ottct* 

ttsstteon,*^  &e;  1696,  4to ;  the  catalogue  is  alphabetical,  and 

<niniaias  iveorr  6000  species,  of  which,  be  tells  us,  500  weret 

D«w.    No  man^  after  Caspar  Bauhine,  bad-  till  then'  ex« 

ttttsied  the  ancient  aivcbors  with  sto  much  attention  as  be 

<  might  settle  bis  synoirj^ms  with  accuracy.     He 

follows  no  system.     3,  **  Almagesti    Botanici  Mantissa/* 

1700,  4to,  with   twenty-five  new  plates.     Besides  many 


74  P  L  U  K  E  N  E  T. 

new  plants^  this  volume  cootains  very  nmnerous  adiition^ 
to  the  synonjms  of  the  Almagesturo.  4.  Five  yearrs  afterr 
the  Mantissa  he  published  the  '^  Amaltheum  Botanicum,'^* 
with  three  plates,  4to.  It  abounds  with  new  subjects,  sent 
from  China  and  the  East  Indies,  with  some  from  Florida. 
These  works  of  Plukenet  contain  upwards  of  2740  figures, 
most  of  them  engraved  from  dried  specimens,  and. many 
from  small' sprigs,  destitute  of  flowers,  or  any  parts  of 
fructification,  and  consequently  not  to  be  ascertuned  :  but 
several  of  these,  as  better  specimens  came  to  hand,  ar^ 
figured  again  in  the  subsequent  plates.  As  he  employed  a 
variety , of  artists,  they  are  unequally  executed;  those  b5«' 
Vander  Gucht  have  usually  the  preference.  « It  is  *much 
to  be  regretted  that  he  had  it  not  in  his  power  to  give  his 
figures  on  a  larger  scale  ;  yet,  with  all  their  imperfections^ 
these  publications  form  a  large  treasure  of  botanical  know-' 
l^edge.  The  herbarium  of  Plukenet  consisted  of  -8000 
plants,  an  astonishing  number  to  be  collected  by  a  pri« 
vate  and  not  opulent  individual :  it  came,  after  his  death, 
into  the  hands  of  sir  Hans  Sloane,  and.  is  now  in  the  British 
museum.  His  works  were  republished,  with  new  title* 
pages,  in  1720,  and  entirely  reprinted,  with  some  addi- 
tions, in  1769;  and  in  1779  an  Index :  Linnseanus  to^  his 
plates  were  published  by  Dr.  Giseke^  of  Hamburgh,  which 
contains  a  few  notes,  from  a  MS.  left  by  Plukenet.  The 
original  MS.  of  Pl,ukenet*s  works  is  now  in  the  library  ofi 
sir  J.  £.  Smith,  president,  of  the  Linnssan  society.  Plu* 
mier,  to  be  mentioned  in  the  next  article,,  complimented 
this  learned  botanist  by  giving  his  name  tq  a  plant,  a  na*« 
tive  of  both  Indies.  ^ 

PLUMIER  (Charles),  called  Father  Plumter,  being  a* 
religious,  of  the  order  of  Minims,  was  born  at  Marseilles, 
April  20,  1646,  and  was  a  botanist  not  less  famoos  thant 
his  contemporary  Plukenet.  He  entered  into  his  order  at. 
sixteen,  and  studied  mathematics  and  other  sciences  at> 
Toulouse,  undet  father  Maignan,  of  the  same  society.  H«: 
did  not  only  learn  the  profound  sciences,  but  became  an* 
expert  mechanic.  In  the  art  of  turning  he  became  such  a. 
proficient  as  to  write  a  book  upon  it ;  and  teamed  also  to* 
make  lenses,  mirrors,  microscopes,  and  otiier  matheiiia«*t 
tical  instruments,  all :  which  knowledge  he  gained  from 
Maignan.     He   was  soon   after  sent  by  his  superiors  t« 

*  Pulteney^s  Sketches. — Life  by  sir  J.  E.  Smith,  in  Rees'i  Cyclopti^U. 

P  L  U  M  I  E  R.  7« 


lome,  where,  by  his  application,  to  mathematics,  optics, 
and  other  studies,  he  nearly  destroyed  his  constitution. 
As  a  relaxation  from  these  severer  sciences,  he  applied  to 
botany,  under  tiie  instruction  of  father  Serjeant,  at  Rome, 
of  Francis  de  Onuphriis,  an  Italian  physician,  and  of  Syl- 
Tins  Boccone,  a  Sicilian.  Being  recalled  by  his  order 
into  Provence,  he  obtained  leave  to  search  the  neighbt>ur«- 
iog  coasts,  and  the  Alps,  for  plants ;  and  soon  became 
acquainted  widi  Tournefort,  then  on  bis  botanical  tour^ 
and  with  Garidel,  professor^'of  botany  at  .Aix.  When  he 
bad  thus  qualified  himself,  he  was  chosen  as  the  associate 
^ioC  Surian,  to  explore  the  French  settlements  in  the  West 
Indies,  as  Sloane  had  lately  examined  Jamaica.  He  ac- 
quitted himself  so  well  that  he  was  twice  afterwards  sent 
at  the*  expence  of  the  king,  whose  botanist  he  was  ap« 
pointed^  with  an  increased  salary  each  time.  Plumier 
passed  two  years  in  those  islands,  and  on  the  neighbouring 
continent,  but  principally  in  Domingo  ;  and  made  designs 
of, many  hundred  plants,  of  the  natural  size,  besides  nu» 
merotts  figures  of  birds,  fishes,  and  insects.  On  his  return 
from  his  second  voyage  he  had  bis  first  work  published  at 
the  Louvre,  at  the  king's  expence,  entitled,  1.  ^^  Descrip- 
tioiis  des  Plantes  de  I'Amerique,'*  fol.  1695,  pp.  94,  108 
pbites.  :  These  figures  consist  of  little  more  than  outlines,*  ' 
but'  being  as  large  as  nature,  and  well  drawn  by  himself, 
produce  a  fine  effect.  On  bis  return  from  his  third  voyage 
He  settled  at  Paris,  and  in  1703  published,  2.  his  ^^  Nova 
Flantarum  Americanarum  Genera/'  4to.  In  the  year  en- 
suing he  was  prevailed  upon  by  M.  Fagon  to  undertake  a- 
voyage  to  Peru,  to  discover  and  delineate  the  Peruvian 
baik.  His  great  zeal  for  the  science,  even  at>  that  age, 
induced  him  to  consent ;  but  while  he  was  waiting  for  the 
ship  near  Cadiz,  he  was  seized  with  a  pleurisy,  and  died 
in  1*704.  Sir^.  E.  Smith  says,  that  as  Rousseau's  Swiss 
herbalist  died  <}f  a  pleurisy,  whilst  employed  in  gathering 
a  sovereign  Alpine  remedy  for  that  disorder  ;  so  it  is  not^ 
improbable  that  Plumier  was  extolling  the  Poly  trichum  (see 
ins:  preface,  p.  2.)  as  ^^  un  antipleuritique  des  plus  assurez," 
wh^'heliimself  fell  a  victim  to  the  very  same  distemper;, 
leaving  his  half-printed  book  to  be  his  monument.  This 
was,  3.  **Trait6  des  Fougeres  de  rAmerique,"  on  the  Ferns' 
of  America,  1705,  folio,  172  plates.  He  published,  as 
above-mentioned,  4.  "  L'Art  deTourner,"  the  Art  of  Turn- 
ing, Lyons,  1701,  and  republished  in  1749.     5.  There  are 

H  P'L  U  M  I  E  R. 

riso  two  disaeFtations  by  biro»  in  the  Journal  det  ^ammd^ 
1694^  and  thai  of  Trevoux,  to  prove,  what  is  ndw  wett 
known^  that  the  cochineal  is  an  insect. 

The  above  works  contained  but  a  small  part  of  the  pro*- 
dvttxitmB  of  Plumier^s  pencil.  Vast  treasures  of  his  draw-^ 
sngSy  io  outline^  bavQ  remained  in  the  French  librariea, 
for  Iti^  nsosi  p^irt  unpttbitshed.  The  late  earl  of  Bute  ob» 
taiiised  copies  of  a  great  pmnber  of  these,  which  after  4iis 
lo^dship^s  death  passed  into  the  hands  of  sir  Joseph  Baalw. 
Ikierbaave  btid  previously,  procured  copies  of  above  itOO, 
done  by  the. accurate  Aubriet,;  under  Vaillant's  hispeation^ 
which  were  afterwards,  in  great  part  ai  leasts  publislied  by 
John  Burman  at  Amsterdam,  between  1755  and.  IT^O. 
These  plates  ave  executed  with  tolerable,  but  by  no  iiieaii|s 
infalUble,  accuracy,  being  far  inferior  in. neatness  and\cor-» 
rectness  to  what  Plumier  himself  published*  Tbe  weiU 
aaeiaiiing  editor  has  overloaded  the  book  with  descriptions 
of  bis  own,,  necessarily  made  from  the  figures,  and  them* 
fore  entirely  superfluous.  They  ar«  indeed  not  unfre^ 
quently  founded  in  misapprehension ;  niH*  has  he  been 
nery  happy  in  the  adaptation  of  his  materials  to  Linnssan 
names^  and  principles. 

Our  author  left  no  herbarium  of  bis  own,  his  collectioii 
of  dried  plants  having  been  lost  at  sea;  but  he  had,  on 
various  occasions,  communicated  dried  specimens  toTounm^ 
fort;,  and  these  still  remain,  with  his  hand*wi'itinig  an-* 
nexed,  in  the  collections  at  Paris.  Lister,  who  visited 
Plumier  in  his  cell  at  the  convent  of  Minifiss  in  that  ci^, 
speaks  of  his  obliging,  and  communicative  manners,  and  of 
bis  ^^ designs  and  paintings  of  plants^  birds,  fishes^  and 
insects  of  the  West  Indies,  all  done  by  himself  very  ae» 

PLUTARCH,  a  great  phili^sopher  at^  historian  of  aii^ 
tiquity,  who  lived  from  the  reign  of  Claudius  to.  that  of 
Adrian,  was  born  at  Cbserofiea,  a  siuall  city  of  Bceotia^  m 
Greece,  which  had  also  been,  the  birth-place  of  Pindar^ 
but  was  far  from  partaking  of  the  proverbial  dulness  of  his 
ctMintry. .  Plutarch^s  family  was  ancient  in  Ch8eronea<:  bis> 
grandfather  Lamprias  was  a  man  eminent  for  bis  learmtigy' 
and  .a  philosopher;  and  is  often  mentioned  by  FlutaKdi  iw 
is  writings,  as  i^  also  bis  father.     Plutarch  was  initiated 

1  Life  by  sir  J.  £.  SoHih,  in  Rees's  CycIoMBdia.— PaltirDtyV  Botany.— Li«- 
Vr's  Joaniey  io  Fari^— Niceron,  ▼ol.  XXXlll. 



•ariy  ib  study »  to  which  be  rfns  naturally  iadined;  and 
wA$  placed  under  AnmiDuius  an  Egyptian,  who,  having 
lau^t  philosophy  with  i epoUtion  at  Ai^xandrta,  tbenoa 
emVelled  into  Greece,  and  settled  at  Athens.  Under  this 
Qiaster  he  made  great  advances  in  knowledge,  but  being 
mors  intent  on  things  than  words,  he  neglected  the  Ian* 
guages.  The  Eoman  language  at  that  time  was  not  only 
the  language  of  Rpme,  but  of  Greece  also^  and  nMich 
iPdofe  used  there  thao  the  French  is  now  in  England.  .Yd 
he  was  so  far  from  regarding  it  then,  that,  as  we  learn 
from  himself,  be  did  not  become  conversant  in  it  till  .the 
decline  of  life;  and,  though  he  is  supposed  to  have  re* 
sided  in  Rome  near  forty  years,  at  different  times,  he  ne^er 
>eems  to  have /aoquir^d  a  competent  skill  in  it. 

After  he  had  received  his  first  instructions  from  Ammo* 
nius,  he  considered  with  himself,  that  a  larger  comnipnc» 
cation  .with  the  wise  and  learned  was  yet  necessary,  and 
therefore  resolved  to  travel.  Egypt  was,  at  that  time,  at 
formerly  it  ,bad  been,  famous  for  learning  |  and  probably 
ibemysterieusness  of  their  doctrine  might  ten^pt  him,  as 
il  had  tempted  Pythagoras  and  others,  to  conirerse  with 
the  priesthood  of  that  country.  This  appears  to  have  been 
partionUrly  his  business,  by  bis  treatise  *^  Of  Isis  and 
Osiris,*'  in  which  he  shews  himself  versed  .in  the  ancient 
theology  and  philosophy  of  the  wise  men.  From  Egypt 
he  returned  into  Greece';  and,  visiting  in  bis  way  all  the 
academies  and  schools  of  the  philosophers,  gathesed  from 
them  many  of  those  observations  with  which  he  has . Abun<* 
dantly  enriched  posterity.  He  does  not  seem  to.  have 
been  attached  to  any  particular  sect,  but  chose  from  each 
0f  them  whatever  be  thought  excellent  and  worthy  to  be 
regarded.  He  could  not  bear  the  paradoxes  of  the  Stoics, 
foib  yet  was*  morearverse  to  the  impiety  of  the  Epicureans  : 
in  many  things  he  followed  Aristotle ;  but  his  favourites 
were  Socrates  and  Plato,  whose  memory  he  reverenced  so 
highly,  that  he  annually  celebrated  their  birth -days^  with 
tnu^Qh  solemnity.  Besides  this,  he  applied  himself  with 
extreme  diligence  to  collect,  not  only  all  books  thai  wete 
excellent  in  their  kind,  hut  also  all  the  sayings  ami  obser- 
vations of  wise  meo,  v^bich  he  had  heard  in  conversation^ 
or  had  received  fsom  others  by  tradition ;  ainl  likewise  to 
consult  the  records  and  public  instruments  preserved  in 
eitiea  which  he  had  visited,  in  his  travels.  He  took  a  par- 
jlici^lar  journey  ta  Sparta,  to  search  the  ar(5hives  of  that 

T«  PL  U  T  A  R  C  H. 

famous  comaionwealth,  to  understand  thoroughly  the  inp<^ 
del  of  their  ancient  government^  the  history  of  their  Iegis<i* 
lators,  their  kings,  and  their  ephori;  and  digested  all 
their  niemorable  deeds  and  sayings  with  so  much  care,  that 
he  has  not  omitted  even  those  of  their  women.  He  took . 
the  same  methods  with  regard  to  many  other  common- 
wealths; and  thus  Wias  enabled  tpleaye  in  his  works  such 
observations  upon  men  and  manners,  as  have  rendered 
bim,  in  the  opinion  of  many,  the  most  valuable  author  of 

The  circumstances  of  Plutarch's  life  are  not  known,  and 
therefore  cannot  be  related  with  any  exactness.  He  was 
married,  and  his  wife'«  name  was  Timoxena,  as  Rualdus^ 
conjectures  with  probability.  He  had  several  children, 
and  among  them  two  sons,  one  called  Plutarch  after  him- 
self, the  other  Lamprias,  in  memory  of  his  grandfather. 
Laraprias  was  he,  of  all  his  children,  who  seems  to  have 
inherited  his  fatber^s  philosophy;  and  to  him  we  owe  the 
table  or  catalogue  of  Plutarch's  writings,  and  perhaps  also 
his  "Apophthegms."  He  had  a  nephew,  Sextus  Chsero- 
neus,  who  taught  the  emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  the  Greek 
language,  and  was  much  honoured  by  him.  Some  think 
that  the  critic  Longin us  was  of  his  family  ;  and  Apuleius, 
in  tbe  first  book  of  his  Metamorphoses,  affirms  himself  to 
be  diescended  from  him. 

On  what  occasion,  and  at  what  time  of  his  life,  he  went 
to  Rome,  how  long  he  lived  there,  and  when  he  finally  re- 
turned to  his  own  country,  are  all  uncertain.  It  is  pro- 
bable, that  the  fame  of  him,  went  thither  before  him,  not 
only  because  he  had  published  several  of  bis  works,  but 
because  immediately  upon  his  arrival,  as  there  is  reason  to 
beilieve,  he  had  a  great  resort  of  the  Roman  nobility  to  hear 
him  :  for  he  tells  us  himself,  that  he  was  so  taken  up  in 
giving  lectures  of  philosophy  to  the  great  men  of  Rome, 
that  he  bad  not  time  to  make  himself  master  of  the  Latin 
tongue,  which  is  one  of  the  first  things  that  would  natu* 
rally  have  engaged  his  attention.  It  appears,  that  he  was 
several  times  at  Rome ;  and  perhaps  one  motive  to  his  in- 
habiting there  was,  the  intimacy  he  had  contracted  in  some 
of  these  journeys  with  Sossius  Senecio,  a  great  and  worthy 
man,  who  had  been  four  times  consul,  and' to  whom  Pla* 
tarch  has  dedicated  many  of  his  lives.  ,  But  the  great  in^^ 
ducement  which  carried  him  first  to  Rome  was,  undoubt- 
edly, that  which  had  carried  him  into  so  many  other  parts 



of  the  world ;  'namely,  to  make  obserTadoos  upon  men 
aadomnners,  ^nd  to  collect  materials  for  writing  ^^  The 
hvves  of  the  Roman  Worthies,"  in  the  same  manner  as  he 
bad  already  written  those  of  Greece :  and,  accordingly, 
he  not  only  conversed  with  all  the  living,  but  searched  the 
records  of  the  Capitol,  and  of  all  the  libraries.  Not  but, 
as  we.  learn  from  Suidas,  he  was  entrusted  also  with  the 
management  of  public  affairs  in  the  empire,  during  his 
residence  in  the  metropolis :  >^  Plutarch,''  says  he,  ^'  liyed 
in  thcf  time  of  Trajan,  who  bestowed  on  him  the  consular 
ornaments,  and  also  caused  an  edict  to  be  passed,  that  the 
magistrates  or  o6Scers  of  Illyria  should  do  nothing  in  that 
province  without  his  knowledge  and  approbation.'' 

When»  and  how,  he  was  made  known  to  Trajan,  is  like- 
vvise  uucertain :  but  it  is  generally  supposed,  that  Trajan, 
a  private  man  when  Plutarch  first  came  to  Rome,  was, 
among  other  nobility,-  one  of  his  auditors.  It  is  also  sup* 
posed,  that  this  wise  emperor  made  use  of  him  in  bis 
councils ;  and  much  of  the  happiness  of  his  reign  has  been 
imputed  to  Plutarch.  The  desire  of  visiting  his  native 
country,  so  natural  to  all  men,  and  especially  when  grow- 
ing old,  prevailed  with  him  at  length  to  leave  Italy ;  and^ 
at  bis.returo,  he  was  unanimously  chosen  archon,  or  chief 
magistrate,  of  Ch^eronea,  and  not  long  a;fter  admitted  into 
the  number  of  the  Delphic  ApoUo's  priests.  We  have  no^ 
psyrticulir  aqcount  of  hi^  death,  .either  as  to  the  manner  or 
the. year;  but  conjecture  has  fixed  it  about  the  year  120. 
It  is  evident  that  he  lived,  and  continuc^d  his  studies,  to  an 
extreme  old  age; 

His  works  have  been  divided,  and  they  admit  of  a  tole- 
rably equal  division,  into  "  Liv^s"  and  **  Morals:"  the 
former  of  which,  in  his  own  estimation,  were  to  be  pre- 
feitred,  as  more  noble  than  the  latter.  As  a  biographer 
he  has  ^reat  merit,  and  to  him  we  stand  indebted  for 
jnuch  of  the  knowledge  we  possess,  concerning  several  of 
the  most  eminent  personages  of  antiquity.  His  style  per- 
haps may  be  justly  censured  for  harshness  and  obscurity, 
and  be  has  also  been  criticized  for  some  mistakes  in  Roman 
antiquities,  and  for  a  little  partiality  to  the  Greeks.  On 
tile  other,  band,  he  has  been  justly  praised,  for  sense,  learn^ 
^%9  integrity,  and  a  certain  air  of  goodness,  which  ap- 
pear^  in  all  he  wrote.  Some  have  affirmed  his  works  to 
be  a  kind  of  library,  and  collection  of  all  that  was.  wisely 
iaid.^nd,  done  among  the  ancient  Greeks  and  Romans;; 




aod  if  sp,  the  saying  of  Theodoras  Gasa  was  not  extrair*- 
gaot.  This  learned  man,  and  great  predeptor  of  the  Gredi: 
tongae  at  the  revival  of  literature,  being  asked  by  a  friend 
t  ^<  If  learntngniust  suffer  a  general  shipwreck,  and  he  have 
only  his  choice  of  one  author  to  be  preserved,  who  that 
author  should  be  ?"  answered, ''  Plutarch.'"  But  although 
it  is  unquestionable  that  in  extent  and  variety  of  learning 
Piuti^rch  had  few  equals^  he  does  not  appear  to  have  ex- 
celled as  much  in,  depth  and  solidity  of  judgment  Wbetis 
be  expresses  bis  own  conceptions  and  opinions,  be  often 
auppGurts  fthem  by  feeble  and  slender  arguments^:  where  be 
ireports,  and  attempts  to  elucidate,  the  opinions  of  others, 
he  frequently  falls  into  mistakes,  or  is  chargeable  witk 
fliisrepresentatiofis.  In  proof  of  this  assertion/ Br ucker 
meptions  what  he  has  advanced  concerning  Plato's  notion 
^f  the  soul  of  the  world,  and  concerning  the  £ptcureati 
philosophy.  Bruoker  addbi,  that  Plutarch  is  often  inaccu*- 
irate  in  method,  and  sometimes  betrays  a  degree  of  eredu- 
iity  u  nworthy  of  a  philosopher. 

'^  There  have  been  many  editions  of  Plutarch,  but  he  canne 
later  to  the  press  than  most  other  classical  authors*  There 
4vas  00  edition  of  any  part'  of  the  original  Greek,  before 
Aldus  prii^ted  the  ^^  Morals,"  which  was  not  until  1509% 
n^he  *^  Lives"  appeared  first  at  Florence,  by  Junta,  in  1517. 
/The  first  edition  of  the  ^^  Opera  Omnia,"  was  Stephen'^ 
at  Paris,  in  157d,  Greek  and  Latin,  13  vols.  Dr.  Harwood 
ealls  it  one  of  the  most  correct  books  H.  Stephens  evei* 
fMibtished ;  but  other  crities  are  by  no  means  of  this  opi* 
nion.  The  next  was  that  of  Cruserius,  at  Francfort,  1599^ 
•2  vols,  folio)  wh;ch  has  the  advantage  of  Xylander's  excel- 
lent'Latin  version,  who  himself  published  two.  editions, 
Ffanofort,  1620,  and  Paris,  1624,  2^bk.  folio;  both  va^ 
iuable*  Reiske's,  of  Leipsic,  1774>  &c.  12  vols,  ^o,  is 
a  oiost  elaborate  edition,  which,  however,  he  did  not  live 
to  finish.  .But  the  best  of  all  is  that  of  Wy  ttenbacb,  pub- 
lished lately  at  Oxford  in  quarto  and  octavo,  and  too  wbll 
'known  to  scholars  to  require  any  description. 
'  Plutarch's  Works  have  been  translated  into  most  Euro- 
pean kmguftges.  There  is  an  indiffeVentone  in  English  by 
^^rious  bands  of  the  ^'  Morals,"  printed  about  the  begins 
ning  of  the  last  century,  in  five  volumes,  octavo ;  which.was 
acc^ompanied,  about  the  same  time,  by  the  ^'  Lives,'^  trans- 
lated by  Dry  den  and  others  :  a  very  superior  transrlation  of 
she  latter  was  published  by  Dr.  Langhorne  and  bis  brother^ 

P  L  UTAH  C,H- 


f    O 

^kh  has  been  since  corrected,  and  very  much  im{)roved| 
bj  Rir.  WranghatS.  A  good  translation  of  the  "Morals'*  is 
still  a  desideratum.  * 

PLUVINEL  (ANTOiire),  a  gentleman  of  Dftuphtny,  is  ^ 
recoi;ded  as  the  first  who  opened  a  school  for  riding  the 
manege  in  Frauce,  which,  till  then,  could  be  learhed  only 
in  Italy.    He  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IV.  who  mad«f' 
him  bis  chief  master  of  the  horse,  and  his  chamberlain ; 
besides  which,  he  sent  him  as  an  ambassador  into  Holland.  * 
He  died  at  Paris  in  162^,  having  prepared  a  work,  which 
was  published  five  years  after,  entitled  **  VArt  de  montet 
i  Cheval,^'  folio,  with  plates.   The  figures  are  portraits,  by 
Crispin  de  Pas.  * 

POC0CK  (Edward),  a  learned  English  divine,  and  the 
first  Oriental  scholar  of  his  time,  was  th^  son  of  Edward 
Pocock,  B.  D.  some  time  fellow  of  Magdalen  college,  Ox* 
ford,  and  vicar  of  Chively  in  Berkshire.  He  was  born  at 
Oxford  Nov.  8,  1604,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Peter  in  th<$ 
East.  He  was  sent  early  to  the  free-school  of  Thame, 
where  be  made  such  progress  in  classical  learning,  undef 
Mr.  Richard  Butcher,  an  excellent  teacher,  that  at  the&g^ 
of  fourteen  he  was  thought  fit  for  the  univ^sity,  and  ac*^ 
^ordingly  was  entered  of  Magdalen^hall.  After  two  years 
residence  here,  he  was  a  candidate  for,  and  after  a  vtrf 
strict  examination,  was  elected  to,  a  scholarship  of  Corpus  v 
Christi  college,  to  which  he  removed  in  December  1620,' 
Here,  besides  the  usual  academical  courses,  be  diligently 
perused  the  best  Greek  and  Roman  authors,  and,  among' 
some  papers  writjten  by  him  at  this  time,  were  many  ob* 
servations  and  extracts  from  Quintilian,  Cicero,  Plutarchi 
Plato,  &c.  which  discoveif*  no  common  knowledge  of  what 
he  read.  In  November  1622,  he  was  admitted  bachelor  of 
iurts,  and  about  this  time  was  led,  bywhat  means  we  are 
not  told,  to  apply  to  the  study  of  the  Eastern  language^: 
which  at  that  time  were  taught  privately  at  Oxford  by 
Matthew  Pasor.  (See  Pasor).  In  ^arch  1626,  he  wat 
created  M.  A.  and  having  learned  as  much  as  Pasor  then** 
professed  to  teact^,  he  found  another  able  tutor  for  Easti^rti 
literature  in  the  Rev.  William  Bed  well,  vicar  of  Tottenham  j 
near  London,  whom  his  biographer  praises  as  one  6f  th^' 
first  who  promoted  the  study  of  the  Arabic  language  id^ 

t  Life,  in  Lang^honie's  edition. -—Saxii  OnomMtk 
"^  Moreri.— 'Dick,  itist. 

YoL.  XXY. 


«2  P  O  C  O  C  K. 

Europe.  Under  this  master  Mr.  Pocock  advanced  consider- 
lably  in  what  was  now  become  his  favourite  study ;  and  had 
otherwise  so  much  distinguished  himself  that  the  college 
admitted  him  probationer-fellow  in  July  162S. 

As  the   statutes  required  that  he  should   take  orders  ^ 
within  a  certain  time,  he  applied  to  the  study  of  divinity  ; 
and  while  employed  in  peinising  the  fathers,  councils,  and 
ecclesiastical  writers,  he  found  leisure  to  exhibit  a  speci- 
men'of  his  progress  in  the  oriental  languages  by  preparing 
for  the  press  those  parts  of  the   Syriac   version   of  the 
New  Testament  which  had  never  yet  been  published.     Igj- 
natius,  the  patriarch  of  Antioch,  had  in  the  sixteenth  cen« ' 
tury  sent  Moses  Meridinaius,  a  priest  of  Mesopotamia,  into 
the  West,  to  get  the  Syriac  version  of  the  New  Testament 
printed,'  for  the  use  of  his  churches.     It  was  accordingly  ' 
printed  Jt>y  the  care  and  diligence  ef  Albertus  Widmanstdd,' 
at  Vienna  in  1555.     But  the  Syriac  New  Testament,  which' 
was  followed  in  this  edition,  wanted  the  second  Epistle  of 
3t.  Peter,  the  second  and  third  Epistles  of  St.  John,' the 
Epistle  of  St.  Jude,  and  the  whole  book  of  the  Revelations, 
because,  as  Lewis  de  Dieu  conjectures,  those  parts  of  boty^ 
Scripture^  though  extant  among  them,  were  not  yet  re-»' 
ceiv<sd  into  the  Canon  by  those  Oriental  Churches.     This' 
defect  no  one  had  thought  of  supplying  until  De  Dieo,  on 
the   encouragement,    aud  with   the   assistance  of  Oaniei 
Heinsius,  set  about  the  Revelation,  being  furnished  with  a' 
copy  of  it,  which  had  been* given,  with  many  other  mtanu* 
scripts,;  to  the  university  of  Leyden  by  Joseph  Scaliger. 
Tba.t  version  of  tbe^pocalypse  was  printed  at  Leyden,  in 
]^27,  but  still  the  four  Epistles  were  wanting,  and  those 
Mr.  Pocock  undertook,    being   desirous   that  the  whole 
New. Testament  might  at  length  be'  published  in  that  lan- 
guage, which  was  the  vulgar  tongue  of  our  Saviour  himself 
and  bis  apostles.   A  very  fair  manuscript  for  this  purpose  he 
Jbad  met  with  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  containing  those  Epis* 
ties,  together  with  some   other  parts  of  the  New  Testa« 
Q)ent.     Out  of  this  manuscript^  following  the  example  of 
De  Dieu,  he  transcribed  those  epistles  in  the  Syriac  cha- 
racter: the  same  be  likewise  set  down  in  Hebrew  letters, 
adding'the  points,  not  according  to  the  ordinary,  but  the 
Svriac  rules,  as  they  had  been  delivered  by  those  Ieame4 
Maronites,    Amira   and  ,  Sionita.      He  also  made  a  neir 
translation  of  these  epistles  out  of  Syriac  into  Latin^  com- 
paring it  with  that  of  Etzelius,  and  shewing  on  Tarioi|^ 

.    P  O  C  O  C  K.  «3 

pccasioRs  die  .reason  of  hb  4issent  frqin  htm.  He  also, 
added  the.  original  Greek)  concluding  the  whole  with  a 
number  of  learn^ci  and  useful  notes.  Wlien  fkiisbed^  al- 
though with  the  utmost  care  and  exactnessi  yet  so  great 
was'his  modesty  and  distrust  of  himself,  that  he  could  not 
be|>erauadfd  to  think  It  fit  for. publication,  till  after  it  had 
lain  by  him  about  a  year,  when  he  was  induced  to  consent ' 
to  it^  pub|]cat,ion  by  Gerard  John  Vossius,  who  was  then 
at  Oxford,  and  to  whom  it  had  been  shown  by  Rouse,  the 
ibrariaq,  as  the  production  of  a  young  man  scarcely 
twenty- four  years  old.  Vossius  not  only  persuaded  him  to 
allow  it  tp  be  printed,  but  promised  to  take  it  with  him  to 
Leyden  for  that  purpose.  It  was  accordingly  published 
there  in  1630,  4to,  after  som^  few  corrections  and  altera- 
tions in  the  Latin  version,  in  which  Mr.  Pofock  readily 
acquiesced,  .from  the  pen  of  L^wis  de  Dieu,  to  whoni 
Vossius  committed  the  care  of  the  work. 

In  Dec.  1629  Mr.  Pocpck.  was  ordained  prieit  by  Cor- 
bet, bishop  of  Oxfor<),  by  whom  he  had  some  tifne  before, 
^een  admitted  into  deacon^s  orders,  and  was  now  appointed 
chaplain  to  the  English  merchants  at  Aleppo,  where  he 
arrived  in  Oct.  1630,  and  continued  five  or  six  years. 
Here  he  distlnguishejd  himself  by  an  exemplary  discharge 
of  the  duties  of  bis  function,  and  when  the  plague  broke 
out  in, 1634,  was  not  to  be  diverted  from  what  he  thought 
hii^  duty,  when  the  merchanta  fled  to  the  moUntsiins ;  but 
continued  to  administer  such  comfort  as  was  possible  to  the 
inhabitants , of , the  city^  and  the  merpy  on  which  he  relied 
for  his  own  preservation,  was  remarkably  extiehded  to  his 
countrymen,  not  one  dying  either  of  those  who  left,  or 
tho^e  who  remained  in  the  city.  While  here  he  paid  con- 
siderable attention  to  the  natural  history  of  the  place^  aa 
jEar  as  concerned  the  illustration  of  the  Scriptures,  arid  be- 
«des  making  some  farther  progress  in  the  Hebrew,  Syriac, 
and  Ethiopic  languages,  took  the.  opportunity  which  his. 
jiituation  afforded  of  acquiring  a  familiar  knowledge  of  the 
Arabic.  For  this  purpose  he  agreed  with  an  Arabian  doc- 
tor to  give  him  lessons,  .and  engaged  also  a  servant  of  the 
same  country  to  live  with  him  for  the  sake  of  conversing 
in  the  language.  He  also  studied  such  grammars  an4^ 
^xipons  as  he  could  find  ;  read  the  Alcoran  with  ^reat  care, 
^nd  translated  much  from  books  in  the  Arabic,  particularly 
.a. collection  which  be  procured  pf  6000  proverbs,  contain- 
ing the  wisdom  pf  the  Arabians,  and  referring  to  ibe  most 

Q  2 

84  f  O  C  O  C  K. 

»  '  -     • 

nemarkable  passages  of  their  history.  These  bpportttnitier 
and  advantages  in  time  reconciled  liitti  to  a  situation  which 
at  first  greatly  depressed  .his  spirits ;  the  transition  indeed 
from  Oxford  and  its  scholars  to  Aleppo  and  its  barbarians, 
could  not  but  affect  a  man  of  his  disposition. 

Another  object  he  had  very  much  at  heart  while  here,  wnsi 
the  purchase  of  Arabic  MSS.  in  which  he  had  considerable 
success.  This  appears  at  fWst  to  have  been  done  at  hia/ 
private  expence  and  for  his  private  use;  but  in  a  letter 
from  Laud,  then  bishop  of  London,  dated  Oct  30,  1631^ 
^e  received  a  commission  from  that  munificent  prelate, 
which  must  have  been  highly  gratifying  to  him,  especially 
as  he  had  no  previous  acquaintance  with  his  lordship.  Tb^ 
bishop's  commission  extended  generally  to  the  purchase  ot 
ancient  Creek  coins,  and  such  MSS.  either  in  the  Greek 
or  Eastern  languages,  as  he  thought  would  form  a  valuably 
addition  to  the  university  library.  Whether  any  the  MS&f. 
afterwards  given  by  Laud  to  the  Bodleian  were  procured 
at  this  time  seems  doubtful*  In  a  letter  from  Laud,  theit 
archbishop,  dated  May  1634^  we  find  him  thanking  Pocock 
for  some  Greek  coins,  but  no  mention  of  manuscripts.  lit 
this  lettec,  however,  is  the  first  intimation  of  the  arch* 
bishop^s  design  with  respect  to  the  foundation  of  an  Ara- 
bic professorship  at  Oxford,  and  a  hope  that  Pocock,  be-^ 
fore  his  return,  would  so  far  make  himself  master  of,  that 
language  as  to  be  able  to  teach  it  And  having  carried 
his  design  into  execution  about  two  years  afterwards,  he 
invited  Mr.  Pocock  to  fill  the  new  chair,  with  these  en- 
.couraging  words,  that  ^^  he  could  do  him  no  greater  honour, 
than  to  name  him  to  the  university  for  his  first  professor.*^ 
His  departure  from  Aleppo  seems  to  have  been  much  re^ 
jetted  by  his  Mahometan  friends,  to  whom  he  had  en- 
deared  himself  by  his  amiable  manners ;  and  it  appears  also 
that  he  had  established  such  a  correspondence  as  might  stiQ 
enable  him  to  procure  valuable  manuscripts. 

On  his  return  he  was  admitted,  July  8,  1636,  to  the 
degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity.  On  the  8th  of  August  fol- 
lowing Dr.  Baillie,  president  of  St.  John^s,  and  vice-chan^ 
cellor,  informed  the  convocation  that  archbishop  Laud^ 
then  chancellor  of  the  university,  in  addition  to  his  bene- 
faction of  Arabic  books  to  the  Bodleian^  had  founded  a 
professorship,  and  had  settled  40/.  a-year,  during  his  life, 
on  a  person  who  shotild  read  a  lecture  on  that  language : 
He  then  mentioned  Mr.  Pocock  of  Corpus  Cbristi  as  tbb 

^  O  C  O  C  Jf.  ^ 

.penoD  nomioated  by  jthe  arcbbisliop  far  tha  «>mmibation  pf 

^^  coovocatiqu,  a  man^  as  .tbey  yenr  well  knew^  ^'^mi- 

jaeni  for  bis.  probiijiry  bislfarniag,  and  skill  i|i. languages.** 

Sein^  .accordingly  y^naniiliously  elected,  ^e  entered  on  i|ia 

.  oifiGe  two  days  aftcfi  Aug.  10,  witb  an  inaugural  speeqb, 

part  of  wbicb  was  afterwards  pripted,  ^  aid  Diiem  nots^rum 

in  Carpaefi  Tograi/'  edU*  Qxon.  1661^    After  thi^  iotro- 

,  ductipn,  ithe^  bpoki  wbicb  be  firs^  .uqdertook  to  r^ad  op, 

.  was  tbe  **  Pje;oyjerbs  of  AH,'*  tb^  fourttp  emperor  of  the  Sa- 

.j^ceus,  and  cpusin-gefipao  «4)d  son-in-l^w  of  •M^boo)e^;»  a 

^jnan  of  ;^ucb  ^ccovat  witb  tbftt  loipostor,  not  only  for  I^is 

valour,  bui  knowledge  too,  ibat  be  us.<^  to  declare,  thkt 

;  if^U  ri^e  lieari^ng  of  the.  Axabi^Qs  were  destroyed,  it  migbt 

,.be  foiindtagaia  ifi  AU,.  as  a  Jiving  library.    Upon  tbis 

book  J  Q,b^v^ng  tbp  dir^ctiana  9f  tbe  acebbisbop  in  tbe 

[  .^tiites  be^b^d  prp]i^i4^4i  <^e  wept  an  bour^everv  Wedn^« 

•  f^yM  vf^^tioa-tioie,  ap{l  ifx  jC^nt,  e;KpMaing  th^  sfense  of 

the  au^fsr^  and  the  jtbipgs  relating  to  thf  igr^mi^ar  a|id 

propri€fty  of  tbe  langfiage,  s^d.alfo^bewipg  it^  ^greem^ot 

witb  tbe  Hebr/ew|ai(d  ^y^ao^as^fteii  as  (bene  wi^  p^casipn. 
Tbe  lectf^c;  bei^g  eo^^d,^^  be  usually  ije^ain^d  fpr  soqae 
^  time  iq  t^e  piiUic  acbpol,  to  j^sphe  the  q^ue^tipns  pf  bis 
s  bearers,  ^a^d  satisfy  tbiem  iii  tbair  doubts;  and  always  ttiat 
i^fternopn  gave  ad^^^nee  i^  Jiis.cbapiber  from  one  p'clppk 
.  till  four^  ;to  all  wbo  wottld  come  to  ^iii|\fpr  fi^rtber  cp^« 
^  Jferen^e  aod  direction.  • 

He  dpes^  not  ftppear^^  j^owever,  |o  \^ye  .given  ^ore  tb^n 

one  cpqrse  of  tbpse  lectures  before  be  tooK^  ^econd  jpyr- 

ney  tp  the  Ea^t,  f long  with  Mr*  Jpbn  6rp?tvps,  and  this  by 

.  tbe  arcbbisbop's  epcomf^en^nt,  who  was  still  bent  on 

prppuriqg  OA^yseripts,  a^d  wppld  not  Ipse,  the  advantage 

of  sucb  ageptjE^.    The  arc^bbisbop  also  allowed  him  the  pro- 

. .  fius  of  bis  professorship  to  defray  bis  e^pences,  besides  which 

,\  Mr.  Pocopk  ^^oyed  hi^  fellowship  of  ippr|ius,  and  ba4  a 

.  ^mall  ^^t^  hj  the  d^ath  of  bis  ^Uxpr.    The  whole  annual 

I  pjifpduce  of  t(\k^9e  be  is  supposed  tp  have  expended^  in  diis 

expeditipn,    Puring  bis  absence  Ijilr.  Thomas  Greaves,  with 

,the  a^chbishpp's  cpu^en^  supplied  the  Arabic  lecture.     On 

]^.  Poppqk*s  a^r^Kal  at  Cottstantinc^ple,  the  English  am- 

.^  .bjiss^^dpT)  ^^ir  P^ter  Wypbe,  enteiitained  him  in  his  hpuse 

.  as  bif^  i^bf^plain,  fnd  pssisted  him«  by  his  interest,  in  the 

.  gr;^at.  pt^ject  of  bis  jpumey.     In  pursuit  of  this  he  made 

.    9^f^^:f^^^^^  acc^uaintanqes  among  some  learned  Jews, 

...iP»rtMpjariy  J[fico|>:fto|i^no,  author  of  an. addition  to  Bpx- 


86  ?  b  c  b  c  K. 

tdtPs  "  Biblioth'eca  Rabbinica/*  a  man  of  great  learnmff 
'and  candour ;  but  his  abfest  assistant  wks  the  learned  and 
tinfortuhatb  Cyril  Lucdr,  panriarch  of  Constantinople  (see 
'  LiJCAft),  to  whom  we  owfe  that  valuable  MS.  the  **  Codex 
;  AlexabdVinus  ;**  and  Nath.  Canoprus;  who  to  avdid  the  fatfe 
'of  bis  blaster  Ltkcar;  came  to  England,  and  lived  for  some 
"  time  under  the  patronage  of  archbishop  Laud,  who  gave 
"^  bim   preferment  in  Christ  church,    from  which  be  was 
'  ejected  in  164^.  '  Ite  derived  some  assistance  also'froift  bis 
''  fellow-labourer  in  th^  collection  of  books  and  M8S.  Chris- 
tian Raviusy'  biit  especially  from  John  Greaves,  whose  zeal 
"in  this  research'  we  have  already  noticed.  ' 

At  length  about  the  beginning  of  1640,  Mri  Pocock's 

y friends  began  to, solicit  his  return;    the  archbishop  in  a 

letter  dated  March  4  6f  that  year  says,  **  I  am  now  goit^g 

to  settle  my  Afabit;  lecture  for  ever  upon  the  university, 

and  I  would  hive  your  name  tb  the  deed,  which  is.  the 

best  honourt  can  do  for  the  service/'     Accordingly  he 

embarked  in  August,  but'  did  not  relufii  home  entirely  by 

sea,  but  through  (jart  of  France  and  Italy.     At  Paris  he 

wak  introduced  to  many'  of  the  learned  men  of  the  time, 

^'pai^ticularly  td  Gabriel  Sionita,  the  celebrated  Maroniie, 

]  audi  to  Grotiujs,  to  whom  he  communicated  a  design  he  had 

'  of  translating  his  treatise  "  De  Veritate**  into  Arabic,  for 

the  benefit  of  tUe  Mitbometa'ns,  many  of  wbom  be  believed 

were  prepared  for  more  light  and  knowledge  than  had  yet 

been  afforded  them,    l^ocock  at  the  same  time  candidly  told 

*  Gfotius,  who  very  much  approved  the  desi^gh,  that  there 
'were  some  things  towards  the  end  of  his  book,  which  he 
'could  not  approve,  viz.  certaiir  opinions,  which,  though 

'   they  are  commonly  in  Europe  charged  on  the  followers  of 

*  Mahomet,  have  yet  no  foundation  in  any  of  their  authentic 
^  writings,  and  are  such  as  they  are  ready  on  all  occasions  to 
'   disclaim.    With  this  freedom  Grotius  was*  so  far  from 

being  displeased,  that  he  beaVtily  thanked  Mr.  Pocbck  for 
'  it,  and  gave  him  authority,  in  the  version  life  intended,  to 
'    e^pun^e  and  alter  whatsoever  he  should  think  fit.  ' 

His  journey  home  was  attended  with  many  melancholy 
circumstances.  While  at  Paris,  and  on  the  rokd,  helieardi 
of  the  commotions  in  England,  and  on  iii^  arrival,  be 
found  his  liberal  patron,  Laud,  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower. 
Here  he  immediately  visited  the  archbishop,  and  their  in- 
terview was  affecting  on  both  sides.  '  The  archbishop 
*'  thanked  bim  for  the  care  he  bad  taken  in  execnting  hia 

P  D  C  0  C  SU  87 

cominissioiit,  aod  for  bis  interesting  correspondence  while 
abrOiad,  adding  that  it  was  no  small  aggravation  of  his  pr^' 
sent  misfortunes  that  be  no  longer  h^d  it  in  his  power  lo- 
'  reward  such  important  services  to  the  cause  4t>f  literature. 
]^Mr.  Pocock  then  went  to  Oxford,  to  dissipate  has  grief^ 
'  and  in  hopes  of  enjoying  sooie  tranquillity  in   a  place 
^  which  ha4  Dot  yet  becontie  the  scene  of  confusion ;  arid 
]  there  he  found  that  the  archbishop  had  settled  the  Arabic 
pfGffessofship  in  perpetuity  by  a  gf&nt  of  lands.     He  hch/r 
resumed  his  lecture,  and  his  private  studies.     In  iC4i  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  celebrated  Jcihn  Seldeh,  who 
was  at  this  time  preparing  for  the  press,  with  no  very  libe* 
ral  design,  some  part  qf  Eutychius's  annals,  iit  Latin  and 
Arabic,  which  he  published  the  year  following,    under 
the  title  of  **  Ori^nes  Alexaudrinae,"  and  'Mr.  Pocoek 
assisted  him  in  collating  and  extracting  from  the  Arabic 
books  in  Oxford.     Selden^'s  friendship  was  afterwards  of 
'  great  importance  to  him,  as  be  had  considerable  infiuen^e 
with  the  republican  party.     In  1642  Oxford  becaiiie  the 
[  seat  of  wair,'  and  was  that  of  learning  only  in  a  secondary 
degree.     Mr.  Pocock  was  however '  removed  from  a  coti« 
stant  residence  for  some  time,  by  the  society^  of  Cdr«A 
'  pus  Christi',  who  bestowed  on  him  the  vacant  liyiBg  of  Cbil« 
'  drey  in  Berkshire,  about  twelve  miles  frokd  Oxford,  which 
of  course  he  could  easily  visit  during  term  tiihe,  when  he 
was  to  read  his  lecture.     As  a  pai^ish  priest^  his  biogVapber 
'  informs  iis,  xthat  *^  he  set  hidiself  with  bis  utmost  diligence 
to  a  conscientious  performatice  of  all  the  ddties  of  his  -cure, 
preaching  twice'  ev^ery  Sunday ;  ajnd  his  Sermons  were  so 
contrived  by  him,  as  to  be  most  usefufto  the  {iersons  who 
were  to  hear  him.     For  though  such  as  he  preached  in  the 
university  were  very  elaborate,^  and  full  of  critical  atid 
other  learning"^  the  discourises  he  delivered 'in  his  parish 
Were  plain  tmd  "easy,    having  nothiri^  in  them  which  be 
'  conceived  to  be  above  the  capacities  even  of  the  mean- 
est of  his  abditors.      And  as   be  cateftilly  avoided  all 
ostehtatioh    of    Icfarhidg^,   'so    hb    wodld    not    indulge 
himself  in   the  practice  of  those    arts,    which    at   that 

*«  Laliiii  *ad ereti Qreefc  fdrmed  no  tbey  likdd  hint?    One  of  them  mi- 

.   VieoMt^eri^bh}  p9tijt  of  theaennoBB  of  uwere6,  **  Onr  fc'anoa  it  one  Mr.  Po* 

<    U>Qse  days.  ,  One  of    Mr.    Popock's  coqk,  a  plain,'  honest  man,  hmty  Mas- 

'    firiends,  as  be  ha^pet>ed  to ^asif through  ter,  they  say,  h«  is  no  Laiiner!"  Life^ 

CSttdre?,  asked  eooie  of  the  parish-  by  Twe^,  p.  23. .  / 
^ .  KMien  who  waa  their  ainisterr  and  how  ** 


is  TP  6  C  6  C  K. 


^tiiii(e.;W«r^.Tfry.  comxmUft  and  aiuch  admired  by  ordini^^ 

,  p^qpie;  s\icl^9s.  distortions  of  the  countenance,  and  stit^u^e 

gf^ures^  ,a  Tiplent.  and  unpat^ural  way  of  speakingi  i^nd 

jftffected  words  and, phrasesi^  which  being  out  of  the  orcU* 

Inaixy  way  were  therefore  supposed  to  express  somewhat 

i  i^y  oysJi^ciQus,   and  ia  an  high  degree  spiritual,     ^is 

.  conyerfiaUou  too,  was  one  continued  sennou,  powerfully  r^- 

comioendijig  to  all,  who  were  acquainted  with  him,  th^ 

.  seferal  duties  of  Christianity." 

r      But  ail  this^  found  no  protection  against  the  viojence  of 
.  di4Q  Uoa^.     Immediately  after  the  execution  of  archbishop 
L^udi  the  profits  of  his  professorship  were  seized  by  the 
.  i90qji}estratQrB|  as  part  oC  t|iat  pr^elajDe^a  estate^  although  Mr*. 
Pocock^.  in  ft  letter  to  theses  jsiegu^stmtOFs,  endeavoured  to 
«bew  the  utility  of  this  foundation,  to  thq  interests  pf  learn- 
ing, and  hi^  owji  rigjbt.  to.  the  settlement  of  ^be  founder^ 
which  was  .made  with  all  ibe  forms  of  la^«.    This  for  souie 
.  time  had^po  e£Sect.  but  at  last  men  werq  found  ^ven  in.  those 
,  days  wbo.wfu'e  chained  of  such  a  proci^eding,  and  bad  ti^e 
.  qourage  to.  expose  its  cruelty  a]p4  absurdii;y ;  and  in  1647 
.  the  salary  of  the  lecture  was.  restored,  by  the  interppsitipa 
.  of  Selden^  who  had  considerable  int^res/t  wit;l;i  the  usurpers. 
,  Dr.  Qerard'Langbaine  also^  the  proyost  of  Queen's  college, 
.  drew  up  a  long  instrument  ia  Latin,,  stating  the  Wal 
course  tak^n  by  the, archbishop  iq  tbe  foundation  of  tpe 
r  Arabic  lecture,  and  the  grant,  the  uniFersity  had  made  to 
-^  JAi.  PoQQck  of  its  profits.    Thb  fae^  and  some  others  pro- 
9>osf$c)  in  congregation,  and  the  seal  of  the  university  was 
.  affile  ed  to  it  widi  unanimous,  ponsent.  .About  the  saibe 
/  '  lime,  Mr.  Pocock  obtained  a  pnotficfcion  jfroo^  the  hapd  and 

^  Ileal  of  general  Fairfaz,^  agsdnsjb  tb(S  outrage  pf  the  spldiery^^ 
who  would  else  bave:  plupderiqd  his  jbaus^  without  m^rcy^ 

In  1648,  on  the  recommendation  of  I>r.  Sheldon  and 
Dr.  Hammond,  be  was  nomiua^d  Hebrew  projfessor^.  w^th 
the  canonry  of  Christ  church,  annexed*  bj  the  king,  then  a 
prisoner  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and.  YfM  soon,  after  voted 
ii^to  the  same  lecture  by  t|)e  Committee  of  Parliament, 
but  a  different  canonry  being  assigned  him  than  that  which 
had  been  annexed  to  tbeprofessorsbip^be  entered  a  protest 
against  it,  that  it  might  not  become  a  precedent,  and  pre- 
judice bis  successors.  In  tbe  interirp  be  found  leisure  and. 
composure  to  publish  at  Oxford,  in  the  latter  end  of  1649, 
his  very  learned  work  entitled  f  Specimen  Histprise  Ara- 
bum.'*    This  contains  a  short  discourse  Jn  Arabic,  witb 

Ibis  Latin  translation,  and  large  atid  very  useful  ndtelr. 
Tbe  discourse  itself  is  taken  out  of  the  general  History  y>f 
-Gregory  Abplfaragius,  being  his  introduction  to  bis  hii^th 
dynjBsty  (for  into  ten  dynasties  that  author  divided  tes 
work),  where  beins  aj6out  to  treat  of  the  empire  of  the  Sa«»« 
racens  or  Arabians,  be  gives  a  compendious  account  of  that 

'people  before  Mahom'et ;  as  also  of  that  impostor  hiii^sel4 
and  the  new  religion  introduced  by  him,  and  of  the  sev^i- 
;pal  sects  into  which  it  was  divided.  And  Mr.  Fbcoc'Ifs 
Notes  on  this  Discour-ie  area  colliection  of  a  great  variety 
of  things  relating  to  those  matters  out  of  more  than/ an 
hundred  Arabic  manuscripts,  a  catalogue  of  which  be  adds 
in  the  end  of  bis  book. 

In  November  1650,' about  a  year  after  publifihirig  the 
preceding  work,  he  wns -ejected  ff'om  his  canonry  of  Christ 

.  church  for  refusing  to.  take  the  engagement,  and  so  bn  after 
a  vote  passed  for  depiHving  him  of  the  HebreW  an  i  Arabic 
lectures ;  but  npon  a  petition  from  the  heads'  of  houses  at 
Oxford,  the  ras^ters,  scholars,  &c.  two  only  of  the  whbie 
number  of  stibscriber&  being  loyalists,  this  vole  wa^  reversed, 
and  he  was  suffered  to  enjoy  both  places,  and  took  iodg- 
iogs,  when  at  Oxfbr  3l,  in  Baliol  college.  '  In  1  655  a  more 
ridiculous  instance  of  persecution  wa^  intendec'i,  and  would 
have  been  indicted,  if  there  had'no^c  yet  beeu  some  sehse 
and  spirit  left  even  among  those  \rha  had  (Contributed  to 
Ibriiig  on  such  calainities.  It  appeaSrs  tha.t  some  of  bis 
parishioners  had  pnj^ehted  an  inibrmation  against  him  to 
the  comcnissioiiers  a  ppointed  by  Tparlidinen'c  *^  for  ejecting 
ignorant,  scaiidalousi^  insufficient^  apd  negligent  ministers.^* 
But  the  connection  of  the  name'  of  PococJil  with  such  epi- 
thets was  loo  gross  ''to  he  endured,,  and,  vv/e  are  told,  filled 
several ,  men  of  gn^at  fame  a'nd^mihence  at  that  time  at 
Oxford  with  indig^Bation,  in  coir'sequeh'ce  of  which  they 

.  resolved  to  go  to  t  be  place  whe/e  the  c  i>mmissioners  were 
to  meet,  and  exposltulate  with  th'em'abo  iit  it.  In  the  num- 
ber of  those  who!  went,  were  Dr,  Se;th  Ward,  Dr.  J6hn 
Wilkins,  Dr.  Johnj.  Wallis,  an/l  Dr.  John  Owen,  who  all 
laboured  with  mur'li  eaniestnes^^s  to  ccmvince  those  men  of 
the  Strang  absuriflity  of  what  they  were  undertaking ;  par- 
ticularly Dr..  Oweln,  who  eti'deavouredS.  with  some  warmth 
to  make  them  scjsnsible  of  the  infinite  contempt  and  re- 
proach, which  wjould  certainly  fall  u^on  them,  when   it 

,  should  be  said,  t  jlMtt  they  Tnad  turned  out  a  man  for  insuffi^ 
eienty,  whom  nl  I  the  jermted,  not' of  England  only,  bui 

so  P  O  C  O  C  K- 

of  all/Earope^  so  justly  admired  for  his  vast  knowledge 
and  .extraorditiary.  accomplistinients.  And  being  biin^f 
iHie  of  the  commissioners  appointed  by  the  act,  be  addedy 
that  he  was  now  come  to  deliver  himself,  as  well  as  h^ 
c^uld^  from  a  share  in  such  disgrace,  by  protesting  against 
a  proceeding  so  strangely  foolbh  and  unjust.  The  com- 
missioners being  very  much  mortified  at  the  remonstrances 
lof  so  many  eminent  men,  especially  of  Dr.  Owen,  in  whom 
they  had  a  particular  confidence,  thought  it  best  to  extri- 
cate themselves  froin  their  dilemma,  by  discharging  Mr. 
IV>cock  from  ady  farther  attendancp.  And  indeed  he  bad 
been  sufficiently  tired  with  it;  pis  persecution,  which 
lasted  (or  many  months,  being  the  most  grievous  to  him  of 
,  all  be  hud  undergone.  It  made  hi|ii,  as.he  declared  to  the 
work!  some  time  after,  in  the  peeface  to  the  ^Annates 
EutjxhiaVise,**  utterly  incapable  ofi  study,  it  being  impos- 
sible for  bim,  when  he  attempte(|  it,  duly  to  remember 
what  \\e  had  to  do,  or  to  apply  bisiself  to  it  with  any  at- 
tention^*  • 

In   the  setne  year   (1655)   Mr^  Pocoqk  published   bis 
'^  Porta  mosisi,'*  being  six  prefatory  discourses  of  Moses 
Maimonides,  which  in  the  original  were  Arabic,  expressed 
in  Hebrew  characters,  together  with  his  own  Latin  transla- 
lion  of  thiim,  aivd  a  very  large  appiendix  of  miscellaneous 
notes.    This  was.  the  first  producticm  of  the  Hebrew  press 
at' Oxford  from  types  procured,  at  the  charge  of  the  uni- 
versity, and  by  tbe  influence  of  Dr.  Lahgbaine..    In  the 
year  following,  Mr.  Pocock  appencs  to  have  entertained 
some  thoughts  of  piiblishing  the  liabbi  Tanchum^s  expo- 
sitions on  the  Old  Testament.     H  e  was  at  this  time  the 
only  person  m  Europe  who  possess  ed  any  of  the  MSS.  of 
this  learned  rstbbi ;  bot  probably  fn  )m  want  of  due  encou- 
ragement, he  did  not  prosecute  tliis  design.    The  MSS. 
^are  now  in  the  Bodleiaiy.     In  1657    the  celebrated  English 
Polyglot  appeared,  in  which  Mr.  Pccock,  as  was  natural  to 
expect,  had  a  considerable  hand.     I^ndeed  the  moment  be 
heard  of  tbe  design  he  entered  into  a  correspondence  .with 
Dr.  Walton,  and,  although  his  own  e  ngagements  were  very 
urgent,  agreed  to  collate  the  Arabic  *.  pentateucb,  and  also 
drew  up  a  preface  concernit^g  the  A  rabic  versions  of  that 
pajt  of  tbe  Bible,  and  the  reason  oi  F  the  various  readings 
in  them.     This   preface,    with  the    various  readings,  are 
published  in  the  appendix  to  the  P<  )Iygl6t>     tie  was  per- 
.haps  yet  more  serviceable  by  coutribi  iting  the  use  of  some 

P  O  C  O  0  K.  91 

9e«y  vfthiftUe  MS8.  from  his  own  colleptton,  *vis«  the  go^* 
peb  in  Persian,  his  S^yriac  MSt  of  the  whole  Old  Test^- 
menty  and  two  other  Syriap  MSS.  Of  the  Psalms,  and  an 

.  Etbiopic  MS.  of  the  same* 

:  In  1658,  Mr,  Poeock*s  translation  of  the  annab  of  Eu- 
tjrcbioa,  from  Arabic  into  Latin,  was  published  at  Oxford, 

'  in  2  vob.  4tOi  This  was  undertaken  by  Mr.  Pocock  at  the 
request  of  Seldeti^  who  bore  t|jia  whole  expeoces  of  the 
printing,  41  though^ he  died  before  it  appeared,     He  hf d 

;  Ibi^  before  this,  in  1642,  published  an  extracjt  which  he 

*.  thought  inimical  to  episcopacy,  but  which  waa  afiterwar4s 
proved  to  be  a  mere  fable;  and  now  Mr.  Pocock,  in  his 

.  cranslatton  of  the  whole,  farther  proves  how  little  reliance 
was  to  he  plaeed  on  many  of  Eutychius's  assertions. .  Sel- 

.  4en^  in  a  eddicil  to  bis  will,  bequeathed  the  property  of 

i  the  ^  Aimales  Eutycbii''  to  Dr.  Langbaine  and  Mr.  Po^ 

;  cock;  '•.'.. 

Ihe  restoration  ha{?ing  been  at  last  accomplislied,  Mr. 
Po<;oGk  was,  in  June  1660,  replaced  in  his  caqonry  of 
Christ  church,  as  originally  annexed. to  the  Hebrew  pro- 
fessorship by  Cbarles  I.  and  on  Sept.  20  took  his  degree 

.  of 'OL D.  :  In  tbe  sameyear  he  was  enabled  by  the  Ube- 

'  imlity  of  Ml*.  Boyle,  to  print  his  Arabic  translation  of  Gro- 
tins  on  the  Truth  of  the  Christian  religion,  which,  we  have 

'  abeady  meoiioiied,  he  undertook  with  the  full  approbation^ 
of  the  author.     His   next  publication,  in    1661,,  was  an 

.  Arabic  poem  entitled  *^  LamiatoM  Ajara,  ot  Carmen  Abu 
IsDiaelis  Tograi,'^  with  his  Latin  translation  of  it,  and  large 
lk>tes  upon  it,  with  a  preface  by  the  lesurned  Samuel 
Ctarke,  architypographus  to  the  university,  who  bad  the 

.   cat^  of  tbe  press,  and  contributed  a  treatise  of  his  own  on 

;  the  Arabic  prosody.  This  poem. is  held  to  be  of  the 
greatest  elegance,  answerable  to  the  fame  of  its  author, 

-^  who,  as  Dr.  Pocock  gives  his  character,  was  eminent  for 

>  learning  apd  virtue,,  and  esteemed. tbie  Phcenix  of  the  age 
in  which  he  lived,  for  poetry  and  eloquence.     The  doctor's 

'  design  in  |his  work  was,  not  only  to  give  a  specimen  of  Ara- 
bian poetry,  but  also  to  make  the  attainment  of  the  Arabic 

:  tongue  mona  ea^y  to  those  who  study  it;  and  his  notes, 
containing  a  grammatical  explanation  of  all  the  words  of 

•  tbo  Mthor,  were  unquestionably  serviceable  for  promoting 
die  knowledge  of  that  language.  These  notes  being  the 
sum  of  many, lectures,  which  he  rea^d  on  this  poem,  the 

'.   apee^h|  wUeh  h^  delivered^  when  enter'mg  on  his  office^ 

'9«  P  O  C  O  C  K> 

is  ptefixed  to  it,  and  contains  a  soccinct|  but  T^y  aecinvtc 
account  of  the  Arabic  tongiie.  ,1 

'  in  i663y  Dr.  Poicockpublisjied  at  Osferd)  as  wenotic84 
in  our  account  of  that  author,  the  whcde  of  Gregory  Abol* 
fiaragitts's  ^'  Historia  DynkstiaruBi  ;^'  but  thia  work  jivaa  not 

'  macii  encouraged  by  the  public,  which  his  biographer,  ae- 
coonts  for  in  a  manner  not  very  creditable  to  the  reign  of 

'  Charles  II.  compared  to  the  state  of  solid  learning  diiring 

'  tixat  df  the  protectorate.    The  love  cf  Arabic  learning,  |^e 

'  informs  ns,  was '  now  growing  cold,  and  Pocock,  in  his 
correspondence  with  Mr. 'Thomas  Oreaves,  seems  vety 
sensible  of,  and  mtich  hurt  by  this  declension  of  literary 
taste.    This  also,  his  biographer  thinks  may  in  some  •inea* 

;  sure  account  for  our  author's  rising  no  higher  in  dmrcfa-pre- 
ferment  at  the  restoration,  when  such  nurabers^  of  vacant 
dignities  were  ftUed.  Perhaps^  adds^  Mr.  T wells,  "^  he  is 
almost  the  only  instance  of  a  clergyman,  then  at  the  highest 

'  pitch  of  eminence  for  learning,  and  every  other  merit  pro- 
per to  bis  profession,  who  lived  throughout  the  reign  of 
Charles  II;  without  the  least  regiird  from  the  coart,  ex- 
cept the  favour  sometimes  done  him  of  being  ciJled  upon 
to  translate  Aralric  leUers  from  the  princes  of  the  Levant, 
or  the  credential  letters  of  ambassadors  coming  £rom  those 
p^rts ;  for  which  yet  we  do  not  find  he  had  any  recoln- 

'  pence  besides  good  words  and  compliments.  Bat  he 
was  modest,  as  be  was  deserving,  and  probably^  after  his 
presenting  AbnlfaragiuB  to  the  king,  he  never  put  himself 
in  the  way  of  royal  regards  any  more.*"^ 

This  discouragement,  however,  did  not  abate,  his  aea(  in 
the  cause  of 'biblical  learning,  to  which  he  appears -to  have 
devoted  the  remainder  of  his  life,  publishing  in  I- 677  bis 

"  Commentary  on  the  prophecy  of  Micah  and  Malachi,  ia 
less  on  that  of  Hosea,  and  in  1691  that  of  Joel.  In  1^74 
be  bad  published,  at  the  expense  of  the  university,  his  Ara- 
bic translation  of  church  catechism  and  the  English  li- 
turgy, i.  e.  the  morning  and  evening  prayers^  the  order  of 
administering  baptism  andthe  Lord^s  supper^  and  the- 39 
articles.  It  was  supposed  that  he  meant  to  bare  com- 
mented upon  some  other  of  the  lesser  prophets^  >b|]t  this 
was  prevented  by  his^tleath  on  Sept.  10^  169 1,  after  a  gra- 
dual decay  of  some  months,  which,  however,  had  not 'af- 
fected the  vigour  of*  his  mind.  His  useful  life  had  been 
prolonged  to  his  eigbty-sevenl^  year,  during  the  greater 
part  of  which  he  was^  confessedly,  the  first  OrieoUl  scholar 

P  O  C  O  C  K.  «- 

Hi  Eorope,  and  not  less  admired  £ot  the  excellence  df  hie 
private  character^  of  which  Mr.  Twells  has  given  aa  ela«- 
borate  account,  and  which  k  confiroied  by  the  report  of* 
aH  his  centemporaries,'  bat  particularly  by  a  long  letter 
from  the  celebrated  Locke,  dated  Jaly  1703,  to  Mr.  Saiiiki 
of  Dartmoutli,  who  was  then  collecting  materials,  for  a  life 
of  Dr.  Pocock. 

In  person  be  was  of  a  middle  stature,  his  hair  and  eyea 
black,  bis  complexion  fair,  and  his  look  lively  and  cheer<* 
fol.  In  conversation  he  was  free*  open,  and  ingenuous; 
easily  accessible  and  communicative  to  all  who  applied  t» 
kirn  for  advice  in  hfs  peculiar  province.  His  temper  waa 
unassuming,  -bumble,  and  sincere,  and  bis  intelleotuai 
lowers  uniformly  employed  on  the  most  .useful  subjects. 
His  memory  was  great,  and  afforded  him  suitable  advaa^ 
tages  in  the  study  of  the  learned  languages.  He  wrote  bia 
own  language  With  clearness  aad  perspicuity,  which  form 
his  principal  recommendation  as  an  English  writer^  hurt  in 
his  Liitin  a  considerable  degree  of  elegance  may  be  per« 
ceived.  His  whole  conduct  as  a  divine,  as  a  man  of  piety^ 
and  a  minister  of  the  church  of  England,  was  highly  ex-* 

He  was  interred  in  one  of  the  north  ailes  joining  to  Ae 
choir  6f  the  cathedral  of  Christ  church,  Oxford ;  and  a 
monument  is  erected  to  him  on  the  north  wall  of  the  north 
isle  of  that  chorcli,  with  the  following  inscription.  *^  Ed^- 
wardus  Pocock,  S.  T.  D.  (cujus  si  nomen  audias,  nil  hie  de  * 
fttrnd,  desideres)  natus  est  Oxonias  Nov.  >6,  ann.  Dom.  1 604^ 
socliis  in  Collegium  Corp.  Christi  cooptatus  1628,  ini  Lin- 
l^ute  Arabicae  Lecturam  publice  habeudam  primus  est  in« 
stitutus  1636,  deinde  etiam  in  Hebraicam  Frofessori  Regie 
successit  1648.  Desideratissimo  Marito  Sept.  IQ,  1694^ 
in  coelum  reverso,  Maeia  Burdet,  ex  qu&  novenam  suscepii 
sobolem,  tumulum  hunc  moerens  posuit^'^  His  Theologi^ 
cal  works  were  republished  at  London  in  1740,  in  2  vols. 
foL  by  Mr.  Leonard  Twells,  M.  A.  to  which  is  prefixed  a 
Life  of  the  Author.  Of  this  we  have  availed  ourselires  in 
the  present  sketch,  but  not  without  omitting  many  very 
curious  particulars  relating  both  to  Dr.  Pocock  and  to  the 
history  of  his  times,,  which  render  Mr.  Twells's  work  one  of 
the  most  interesting  biographical  documents.  Dr.  Pocook^a 
life  was  first  attempted  by. the  abt.  Humphrey  Smith,  a 
Devonshire  clergyman,  who  was  assisted  by  tbe  doctor*» 
eldest  son,  the  rev.  Edward  Pocock,  rector  ef  Minail  in 

M  p  o  c  a  c  K. 

WHtshirei  and  prebendary  of  SaromJ  Wbat  tbey  coklil 
collect  was,  after  a  long  interval^  commkt^  to  the  care  of 
the  rev.  Leonard  TwelUi  M.  A.  rector  of:  the  united  pa-» 
rishes  of  St  Matthe^w's  Friday-street,  and  St  Peter  Cfaeapy. 
and  prebendary  of  St.  I^turs,  with  the  consent  of  the  rev. 
John  Pocb^k,  the  doctor*s  grandson.  The  coiUteiits  of  these 
two  volumes  are  the  ^*  Porta  Mosis/*  and  his  .English  com— 
Hsentaries  on  Hosea,  Joel^  Micab,  and  Malachi. ,  Thet  Ara- 
bic types  were  supplied  by  the  society  for  the  .prompting' 
Christian  knowiedge,  ioi  consequence  of  an  application, 
made  to  them  by  tbe  rev.  Arthur  Bedford,  chaplain  to  th& 
Haberdashers*  hospital,  Hpxton.  But  what  renders  tbia 
edition  peculiarly  vsduabie  is,  that  it,  was  corrected  for  tbe 
press  by  tbe  rev.  Mr.  (afterwards  Dr.)  Tbomas  HuDt,  jooe  of 
Dr.  Pocock^s  learned  successors  in  the  Arabic  ebair..  ., 

Dr.  Pocock  bad  married  in  1646,  while  be  was  resident 
upon  his  living  in  Berkshire;  ami  bad  nine  children.  We 
bave  only  an  account  of  bia  eldest  son  Edward  Pocock^ 
who,  under  his  father's  direction,  published,  in  1 67 J,  4to, 
with  a  Latin  translation,  an  Arabic  work»  entitled  .^<  Phi«^ 
losophus  Autodidactus ;  sive,  Epistola  Abu  Jaafar  Ebo 
Tophail  de  Hai  Ebn  Yokdhan.  In  qua  ostenditur,  quo-* 
mode  ex  inferiorum  contemplaUone  ad  superiorum  notiltam 
ratio  humana  ascendere  possit''  In  1711,  Simon  Oeklejp 
published  an  English  translation  of  thi3  book,  under  tbe 
title  of  ^*  The  Improvement  of  Hunaan  Reason,  exhibited 
in  tbe  Life  of  Hai  Ebn  Yokdhan/'  &c.  8vo ;  and  dedicated 
it  to  Mr.  Pocock,  then  rector  of  Miiial  in  Wiltshire.  Mn 
Pocock  had  also  prepared  an  Arabic  history,  with  a  Latin 
version,  aud  put  to  it  the  press  at  Oxford  ;  but  not  being 
worked  off  when  his  father  died,  he  withdrew  it,  upon  a 
disgust  at  not  succeeding  his  father  in  the  Hebrew  profea* 
aorship.  The  copy,  as  much  of  it  as  was  printed,  and  the 
manuscript  history,  were,  in  1740,  in  the  hands  of  Mr» 
Pocock's  son,  then  rector  of  Minal.  * 

POCOCKE  (Richard),  D.D.  who  was  distantly  re- 
lated to  the  preceding,  but  added  the  .e  to  his  name,  was 
the  son  of  Mr.  Ricliard  Pococke,  sequestrator  of  the  churck 
of  All-satuts  In  Southampton,  and  bead  master  of  tbe  free- 
school  there,  by  tbe  only  daughter  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Isaac 
Milles,  minister  of  Highcleer  in  Hampsbire,  and  was  born 
at  Southampton  in  1704.     He  received  bis  school-learning 

1  life  by  Twells. 

P  O  C  O  C  K  E. 


there,  and  his  academical  educatibn  at  Corpus*Chrtsti  col-  ' 
HZ^j  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  degree  of  LL.  B.  May  5, 
1731 ;  and  that  of  LL.  t).   (being  thfen  precentor  of  Lis-  * 
more)  June  28,  1733  ;  together  ii^ith.Dr.  Seeker,  then  rec- 
tor of  St.  James's,  and  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bary.     He  began  his  travels  into  the  East  ih  1737,  and 
returned  in  1742,  and  was  made  precentor  of  Waterford 
in  1744,     In   1743',  he  published  the  first  part  of  those ' 
travels,  under  the  title  of  *<  A  Description  of  the  East, ' 
and  of  some  other  Countries,   vol.  L    Obsertrations  on 
Egypt.**     In  1744  he  was  made  precentor  of  Waterford, 
and  in  1745  he  printed  the  second  volume  under  the  same 
title,  ^*  Observations  on  Palestine,    or  the   Hoiy  Land; 
Syria,  Mesopotamia,  Cyprus,  and  Candia,**  which  h^  de- 
dicated to  the  earl  of  Chesterfield,  then  made  lohl-lieute- 
nant  of  Ireland ;  attended  his  lordship  thither  as  one  of  his 
domestic  chaplains,  and  was  soon  after  appointed  by  hi?  ' 
lordship  .archdeacon  of  Dublin.     In  March  1756,  he   was' 
promoted  hy  the  duke  of  Devonshire  (then  lord-lieutenant)' 
to  the  bishopric  of  Ossory,  vacint  by  the  death  of  Dr.* 
Edward  Maurice.     He  was  translated  by  the  king*s  letter 
from   Ossory  to  Elphin,    in  June   1765,  bishop  Gme  of 
Elphiu  biding  then  promoted  to  Meath ;  but  bishop  Gore 
finding  a  great  sum  was  to  be  paid  to  his  predecessor*8 
execu'tors  for  the  house  at  Ardbraceaii,  declined  taking  ont^ 
hb  patent;   and   therefore  bishop  Pocpcke,  in  July,  w»« 
translated  by  the  duke  of  Northumberltmd  directly  to  the 
see  of  Meath,  and  died  in  the  month  of  September  the 
same  year,  suddenly,  of  an  apoplectic  stroke,  while  he  wax  . 
in  the  course  of  his  visitation.     An  eulogium  of  his  Descrip- 
tion of  Egypt  is  given  in  a  work  eatitled  "  Pauli  Ernesti 
Jablonski   Pantheon   ^gyptiorum,  Praefat.   ad    part.  Hi.^^ 
He  penetrated  no  further  up  the  Nile  than  to  Phila,  now 
Gieuret  Ell  Hiereff;  whereas  Mr.  Norden,  in'  1737,  went 
as  far  as  Derri,  between  the  two  cataracts.     The  two  tra- 
vellers are  supposed  to  have  met  on  the  Nile,  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Esnay,  in  Jan.  1738.     But  the  foct,  as  Dr. 
Pococke  told  some  of  his  friends,  was,  that  being  on  bis 
returt^,  ,not  knowing  that  Mr.  Norden   was  gone  up,  he 
passed  by  him  in  the  nighty  without  havirfg  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  him.     There  was  an  admirable  vvh'ote  length  of  the 
b&hop,  in  a  Turkish  idress,  painted   by    Liotard,  in   the 
possession  of  the  lat6f  Dn  Milles,  dean  6f^Exeteiv  Ws -first 
cousin.     He  was  a  great  traveller,  and  visited  other  places 

9B  1>  O  C  O  C  K  «* 

besides  tbe  East  His  descriptioD  of  a  rock  on  the  west-* 
side  of  Dunbar  harbour  in  Scotland,  resembling  tbe  Giapts 
Causeway,  is  in  the  Pbilos.  Trans,  vol.  LI  I.  art  17;  and  ia 
ArchsBologia^vol.  II.  p.  32,  his  account  of  some  antiquities 
found  in  Ireland.  Whefi  travelling  through  Scotland 
(where  be  preached  several  times  to  crowded  congrega- 
tioJis),'be  stopped  at  Dingwal,  and  said  he  was  much 
struck  and  pleased  with  its  appearance ;  for  the  situation 
of  it  brought  Jerusalem  to  his  remembrance,  and  h^ 
pointed  out  the  bill  which  resembled  Calvary.  The  same 
similitude  was  observed  by  him  in  regard  to  Dartmouth  ; 
but  a  4to  volume  of  his  letters^,  containing  his  travels  in 
England  and  Scotland,  was  tost.  He  pfeached  a  sermon 
in  1761  for  the  benefit  of  the  Magdalen  charity  in  Lon- 
don, and  on&tn  1762  before  tbe  incorporated  Society  in 

Among  the  MS  treasures  in  the  British  Museum,  ar^ 
Sfsveral  volumes  (4811 — 4827)  the  gift  of  bishop  Pococke  ; 
Tiz;  *^  Minutes  and  Registers  of  the  Philosophical  Society 
of  DubJin,  from  1683  to  16S7,  with  a  copy  of  the  papers 
read  before  them  ;^'  and  ^'  Registers  of  the  Philosophical 
Society  of  Dublin,  from  Aug.  14,  1707,  with  copies  of 
some  of  these  papers  read  before  them  ;^'  also  ^^  Several 
Extracts  taken  out  of  the  Records  in  Birmingham's  Tower  ;^* 
^^An  Account  of  the  Franciscan  Abbeys^  Houses,  and 
Friaries,  in  Ireland,"  &c.  &c. 

Mr.  Cumberland,  whose  paintings  are  to  be  viewed  with 
some  caution,  gives  the  following  as  characteristic  sketches 
of  bishop  Pococke :  **  That  celebrated  oriental  traveller 
and  author  was  a  man  of  mild  manners  and  primitive  sim- 
plicity ;  having  given  the  world  a  full  detail  of  his  resear- 
ches in  Egypt,  he  seemed  to  hold  himself  excused  from 
saying  any  thing  more  about  them,  and  observed  in  ge- 
neral an  obdurate  taciturnity.  In  his  carriage  and  deport- 
ment he  appeared  to  have  contracted  something  of  tbe^ 
Arab  character,  yet  there  was  no  austerity  in  his  silence,' 
and  though  his  air  was  solemn,  his  temper  was  serene. 
When  we  were  on  our  road  to  Ireland,  I  saw  from  the 
windows  of  the  inn  at  Daventry  a  cavalcade  of  horsemen 
approaching  on  a  gentle  trot,  headed  by  an  elderly  chief 
in  clerical  attire,  who  was  followed  by  iSve  servants  at  dis- 
tances geometrically  measured  and  most  precisely  inain-> 
taioed^  and  who,  upon  entering  the  inn,  proved  to  be^tbi^ 


P  O  G  G  1  O.  *T 

difdagoishecl  prelate,  conducting  bis:liord|p¥ith  thepUeg** 
ffladc  patience  of  a  Scheik/* '  .     - 

POGGIO  (Bracciolini),  one  of  the  revivers  of  JUe** 
lature,  was  the  spa  of  Guccio  Bracciolini,  and  was  born  in 
h380y  at  Terranuora,  a  small  town  situated  in  the  territory 
of  the  republic  of  Florenee,  not  far  from  Are2zo.  He 
inherited  from  bis  father  who  had  been  a  notary,  but  had 
lost  his  property,  no  advantages  of  vank  orfortune,  yet 
ip  a  literary  point  of  view,  some  circumstances  of  his  birth 
were  singularly  propitious*  At  the  dose  of  the  fourteenth 
century,  the  dawn  of  literature  was  appearing^  and  the 
city  of  Florence  was  distinguished  by  the  zeal  with  which 
its  principal  inhabitants  cultivated  and  patronized  the  libe- 
ral arts.  It  was  consequently  the  favourite  resort  of  the 
ablest  scholars  of  the  time ;  some  of  whom  were  induced 
by  the  offer  of  considerable  salaries,  to  undertake  the  task 
o{  public  instruction.  In  this  celebrated,  school,  Poggio 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  Latin  tongue,  under 
the  direction  of  John  of  Ravenna;  and  of  Greek,  under 
Manuel  Chrysoloras.  When  he  had  acquired  a  competent 
knowledge  of  these  languages, 4i^  quitted  Florence^  and  went 
to  Rome,  ^here  his  literary  reputation  introduced  him  to 
the  notice  of  pope  Boniface  IX.  who  took  him  into  hjs  ser«- 
vic.e^  and  promoted  him  to  the  office  of  writer  dP  the  apos^ 
tolic  letters,  probably  about  1402.  At  this  time  Italy  was 
convulsed  by  war  and  faction,  and  in  that  celebrated  ec- 
clesiastical feud^  which  is  commonly  distinguished  by  the 
name  of  the  ^*  schism  of  the  West,"  no  fewer  than  six  of 
Poggio's  patrons,  the  popes,  were  implicated  in  its  pro- 
gress and  consequences.  In  1414  we  find  Poggio  attending 
the  infamous  pope  John  to  Constance,  in  quality  of  secre- 
tary; but  as  this  pontiff  fled  from  the  council,  his  house- - 
bold  was  dbpersed,  aqd  Poggio  reoMiined  some  time  at 
Constance.  Having  a  good  deal  of  leisure,  he  employed 
bis  vacant  hours  in  studying  the  Hebrew  language,  under 
the  direction  of  a  Jew  who  bad  been  converted  to  the 
Christian  fiitb.  The  first  act  of  the  council  of  Constance 
was  the  trial  of  pope  John,  who  was  convicted  of  the  most 
atrocious  vices  incident  to  the  vilest  corrnption  of  human 
nature^  for^which  they  degraded  him  from  his  dignity,  and^ 
deprived  him- of  his  liberty.  It  was  also  by. this  council 
that  Jobti  Huss^  the  celebrated  Bohemian  reformer,  was 

I  NichiAi'i  Bowjrer.— Cainb«rUn4'*  Life*.  ^ 

Vol.  XXV.  H    . 

!rs  P  Q  G  G  I  O. 

examined  and  CAodemDed,  and  that  Jerome  of  Pragne,  in 
1416,  was  tried.     Poggio^  who.  was  present  at  Jerome's 
trial,  gave  that  very  eloquent ,  apcoant .  of  the  raartyr^s  be^ 
]B»viour  which  we  have  already  noticed  (^ee  Jerome  of 
P&AGtJe),  and  which  proves,  in  the  opinion  of  Poggio's  bio^^ 
grapber,  that.he  possessed  a  heart  ^*  which  daily  intercoorse 
with  bigoted  believers  and  licentious  hypocrites  could  not 
deaden  to  the  impulses  of  humanity/' 
.  The  vacancy  in  the  pontifical   throne    still    affording 
Poggio  a  considerable  degree  of  leisure,    he  undertook, 
about  this  .time  an  expedition  of  no  small  importance  to. 
the  interests  of  literature,  in  quest  of  such  ancient  manu- 
scripts of  classic  authors  as  were  scattered  in, various  mo*, 
nasteries  and  other  repositories  in  the  neighbourhood  of. 
Constance,  where  they  were  in  danger  of  perishing  through 
neglect ;  and  in  this  he  was  successful  beyond  any  indivi-* . 
dual  of^  his  time.     Among  other  precious  relics  thus  reco-. 
vered,  was  a  complete  xopy  of  Quintiliao  ;  part  of  the  At". 
gonautics  of  Valerius  Flaccus;  Asconius  Pedianus's  Com*: 
ment  on  eight  of  Cicero's  orations ;  several  of  the  orations 
of  Cicero ;  Silius  Italicus;  Lactantius  ^^  de  ira  Dei ;"  Ve-*. 
getius '^  de  re  militari;"  Nonnius  Marcellus ;  Ammianus' 
Marcellinus;   Lucretius;  Columella;  Tertgllian ;   twelve 
of  the  comedies  of  Plautus ;  and  various  other  works,  or 
parts  of  the  works  of  the  ancient  classics,  which  are  enu-. 
merated  by  his  biographer. 

After  the  ecclesiastical  feud  had  been  iu  some  measure 
composed,  Martin  Vu  became  the  new  pontiff,  but  Poggio- 
did  not  :at  first  bold  any  office  under  him,  as  he  visited 
England  in  consequence  of  an  invitation  which  be  had  re«* 
ceived  from  Beaufort,  bishop  of  Winchester     He  is  said 
to  have  observed  with  chagrin  the  uncultivated  state  of  the. 
public  mind  in  Britain, .  when  compared  with  the  enthu- 
siastic  love   of  elegant  literature,   which    polished  and 
adorned  his  native  country.     Ehiring  bis  restdeace  here  be 
received  an  invitation  to  take  the  office  of  secretary  :ta 
Martin  V.  which  was  the  more  readily  accepted  by  him,  as 
he  is  said  to  have  been  disappointed  in  the  expectations  ho; 
had  formed  from  the  bishop  of  Winchester..  The  time  of^ 
his  arrival  at  Rome  is  not  exactly  ascertained ;.  but  it  ap- 
pears that  bis  first  care  after  bis  re«»establisbment  in.  the 
sacred  chancery,  was  to  renew  with  his  friends  .the. per- 
sonal and  epistolary  communication  which  his  long  absence 
from  Italy  had  interrupted.     He  now  also  resumed  his  pri- 
Tate  studies,  and  in  1(^29  published  his  *^  Dialogue  on  Ava* 

t  0  G  G  I  0.  9b 

ftels/*  in  wbicb  he  satirized,  with  greiit  severity,  the  friMv 
U'ho  were  a  bratieh  of  the  order  of  the  Franciscans,  and 
who,  on  account  of  the  extraordinary  strictness  with  which 
tiiey  professed  to  exercise  their  conventual  discipline,  were 
distinguished  by  the  title  of  Fratres  Observantia.  f  He  in* 
veighs  also  against  the  monastic  life  with  great  freedom, 
but  with  a  levity  which  renders  it  very  questionable  whe- 
ther any  kind  of  religious  life  was  much  to  his  taste.  Wheti 
Eugenius  IV.  was  raised  to  the  pontificate,  his  authority 
commenced  with  unhappy  omens^  being  engaged  in  quar- 
rels both  in  Italy  and  Germany ;  and  Poggio,  foreseeing 
the  disastrous  event,  wrote  freely  upon  the  subject  to  the 
cardinal  Julian,  the  pope's  legate^  that  he  might  gain  him 
over  to  his  master's  interest.     In  this  letter  were  some 
smart  strokes  of  satiric  wit,  which  the  disappointed  and 
irritated  mind  of  Julian  could  not  well  beaVi     Poggio^s 
morals  were  not  free  from  blame ;  and  the  cardinal,  in  his 
answer  reminds  him  of  having  children,  which,  he  observes^ 
'*  is  inconsistent  with  the  obligations  of  an  ecclesiastic ; 
and  by  a  mistress^  which  is  discreditable  to  the  character 
of  a  layman/'    To  these  reproaches  Poggio  replied  in  a 
letter  replete  with  the  keenest  sarcasm.     He  pleaded  guilty 
to  the  charge  which  had  been  exhibited  against  bim,  and 
candidly  confessed  that  he  bad  deviated  from  the  paths  of 
virtue,  but  excused  himself  by  the  common-place  -  argtH 
ment  that  many  ecclesiastics  had  dofie  the  same.     In  1433, 
when  the  pope  was  obliged  to  fly  from  Rome,  Poggio  was 
taken  prisoner,  and  obliged  to  ransom  himself  by  a  large 
sum  of  money.     He  then  repaired  to  Florence,  where  be 
attached  himself  to  the  celebrated  Cosmo  de  Medici,  and 
in  consequence  became  involved  in  a  quarrel  with  Francis 
Philelphos  (See  Philei.phu9),  which  was  conducted  with 
tntttual  rancour.     Poggio  now  purchased  a  villa  at  VaJ» 
d'amo,  which  be  decorated  with  ancient  sculpture  and  mo* 
mtments  of  art ;  and  such  was  the  esteem  in  which  he  was 
Md  by  the  republic  of  Florence,  that  he  and  his  children 
were  exempted  from  the  payment  of  taxes.  These  children,  - 
alt  illegitimate,  amounted  to  fourteen  ;  but  in  1435,  when 
be  had  attained  his  fifty-fifth  year,  he  dismissed  them  and 
th^r  mother  without  provision,    and  married  a  girl  of 
eighteen  yeam  old.    On  this  occasion  he  wrote  a  formal 
treatise  on  the  propriety  of  an  old  man  marrying  a  young 
girl  t  the  treatise  is  lost,  and  would  be  of  little  consequence 
if  recovered,  since  the  question  was  not  whether  an  0I4 

H  2 

too       -  R  O  G  G  I  0. 

man  should  marry  a  young;  girl^  Initi  wbeU^r  aq  old.  jaan 
should . discard  bis  allegitiiBate.  off$|praig.  to  indulge. ;lKis 
sensuality  under  the  foKm.of  msarriagc.  Ani  bowever,^  men 
in  years  who  marry  so  disproportionately  are  generaUy  very 
ardeni  lovers,  be  celebrates  his  young  bride  for  her  great 
,beauty,  modesty,  sense,  &c« 

Whatever  might  be  with. bis  moral,  Poggio^s 
'  literary  reputation  began  about,  this  time  to  be  extensively 
diffused^  jiud  biavi^itiogs  became  an  object  oCfjrequeift  in* 
. quiry- among  the  learaedy  sooie  of  whom. /solicited  him  to 
•  publish  «  collection  >of  bis  epistles,  from  a  perusal  of  which 
they  had  often  devived  gratificaiion«  .This  request  could 
fiiot  but  be  higbIyia|;reeableto  bis  feeliogs^^  ^ad  be  readily 
Uk^  the  requisitie  steps  ip  comply  with  it.  This  w^s.  fol- 
lowed by  a  funeral  oration  in. honour  of  his  friend  Niccolo 
Niccoli.  In  1440  he  published : his  *^  Dialogue. on.  No- 
bility,'' aworkwbieb,^bis  biographer  says»  greatly  .increased 
bis  reputation,  by  tbe^luminousness  pf  its  jmetbod^  the  ele- 
gance of  its  dictioB,  and  the  learned  references  with  which 
it  was.  interspersed. .  This  was:  fi^owed  by  bisrdialqgue 
.  ^^  On  the  uahappiness  >of  PoAces,''  in  .which  he  .dwells  with 
so  much  energy  on . the. vices efr  exahed  rank,,  aik  to  afford 
room  foK  saspicton,  that.reseolment  .and  indignation  b^d  .at 
.least  as  mihcb  influence  in  i%s  .composition  ^as  the  suggest 
tions  of  philosophy* '  However:  the  effiisiotvai'OfimerQsepess 
that'occur  i«  this  idialogue.are  interspei$ed  wiih:precepts 
.of  sound  morality,,  and  the. historic  details  with  which  it 
abounds  are  both  entertaining  itnd  instruciiv^e. 

Although  Poggio.'held'the  office  of,  apostolic,  secretary 
under  s^ven  poiuiffs,  he'  bad  uei^er  reached  any  pf  the  sur 
perior  depaitmenta  of  the  .Roman;  chaj^iceryy.  But  wheti 
Nicholas  V.  as^adled  the.'  p^^fical  tbrope^  his'  prospects 
were  brigbtenedi;. and  he  indulged  the  hope4  o/^:  :spenfling 
the  remainder  of  his  .daya  in^  a.  stale  of ;  independepce^ .  if 
4)otof  afflueflce.  .  With  a  view  <of  imfuroying  his  intereat 
with  the  new  pontiff^  he  addressed  U>  himax^ongratuUDory 
.oration,  which  was  .i)ecQmpeose4  hy  very  liberal  preseuts. 
This  was  succeeded:  by  asdedicatory  epistjie,  introducinf^ 
io  bis  patronage  a  dialogue  f*  On  the  Vicissitudes  of. For- 
tune," the  mostjnt^restipgiOf.Poggiota  works,. ^d  iocui- 
cating  maxims  of  sublime  philosophy,  enfbroed  by  a  detail 
of  splendid. and. striking  events* .  Colifidiog  io;  the  pontifi^ 
he  also  r  published  the  dialogue  ^^  On  Hypocrisy,"  aUeady 
mentioned.    At  the  request^  and  under  the  patronage  of 

P'  O  G  G  I  01  1^1 

Nidobs^  be  abo  contributed  ta  the  illiistratfob  id  Grecian* 
Iteenture^i  bjr  n  Lutin  tranalaition  of  tbeWorks  of  iDiodoms' 
Skplii^rahii  di6  if^':Oj^pop®dm*Mol  Xenophon.     Doring' 
tbe  pligfiey  '^i<3b  raged  ilk  varioas  parCrof  italyi  in  14i50y ' 
Boggio  viiited  thepiaee«af;hifr  nativity ;  and'flvailing  him-* 
self  of  itfaris'i  ntiervai  of  relaxation  from -die.  duties  of- his 
offiee^-iier  Umbiirficd  his  f*:  Liber  Facetiaruin^'?  or  collection 
of  jmote  tadesyi  cODtaiaing  anecdotes  of  several*  eminent^ 
pevsoas^whO'(krumbed.during>the^foiirteenth  and'  fifteenth' 
csntwries/'   fpbis  nvorfc  acquired  « .considerable  degree  'Of- 
popttlamyy'jaiNb<was.i9ead,  oot  only  in  tibe  nativie  country 
of  its  >auUsi}r^ ( but  iuls^  in-  Fntncei,  Spain,  Germany^  and 
Briisaii^,'  very  Ihtle*  indeed  to- the  cv^dit  of  the  readers,  as  it 
abounds  wiih' gross  and  kbominsble  indecencies.     In  1451 
he  dedicatisd  to  the  cardinal  'Prospero  Cotonna,.  his  «<<>  His*' 
toria  disceptativa  convitxialis/'  -  In;  I453»  Pbggio  was  ete* 
vated  lo  tbexbaricelionibip^of  Florence  ^  and  iat  the  same 
time  be  was  ebesen  one  of  the  ^  Priori 'degliarti/*  orpre- 
sideritsiof  tbe  trading  i'Cbnipanies;  both- which  offices  be 
held  t&H  his  death,    wfarch  faafipenefl.Oelober  SO,  1499.t 
Noti?dthffkanding  ^tfae  0itflti{^il^  elf  bis;^  hnsiness,  and  the 
advanites'  of  ige^'  he  pnisecuied  bis  studies,  with  his  aocu8-^> 
tooied'arrddur^'  lind  published  a  dialdgue  ^  De  ndtserift  hti* 
manor  conditioiits;^'^  stnd  a  versioh'of'Lncian?s'^^' Ass/'  with 
a  view  -of  establisfaing^'a  point  of  literary  brstory^  which 
seems  td  kive  been  tSl  tbat  time  unknown  ;<>  namely,  that 
Apnieius  was  indebted  to  Liioia|¥  for  the  ^taiMne  of  his: 
^(  Assnusaureus.'?    liie  last  literary  work  in  which  ha  en-* 
gaged,  was  bis  '^.Hastorf  of '  Fioveiit^e/' , divided  into  eight' 
books,  *aiid  comprehending  the  events  in'  which  the  Flo- 
rentines were  concierned  from  1950  to  tbe  peace  of  Naples  > 
ip  1455^  This  history  was  translated:  into  Italian  by  Jacopo,' 
the  son  of  P<^gio^  'but  the  original  was  puUished  by  Re- 
oanati,  and  has  been- republished  in  ihO' collections  of 
Graviusand  Muratori.  '  Poggio  concluded ' his  career  in' 
tfae> 'possession  of- universal  respect^  and  in  the  tranquil 
enjoyment  of  socj:^!  and  domestic  comforts.     His  remains* 
were  interred  with  solemn  <magtiificience  in  the  church  of 
3intaCroce  at  Florence ;  and  his  fdlow^citizena  testified 
theiir  respect  for  his  talents  and  virtues,  by  erecting  a  sta- 
tu^ \i>  bis  memory  ort  the  front  of  the  church  of  Santa 
Maria  del  Fioife.     As  the  citizen  of  a  free  state,  >whtch  he 
deemed  a  high  honour,  he  improved  every  opportunity 
that  oceacred  for  increasing  and  displaying  the  glory  of  the 

109  P  O  G  G,I  O, 

Tuscan  republic. '  Although  he  was  honoured  by  the  fa« 
Tour  of  the  great,  he  never  sacrifieed  his  independence  at 
tl^e  shrine  of  power,  but  uniforfnly  maintained  the  inge- 
nuous sentiments  of  freedom.  Such  was  the  state  of  mo<« 
rals  in  his  time,  that  the  licentiousness  which  dbgraced  the 
eariy  period  of  his  life,  and  the  indecent  levity  which  oc- 
curs in  some  of  bis  writing^,  did  not  deprive  him  of  the  coun- 
tenance of  the  greatest  ecclesiastical  dignitaries,  or  cause  ty  ra 
to  forfeit  the  favour  of  the  pious  Eugenius,  or  of  the  moral 
and  accomplished  Nicolas  V.  To  those  with  whom  he 
maintained  a  personal  intercourse,  he  recommended  h]m«« 
self  by  the  urbanity  of  his  manners,  the  strength  x>f  his 
jiKlgment,  and  the  sportiveness  of  his  wit.  <^  As  a  scholar^ 
Poggio  is  entitled  to  distinguished  praise.  By  assiduoua 
study, 'ho' became  a  considerable  proficient  in  the  Greek 
language,  and  intimately  conversant  with  the  works  of  the 
Roman  classic  authors.  In  selecting,  as  his  eiemplar  in 
Latin  composition,  the  style  of  Cicero,  he  manifested  the 
discernment  of  true  taste ;  and  his  endeavours  to  imitate 
this  exquisite  model,  were  far  from  being  unsuccessful.  His 
diction  is  flowing,  and  bis  periods  are  well  balanced.  But 
by  the  occasional  admission  of  barbarous  words  and  unau<« 
thoriaed  phraseology,  he  reminds  his  readers  that  at  the 
time  when  he  wrote,  the  iron  age  of  literature  was  but 
lately  terminated.  His  striking  fault  is  diffuseness — a  dif*^ 
fnseness  which  seems  to  arise,  not  so  much  from  the  co-. 
piousness  of  his  thoughts,  as  from  the  difficulty  which  he 
experienced  in  clearly  expressing  his  ideas.  It  mustj  how-> 
ever,  be  observed,  that  he  did  not,  like  many  modern 
authors  who  are  celebrated  for  their  Latinity,  slavishly 
confine  himself  to  the  compilation  of  centos  from  the  works 
of  the  ancients.  In  the  prosecution  of  his  literary  labours^ 
he  drew  from  his  own  stores  ;  and  those  frequent  allusiona 
to  the  customs  and  transactions  of  his  own  times,  which 
render  his  writings  so  interesting,  must,  at  a  period  when 
the  Latin  language<was  just  rescued  from  the  grossest  bar- 
barism, have  rendered  their  composition  peculiarly  difficult. 
When  compared  with  the  works  of  his  immediate  predeces- 
sors, the  writings  of  Pdggio  are  truly  astonishing.  Rising 
to  a  degree  of  elegance,  to  be  sought  for  in  vain  in  the 
rugged  Latinity  of  Petrarca  and  Coluccio  Salutati,  he 
prepared  the  way  for  the  correctness  of  Politian,  and  of 
the  other  eminent  scholars  whose  gratitude  has  reflected, 
such  splen^iid  lustre  on  the  character  of.  Lorenzo  de; 

P  O  G  G  I  O,  10$ 

The  works  jof  Poggio  were  ()obU8bed  together  at  Basils 
in  15S8,  which  is  reckoned  ibe  most  complete  edition.^ 

'  POILLY  (Francis),  a  vei^  excellent  French  engraver^ 
-waS'bornat  Abbeville  in  1629|  and  bred  under  Pierre  Du*- 
ret.  •  •  He  completed  his  knowledge  of  his  art  by  aresidence 
of  seven  years  at  Rome ;  and  on  his  return  to  Paris,  dis- 
tbguished  himself  by  many  capital  works  from  pictures  of 
aaored  and  profane  history,  and  portraits  of  various  sizes^ 
Loois  XIV.  made  him  his  engraver  in  ordinary^  in  1664, 
expressly  on  account  of  his  merit,  and  the  works  be  haS 
pablisbed  in  Italy,  as  well  as  in  France.  He  drew  as  skil- 
fully as  be  engraved.  Precision  of  outline,  boldness,  firm- 
ness, and  clearness,  are  the  characteristics  of  bis  plates ; 
and  it  is  recorded  to  bis  honour,  that  he  never  degraded 
his  abilities  by  engraving  any  subject  of  an  immoral  kindi 
He  died  in  1693.  His  brother  Nicolas,  .  who  was  alaoan 
able  engraver,  survived  bim  only  three  year^ ;  and  both 
left  sons,  who  applied  their  talents  to  painting -and  eu« 

POIRET.  (Peter),  famous  only  for  his  love  of  mysti** 
cism  and  entbnsiasm,  and  for  his  writings  conformable  to 
those  sentiments,  was  bom  at  Metz,  April  15,  1646,  and 
edncated  at  Basle  in  Switzerland,  in  the  college  of  £ra&« 
mns.  His  father,  who  was  a  sword^cutler,  placed  him  a& 
pupil  to  a  sculptor,  and  from  bim  he  learned  .design  at 
least,  and^etaioedso  niQch  of  theart  as  to  draw  the  por^^. 
trait  of  his  favourite,  madame  Bouriguon.  This  pursuit^ 
however,  he  forsook  for  the  learned  languages,  philoso'^ 
phy,  and  theology.  He  became  a  minister  at  Heidelberg 
in  1668,  and  at  Anweil  obtained  a  similar  situation  in 
1674.  Here  it  was  that  he  met  with  die  works  of  the  mys- 
tical writers,  with  which,  particularly  with  those  of  madacbe 
Bdurignon,  he  became  to  the  utmost  infatuated.  Madame 
Guyon  was  another  of  his  favourites,  and  he  idetermined 
to  live  according  to  their  maxims.  Towards  the  end  of 
life  be  retired  to  Reinsberg  in  Holland,  where  he  died,' 
May  SP,  1719,  at  the  age  of  seventy-three.  .His.  worker 
ate  all  6f  the  mystical  kind:  1.  **  Cogitationes  rationalesi 
de  Deo,'*  Amst  1677,  4to  5  twice  reprinted.    2.  '*  L'ceco«> 

1  It  it  amiecMsary  to  «dd  any  other  reference  than  to  Sbepkerd's  elegant  and 
elaborate  life  of  Poggio,  published  in  ia02,  and  which  is  at  the  same  time  an 
eicellent  historical  illustration  of  a  very  interesting  period  in  the  revival  of  lite- 
ratare.  .••«.* 

*  Moreri.*-Struti'  Dictionary. 

10*  POIRE  T. 

liomie  Divide/'  168 1,  in  7  vols.  8vo»  iii  wbicb  all  tbe 
notibns  of  Boiirignon  are  repeated.  3.  '<  La  Paix  de# 
bonnes  Ames/'  Amst  1687,  12mo.  4.  <<  Leg  Princqoes 
solides  de  la  Religion  Chretienne/'  1705, 12aio.  5.  ^^The« 
ologie  dn  Gdbar,''  Cologne,  1697,  t  vols;  ISniOi  6.  He 
publiBbed  als6  a  complete  edition  of  tbe  works  of  madatise 
jBourignon,  in  twentjr^oDe  volumes,  octavo,-  witb  a  life  of 
that  pious  enthusiast.  7.  Ad  attempt  to  attacfk  Descartes^ 
in  a  treatise  ^^  de  Eruditiope  triplici,**  in  2  vols.  4to,  re- 
printed  at  Amsterdan^  in  1707..  Tbis  beii^  directed 
ajgainst  Descartes,  bas  been  compared  to  tb^  attack  of  tbe 
viper  upon  the  61e.  It  contains,  however,  some  good  ob* 
servattons.  ^ 

POIS,  orPISO  (Nicholas- L£),  an  emfnentpbysidai^^ 
was  bom  at  Nancy,  in  1527.  He  studied  medicine  at 
Paris  under  Sylvius,  together  witb  his  elder  brother,  An- 
thony Lepois,  who  was  afterwards  fint,  physician  to  Charles 
III.  duke  6{  Lorraine,  and  author  of  a  valuable  work  oa 
ancient  coins.  Nicholas  succeeded  him  as  tbe  duke*8  phy* 
sician  in  1578.  TThi  result  of  his/practice,  and  of  bis 
very  extensive  reading,  was  at  first  dmwn  up  only  for  tbe 
use  of  bis  sons,:  Christian  andtCbirles^  wbofla  he  destined 
for  tbe  medical  profession  jbutbeiDgpnevailed  on  to  publish 
kf  it  was  printed  at  Francfort,  in  rl580,  in  foUo,  under 
the  title  of  <f  De  cognoscendis  et  curandis  prtsoipud  inter* 
nis  bumani  corporis  morbie,  Libri  tnes,  ex  clarissimorum 
medicorum,  turn  veterum^  turn  leoeptiorum,  monmnentia 
non  itapridem  coUecti."  Boe^basve  iiad  so  bigb  an  i^i^ 
nion  of  this  author,  that  he  edited.  thi9  woi4c>  adding  a 
pre&ce  to  it,  at  Leydeb,  .1736,  in  two  voluases,  quarto; 
and  it  was  again  reprinted  at  Leipaic  in  1766,  2  vols.  8vou 
Tbe  time  of  his  death  bas  not  been  recorded.' 

POIS  (CHAR1.BS  le),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Kancy  in  1563,  and  educated  at  the  college  of  Navarre^ 
at  Paris,  where  be  distinguished  himself  by  bis  rapid  ad* 
vancement  in  tbe  knowledge  of  the  languages,  belles  let- 
tres,  and  philosophy.  He  ceceived  tbe  degree  of  M.  A. 
in  the  university  of  Paris:  in  1581,  and  immediEately 
commenced  his  career  in  tbe  schoob  of  medicine, *  whicb 
he  pursued  at  Paris,  Padua,  and  other  schools  of  Italy. 
When  be  returned  to  Paris  in  1588  he  took  his  bachelor^a 

1  Niceron,  toIs.  IV.  and  X. — ^Mosheim.— Bracker. 
*  £loy  Diet.  HiaU  de  Medicine,  iu  art.  Le  Pois*    . 

P  O  I.a  1Q5 

^egteein  anisidictae,  aad  became  a  licentiate;  but.having 
already  expended  his  little  income  on  the  previous  parts 
of  hki  medical  progresS|  he  waa  obliged  to  leave  Paris 
vitfaout  having  taken. tbed^ree  of  doctor.  He  then  re» 
tuknedtahis  native  city,  where  duke  Charles  III.  of  Lor- 
raine appointed  him  bis  coi;mulung  physician,  and  Duke 
Henry  -II.  instituted  a  feculty  of  medicine  at  Pont-a* 
Mouss<Miy:  and  1  nominated  him.  d^an  and  first  professor* 
Being  now.eiiaUed  to  take  this,  doctor's  degree,  be  went 
toiParisfipr.  that  purpose;  and,,  on  bis  return,  commenced 
the  duties  of  his  .pcofessorsl^ip.  in  November  1598,  which 
be  performed  for  many  years  with  the  highest  reputa-; 
tion,  and  enjoyed  very  e&tensive  practice  until  his  death, 
which  was  occ^tioned'  by  the  plague,  at  Nancy,  whither 
he  bad  gone  to  administer  relief  to  those  afflicted  by  that 
disorder,  in  1633.  His  principal  publication  is  entitled 
^^  Selectiorum  Observationum  et  Gonsiliorum  de  prxtet 
ritis^  baoteiius  morbis,  effectibusque  -  praeter  naturam  ab 
aqu^  aeu  serosa  cdluvie  et  deluvie  ortis^  Lib^r  singut 
Iari%''  Pont-^*Mousson,  1618,  in  quarto.  This  work 
passed  through  sevej^  subsequent  editions,  one  of  which, 
(that  of  Leyden  17  S3),  was  published,,  with  a  preface,  by 
the  celebrated  Boerbaave.  A  selection  from,  or  an  abridg-i 
ment  of  it,  was  also  printed  in  1639,  with  the  title  of 
^  Piso  enucleatus,'*  in  12mo.  His.  other  works  were, 
^'Phystcnm  Comet«8e  Speculilm/'  Ponte  ad  Montionem, 
1619,  in  8vo ;  and  ^  Discours .  de  la  Nature,  Causes,  et; 
Bemedes,'  tant  ouratifs  que  preservatifs,  des  maladies  po^ 
pulaires,  accoinpagn^es  de  Dysenteirie  et  autres  Flux  de 
Ventre,*'  ibid.  1^23,  in  12nu>.  He  translated  from  the 
Spaittab  -into  Latin,  ^'  Ludovici  Mercati  In&titutiones  ad 
usum  et  €f^Amen  eorum  qui  artem  luxatoriam  exercent,^ 
Franief^t,  1625;  in  folio.  He  likewisje  published  the  foU 
lowii^ealogyof  his  first  patron  :  ^^Carolilll.,  Serenissimi, 
Potentissimiqite  DuCis  Lotbaringiae,  &c.,  Macarismos,  seu 
felieitatis  et  virtntum  egregio  Principe  dignarum  coronas,'' 


.  POISSON  (Nicholas  Joseph),  a  native  of  Paris,  and 
learned  prtQSt  of  the  Oratory,  was  esteemed  well  acquainted 
with  philosophy,  mathematics,  and  divinity.  He  made  a 
considerable  stay  in  Italy,  where  he  acquired,  the  respect 

*  .       I ,  » 

•  V 

1  Eloy  Diet.  Hist.  Ue  Medecine,  in  art.  Le  Pois. — Chaufepie.— Ueet's  cyblo- 

106  P  O  I  S  S  O  N. 

of  the  iitersLtiy  and  was  aometiine  superior  of  bis'congre-^ 
gation  at  Verrddme.  He  died  in  ao  advanced  age  aC 
Lyons,  May  5,  1710.  His  works  are,  a  Summary  of  the 
Councils,  printed  at  Lyons  1706,  in  two  volumes,  folio^ 
under  the  title  *^  Delectus  actorum  Ecctesis  univ^Balisy 
s^u  novaSummaConciliorum,"  &c.  The  second  volume  is 
nearly  half  filled  with  notes  on  the  councils,  and  valuable 
remarks  on  the  method,  mechanics,  and  music  of  Des- 
cartes, who  was  his  friend,  He*^left  also  some  manuscripts.. 
It  is  said,  that  he  was  in  possession  of  several  pieces  by 
Clemangis  and  Theophylact,  which  have  never  beea 
printed.  * 

POISSONNIER  (Peter  Isaac),  a  celebrated  French 
physician,  was  born  at  Dijon,  July  5,  1720.     After  study* 
ing  medicine,  he  succeeded  M.  Dubois  in  1746  as  profes* 
sor  of  physic  in  the  college  de  France.     He  was  one  of  the 
first  who  gave  a  course  of  chemical  lectures  in  Paris.     In 
,1767  iie  was  appointed  first  physician  to  ihe  French  arrny^ 
and  the  year  following  went  to  Russia  to  attend  the  em- 
press Elizabeth  in  her  illness.     He  remained  two  years  in 
Russia,  and  assisted  at  the  famous  experiment  relative  tQ 
the  (Congelation  of  quicksilver,  of  which  he  afterwards  gave. 
an  account  (inserted  in  their  memoirs),  to  the  Academy  of 
sciences  at  Paris,  who 'had  elected  him  a  member.     Soon 
after  he  returned  to  France  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
counsellor  of  state  ;  and  in  1764  was  appointed  inspector- 
general  of  physic,  surgery,  and  pharmacy,  in  the  ports  and 
colonies  of  France.     His  ingenious  method  of  procuring 
fresh  froni  sea-water,  by  distillation,  procured  him,  in  1765, 
a  pension  of  12,000  livrcs  a-year  from  the  French  govern- 
ment.    In  1777,  he  resigned  his  chair  at  the  college  of 
France ;  but^  in  conformity  to  an  unanimous  vote  of  the 
professors,  continued  to  preside  at  their  public  meetings 
as  long  as  his  health  would  permit.     M.  Lalande  says,  that 
he  did  honour  to  this  office  ^'  by  a  grand  and  striking  figure: 
by  the  dignity  of  his  speech  :  the  nobleness  of  his  man- 
ner :  and  the  deservedly  high  estimation  in  which  he  was 
held  by  the  public."     He  was,  during  the  reign  of  terror, 
imprisoned,  with  his  whole  family,  by  Robespierre;  but 
was  liberated  on  the  death  of  that  monster.     He  died  in 
September  1797  or  179S.     He  is  said  to  have  left  behind 
him  a  very  valuable  collection'  of  natural  history,  medals, 


1  Moreri. — ^Dict.  Hiit. 

POLE.  107 

and  other  curiosities.  He  wrote  several  treatises  belong* 
itig  to  his  profession,  viz.  on  the  fever  of  St.  Doipingo, 
Ibe  diseases  of  seamen,  an  abridgment  of  anatomy,  &c.' 

POLE,  or  POOL  (Reginald),  an  eminent  cardinal,  and 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  descended  from  the  blood- 
royal  of  England,  being  a  younger  son  of  sir  Richard  Pole, 
K.Gi  and  eousin-german  to  Henry  VIL  by  Margaret,  dau^- 
^r  of  George  duke  of  Clarence,  younger  brother  to  king 
Edward  IV.  He  was  born  at  Stoverton,  or  Stourton  castle, 
in  Staffordshire, .  in  1 500,  and  educated  at  6rst  in  the  Car* 
thusian  monastery  at  Sheen,  near  Richmond,  in  Surrey, 
whence,  at  the  early  age  of  twelve,  he  was  removed  to 
Magdalen-college^  Oxford,  and  there  assisted  in  his  stu- 
dies by  Linacre  and  William  Latimer.  In  June  1515,  he 
took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  and  soon  after  entered  into  dea« 
coii^s  orders.  Without  doubting  his  proficiency  in  bis 
studies,  it  may  be  supposed  that  this  rapid  progress  in 
academical  honours  was  owing  to  his  family  interest  and 
pretensions.  Among  the  popish  states  abroad  it  was  not 
vncommon  to  admit  boys  of  iioble  families  to  a  rank  in 
the  universities  or  the  church,  long  before  the  statutable 
4>T  cunonical  periods.  One  object  for  such  hs^sty  prefer- 
ment was,  that  they  might  be  entitled  to  hold  lucrative 
benefices,  and  the  rank  of  their  family  thus  supported : 
and  accordingly,  in  March  1517,  we  find  that  Pole  was 
ismcle  prebendary  of  Roscombe,  in.  the  church  of  Salisbury, 
to  which  were  added,  before  he  hud  reached  his  nineteenth 
year,  the  deaneries  of  Winbourne  Minster,  and  Exeter. 
For  all  these  be  was  doubtless  indebted  to  his  relation 
Henry  YIU.  who  intended  him  for  the  highest  dignities  of 
the  church. 

Having  now  acquired  perhaps  as  much  learning  as  his 
country  at  that  time  afforded,  he  was  desirous  of  visiting 
the  most  celebrated  universities  abroad,  to  complete  his 
education,  and  being  provided  by  the  king  with  a  pension, 
in  addition  to  the  profits  of  his  preferments,  he  fixed  bis 
residence  for  some  time  at  Padua,  where  he  hired  a  house 
and  kept  an  establishment  suitable  to  his  rank.  •  The  pro- 
fessors at  Padua  were  at  this  time  men  of  high  reputation, 
and  were  not  a  little  pleased  with  the  opportunity  of  form- 
ing the  mind  of  one  who  was  the  kinsman  and  favourite  of 
a  great  king,  and  might  hereafter  have  it  in  his  power 

1  Diet.  Hi8t.-^ent  Mag.  1799. 


amply  to  reward  tbeir  labours ;  and  gome  of  tbem  ereir 
'  now  partook  nobly  of  bis  bounty^  befng  maintained  by  hiin 
in  bi»  bouse.  Here  commenced  his  acquaintance'  witb 
Bembo,  Sadolet,  and  Longdios,  wbich  lasted  the  remainder 
of  their  lives,  and  here  also  his  acquaintance  took  its  ri^e 
with  Erasmus,  who  had  received  from -his  friend  Lupset  a 
very  favourable  representation  of  Pole.  He  therefore  en-^ 
lered  into  an  epistolary  correspondence  with  bim^  which* 
be  began  by  recoaimendiog  to  his  favour  the  afterwards 
welUknown  John  A  Lasco.  (See  Alasco,  vol.  L  p.  292.) 
Besides  the  aid  which  Pole  received  in  his  studies  from 
LongoKus  and  Lupset,  who  is  said  to  have  been  enter- 
tained by  him  in  his  own  family,  he  paidmvch  attention 
XOh  the  lectures  of  Leonicus,  an  eminent  Greek  s<;holar9' 
who  taught  Pole  to  relish  the  writings  of  Aristotle  and 
Plato  in  the  original.  While  Pole  continued  at  Padua^ 
Longtnus  died  in  1522,  and  such  was  the  regard  Pole 
bad  for  him  that  he  wrote  bis  life,  which  Dr.  Neve  thinkar 
was  not  only  the  first  but  the  best^  Specimen  he  gave  the' 
public  of  his  abilities.  It  was  the  production,  however, 
of  a  young  man  who  could  not  have  known  LongoKus 
above  two  years,  and  he  has  therefore  fallen  into  some  mis- 
takes. (See  LONflUEiL.)  * 

Pole  bad  acquired  a  considerable  degpree  of  reputation 
in  Italy,  which  made  his  mother,  now  count6S8  of  Salis* 
bury,  and  other  friends,  desirous  of  his  return,  that  the 
same  display  of  his  talents  might  sanction  the  honours  in-' 
tei^ded  for  him  ;  and  it  was  bis  design  to  set  out  for  Eng* 
land  in  1525;  but  being  desirous  of  seeing  the  jubilee, 
which  was  celebrated  thi»  year  at  Rome,  be  resolved  to 
visit  that  city  first.  On  his  journey  to  Borne  he  was,  we 
are  told,  every  where  received  with  great  respect ;  but  at 
Rome  he  contented  himself  with  viewing  what  was>  moat 
ciirious,  without  appearing  at  the  papal  court.  On  his 
arrival  in  England,  he  was  welcomed  with  great  respect  by* 
the  royal  family,  and  by  the  publie  at  large,  which  he  seems 
to  have  merited  by  his  elegant  artd  accomplished  manners, 
as  well  as- the  proficiency  he  had  i^ade  in  learning.  That 
learning  was  still   his  favourite  pursuit  appears  from  his 

*  In  F«broary  1523-4,  he  was  cho*'  Fo<  the  founder^  although  it  ia  boI  cer- 

sen  a  fellow  of  Corpus  Chrisii  college,  tain  that  he  ever  took  possession,  and 

Oxford,  ^according  to  a  note  in  Wood's  most  probable  that  he  did  not.     Fuller 

Colleges  and  Halls,  p.  390.     This  ap>  says,  without  giving  his  authority,  thait 

pears  to  have  been  done  by  bishop  he  was  br€d  at  Corpus, 

P  O  L  iE.  109 

requesting  from  the  king  a  grant  of  the  house  dean  Colet 
liad  built  in  the  Carthusian  monastery,^  where  be  had  first 
been  educated,  and  where  he  now  devoted  bimieif  to  study 
for  about  two  years. 

The  affair  of  king  Henry's  divorce  drew  Pole  from  hit 
retirement,  and  led  to  the  singular  viciasitades  of  his  life. 
This  was  a  measure  which  he  greatly  disapproved,  but  he 
is  said  to  have  had  some  reasons  for  his  disapprobation^ 
different  from  what  conscience,  or  his  religious  principles, 
might  fairly  have  suggested.     Notwithstanding  his  being 
an  ecclesiastic,  we  are  told  that  he  had  entertained  hopes 
of  espousing  the  princess  Mary,  and  that  this  project  was 
even  favoured  by  queen  Catherine,  who  had  committed 
ihe  care  of  the  princess's  education  to  the  counteM  of 
Salisbury,  Pole's  mother.     Whatever  may  be  in  this  sus- 
'picion,  which  prevailed  for  many  years,   it  appears  that 
he  wished  to  be  out  of  the  way  while  the  matter  was  in  agi« 
tation,  and  therefore  obtained  leave  from  the  king  to  ga 
to  the  university  of  Paris,  under  pretence  of  continuing 
his  theological  studies.     Accordingly  he  spent  a  year  at 
Paris,  from  Oct.  1529  to  Oct.  15;50,  during  which  time 
the  king  having  determined  to  consult  the  universities  of 
Europe  respecting  the  divorce,  sent  to  Pole  to  solicit  hi« 
cause  at  Paris.     Pole,  however,  excused  himself  on  ac-» 
couQt  of  his  want  of  experience,  and  when  Henry  sent  over 
Bellay,  as  joint  commissioner,  left  the  whole  business^  to 
^is  coadjutor,  and  returning  to  England,  went  again  to 
his  favourite  retirement  at  Sheen.     Here  lie  drew  up  bis 
reasons  for  disapproving  of  the  divorce,  which  were  shown 
to  the  king,  who  prob^iy  put  them  into  Cranmer's  hands; 
Cranmer  praised  the   wit  and  argument  employed^  and 
chteGly  objected  to  committing  the  cause  to  the  decision  of 
the  pope,  which  Pole  had  recommended.     Pole's  consent 
tothq  measure,  however,,  appears*  to  have  been  a  favourite 
object  with  the  king;  and  therefore  in   1531,  the  arch^ 
bishopric  of  York  was  offered  him  on  condition  that  he 
would  not  oppose  the  divorce ;  but  be  refused  this  dignity 
on  such  terms,  after  a  sharp  contention,  as  he  says  in  bis 
epistle  to  king  Edward,  between  his  ambition  and  his  con- 
science.    He.  is  said  also  to  have  given  his  opinion  "on  this 
subject  so  very  freely  tlo. the  king,  that  he  dismissed  him 
in;grea^j»ngef  front  bis  presence,  and  never  sent  for  him 
Pole  now  resolved  to  leave  the  kingdom,  from  a  dread 

no  POL  E. 

of  Henry's  revengeful  temper^  who,  hoii^ever, '  at  first  Ue» 
haved  rather  better  than  might  have  been  expected;  for 
be  not  only  permitted  Pole  to  go  abroad,  but  continued 
the  pension  which  had  been  before  granted,  and  which,  had 
always  been  teguiarty  paid.  Pole  then  passed  a  year  at 
the  university  of  Avignon  in  France,  the  air  of  which  place 
disagreeing  with  him,  he  went  in  1532  to  Pad«ia.  Here 
be  divided  his  time  between  that  city  and  Venice,  apply-^^ 
ing  diligently  to  theological  studies,  and  was  respected,  as 
be  was  before,  by  the  learned  of  Italy.  After  he  had  been 
a  considerable  time  abroad,  hrs  capricious  relative,  Henry 
Vlll.  solicited  his  return,  but  Pole,  after  many  excuses^, 
plainly  told  his  majesty  that  he  neither  approved  his  di^ 
vorce,  nor  his  separation  from  the  church  of  Rome.  Th^ 
king  then  sent  him  Dr.  Sampsoa^s  book  in  defence  of  the 
proceedings  in  England,  on  which  Pole  embodied  his  folt 
opinion  on  these  proceedings,  in  his  treatise  entitled  ^*  De 
unitate  ecclesiastica.*'  Burnet  and  other  protestant  histo-^ 
rians  very  naturally  censure  this  work  as.  devoid  of  sound 
argument,  and  Phillips  and  other  popish  writers  have  as 
highly  praised  it;  but  all  must  agree  that  in  coarseness  of 
invective  it  does  not  comport  with  the  urbanity  of  style 
and  manner  hitherto  attributed  to  Pole.  Pole  in  fact 
seems  to  have  written  it  as  much  in  contempt  of  Henry,  as 
with  a  view  to  convince  him ;  and  therefore,  when  Henry 
renewed  his  solicitations  for  bis  return,  that  he  might  taUc 
all  these  matters  over  in  an  interview^  be  not  only  refused, 
but  added  to  that  refusal  such  a  repetition  of  irritating  lan-« 
guage  that  no  hope  of  reconciliation  could  be  entertained. 
Henry  therefore  withdrew  his  pension,  and  stripped  himr 
of  his  ecclesiastical  preferments. 

About  this  time  the  pope,  having  resolved  to  call  a  ge-^ 
neral  council  for  the  reformation  of  the  churcb^  summoned 
several  learned  men  to  Rome,  for  that  purpose,  and 
among  these  he  summoned  Pole  to  represent  England* 
As  soon  as  this  was  known  in  that  country,  his  mother  and 
other  friends  requested  him  not  to  obey  the  pope- s  sumr-^ 
mons;  and  at  first  he  was  irresolute,  but  the  importunities 
of  his  Italian  friends  prevailed,  and  he  arrived  at  Rome  in 
1536,  where  he  was  lodged  in  the  pope*s  palace,  and 
treated  with  the  utmost  respect,  being  considered  as  one 
who  might  prove  a  very  powerful  agent  in  any  future  at- 
tempt to  reduce  his  native  land  to  the  dominion  of  the 
pope.    The  |f)rojected  scheme  of  reformation,    in  wliicb 

POLE.  Ill 

Pole  a$»i$te(]|  came  to  liothini;;  but  a  de»ign  was  nour 
fortned  of  advancing  him  to  tbe  purple,,  to  enable  him  the 
better  to  promote  the  interests  of  the  papal  see.  To  this 
be  objected,  and  his  objections  certainly  do  him  no  dk« 
creda,  as  a  zealous  adherent  to  the  order  and  discipline  of 
bis  cburcb.  He  was  not. yet  in  holy  orders,  nor  had  re-» 
ceived  even  tbe  clerical  tonsure,  notwithstanding  tbe  be^ 
^eftces  which  had  been  bestowed  on.  him ;  and  he  repre-* 
sented  to  tbe  pope,  that  such  a  dignity  would  at  this  junc« 
ture  destroy  all  his  influence  in  England,  by  subjecting 
bim  to  the  imputation  of  being  too  much  biassed  to  the  in-» 
terest  of  the  papal  see ;  and  would  also  have  a  natural  ten«* 
dency  lo  bring  ruin  on  bis  own  family.  He,  therefore, 
iatreated  his  holiness  to  leave  bim,  at  least  for  tbe  present, 
where  he  was,  adding  other  persuasives,  with  which  the 
pope  seemed  satisfied ;  but  tbe  very  next  day,  whether  in-  ' 
dttced  by  tbe  imperial  emissaries,  or  of  his  own  will,  -  he ' 
commanded  Pole's  icnniediate  obedience,  and  he  having 
submitted  to  tbe.  tonsure,  was  created  cardinal-deacon  of 
S*  Nereus  and  Achilleus,  on  Dec.  22,  1536.  Soon  after 
be  was  also  appointed  legate,  and  received  orders  to  de^ 
part  immediately  for  the  coasts  of  France  and  Flanders,  to 
keep  up  tbe  spirit  of  the  popish  party  in  England  ;  and  he 
had  at  tbe  same  time  letters  from  .the  pope  to  the  English 
nation,  or  rather  the  English  catholics,  the  French  king, 
the  king  of  Scotland,  and .  to  the  emperor's  sister,  who  was 
regent  of  the  Low  Countries.  Pole  undertook  this  cam- 
mission  with  great  readiness,  and  whether  from  ambition 
or  bigotry,  consented  to  be  a  traitor  to  bis  country.  In 
the  beginning  of  Lent  1537,  he  set  out  from  Rome,  along 
with  his  particular  friend,  the  bishop,  of  Verona,  and  a 
handsome  retinue.  His  first  destination  was  to  France, 
and  there  he  received  his  first  clieck,  for  on  the  very  day 
of  his  arrival  at  Paris,  the  French  king  sent  him  word  chat 
be  could*  neither  admit  him  to  treat  of  the  business  on 
wbidfi  be  came,  nor  allow  him  to  make  any  stay  in  his  do* 
minions.  Pole  now  learnt  that  Henry  VHI.  \iaA  pro* 
claimed  hka  a  traitor,  and  set  a  price  (60,000  crowns)  on 
bis  head*  Pole  then  proceeded  to  Cambray,  but  there  be 
met  with  tbe  same. opposition,  and, was  not  allowed  to  pur-* 
sue  his  j<H]rney.  The  cardinal  bishop  of  .Liege,,  howevec, 
invited  bim,  and  liberally  entertained  bim  in  that  city, 
wbere  he  remained  three  months,  in  hopes  of  more  favour- 
able ^ccoiints  fropi  the  emperQi*  and  the^  kingpf  flrancej^ 

112  P  O  L  E« 

but  notbiiTg  of  this  kind  occurring,  be:retiirii«d  tcRoml 
after  an  expedition  that  had  been  sooiewrhat  disgracefu- 
and  totally  unsuccessfuL  In  1538  he  again  set  out-on  a 
similar  design,  with  as  little  effect,  and  was  now  impeded 
by  the  necessary  caution  be  was  obliged  to  preserve  fop 
fear  of  falling  into  the  hands  of  «oine  of  Henry' 6*  agents. 
In  the  mean  time,  he  was  not  only  himself  attainted  of 
high  treason  by  the  Parliament  of  England,'  but  bis  eldest 
brother  Henry  Polf!^,  lord  Montague,  tbemarquis of  Exeter^ 
sir  Edward  Nevil,  and  sir  Nicholas  Carew, .  were  con* 
demned  and  executed  for  bigh>  treason,  which  consisted  in 
a  conspiracy  to  raise  cardinal  Pole  to  the  crown.-  Sif 
Geoffrey  Pole,  another  brother  of  the  cardinal's,  was  con«rf 
demned  on  the  same  account,  but  pardoned  in  conse-^ 
quence  of  his  giving  information  against  the  rest.  Mar* 
garet,  also,  countess  of  Salisbury,  tbe  cardinal's  mother^ 
was  condemned,  but  not  executed  until  two  years  after* 
Tbe  cardinal  now  found  how  truly  he  had  said  to  the  pope 
that  his  being  raised  to  that  dignity  would  be  the  nin  of 
his  family ;  but  he  appears  to  have  at  this  time  in  a  great 
measure  subdued  bis  natural  affection,  as  he  received  the 
account  of  his  mother's  death  with  great  composure,  con- 
soling himself  with  the  consideration  that  she  died  a  mar^ 
tyr  to  the  catholic  faith.  When  his  secretary  BeccatelK 
informed  him  of  the  news>  and  probably  with  much  oon« 
cern,  the  cardinal  said,  *'  Be  of  good  courage,  we  have 
now  one  patron  more  added  to  those  we  already  had  in 

In  153^,  when  Pole  returned  to  Rome,  the  pope  thought 
it  necessary  to  counteract  the  plots  of  Henry's  etoissaries 
by  appointing  foim  a  guard  for  the  security  of  his  person. 
He  likewise  conferred  on  him  the  dignity  of  legate  of  Vt^ 
terb0|  an  office  in  which,  while  he  maintained  his  charac- 
ter as  an  example  of  piety  and  a  patron  of  learning,  he  is 
said  to  have  shown  great  moderation  and  lenity  towards 
the  protestants.  He  was  here  at  the  head  of  a  literary  so-^ 
ciety,  some  of  the  members  of  which  were  suspected  of  a 
secret  attachmeint  to  tbe  doctrines  of  the  reformation ;  and 
Immanuel  Tremellius,  who  was  a  known  proiestant,  was 
converted  from  Judaism  to  Christianity  in  Pole^s  palace  at 
Viterbo,  where  he  was  baptised,  the  cardinal  and  Flaoii*- 
nius  being  his  godfathers. 

Pole  continued  at  Viterbo  till  1542,  when  tbe  generid 
council  for  the  reformation^f  the  church,  which'  had  beea 

Toil.  US 

h^g  prdmueil  abd  iong  delayed,  was  called  at  Trent,  and 
is  kooivn  in  ecdesiastical  history  as  tbe  famous  ^*  Council  of 
Trent»"  It  did  not,  however,  proceed  to  business  until 
154a,  when  Polet  went  thither,  with  the  necessary  escort 
of  a  tfoop  of  borse^  For  the  proceedings  of  this  extraor* 
dinary  assembly,  we  must  refer  the  reader  to  fiither  Paul^a 
Jiistory.  The  principal  circumstance  worthy  of  notice  re* 
^cting  tbe  cardinal  was  bis  writing  a  treatise  on  tbe  na^ 
tare  and  «nd  of  general  councils,  just.before  he  left  Rome^ 
in  which  he  proves  himself  the  determined  advocate  for  the 
boundless  prerogative  of  the  pope.  He  continued  at  Trent 
until  a  rheumatic  disorder,  which  fell  into  one  of  his  arms» 
obliged  him  to  go  to  Padua  for  medical  advice ;  and  after« 
wanis,  the  council  being  prorogued,  he  went  to  Rome  at 
*lhe  request  of  the  pope,  who  wished  to  avail  himself  of  hii 
pen  in  drawing  up  memorials  and  vindications  of  tbe  pro* 
ceedings  of  the  see  of  Rome ;  and  Pole^  a  man  of  superiot 
talents  to  most  of  the  Italian  prelates,  knew  how  to  render 
these  very  persuasive,  at  a  time  when  freedom  of  discus«> 
sion  was  not  allowed. 

On  the  death  of  Henry  VIII.  in  1547,  be  endeavoured 
to  renew  his  designs,  in  order,  as  bis  partial  historian  says, 
f^  to  repair  the  breaches  which  Henry  had  made  in  tbe 
ittth  and  discipline  of  the  church."  On  this  occasion  he 
solicited  the  pope's  assistance,  and  wrote  to  the  privy«» 
cevmcil  of  England,  partly  soothing  and  partly  threatening 
them  with  what  tbe  pope  conld^do;  but  all  this  had  no 
effect,  and  the  members  of  tbe  privy-council  refused  to 
receive  either  the  letter  or  him  who  brought  it.  The  car<> 
dinal  also  drew  up  a  treatise,  and  inscribed  it  to  Edward 
VL  which  contained  an  elaborate  vindication  of  his  con# 
doct  towards  tbe  late  king,  but  it  does  not  appeac  that  it 
ever  came  into  £dward's  bands.  Pole  therefore  remained 
^11  attainted,  and  was  one  of  the  few  excepted  in  tbe  acts 
of  grace  which  passed  at  the  accession  of  the  young  king.  '■'. 

In  1549,  our  cardinal  had  the  prospect  of  advancement 
to  all  of  power  and  dignity  which  tbe  church  of  Rome  had 
to  bestow^  the  chair  of  St.  Peter  itself.  On  the  death  of 
pope  Paul  III.  he  was  proposed  in  tbe  conclave  as  bis  ^uc«» 
cesser  by  pahlinal  K&rnese,  and  tbe  majority  of  votes  ap** 
peared  to  be  in  bis  favour,  when  an  opposition  was  ex«^^ 
cited  by  the  Fr«ach  party,  with  cardinal  Carafb  at  their 
head,  who  hoped^  if  Pole .  were  set  aside,  to  be  choseoi 
hlm^fiU;    It  waa^  neoessaryi  however,  to  show  somd  strong; 


114  t  O  ls%. 

grouads  for  oyiporiiig  canioiibl  {ViKe ;  ftinl  tkoM,  Irad  thtf 
been  |»roTedy  were  oertatnly  stroog  eoeagby  heresjr  and 
falcon diieney :  ^lie  had  been  lesAetA  Sm  the  protestaou  at 
Vkerboy  mad  be  vms  tke  vepvted  fadier  d  a  young  sirl,  at 
4bis  timeaiiuiL.  :  Bat  agajnttiioth  tbese  cliarges  fQ>Mi  «in^ 
dicated  himself  in  the  flioat  aatisfactovy  maimer,  and  his 
party  determined  to  elect  Mm.  Why  they  did  not  saecoedl 
is  Fariously  related^  It  is  said  that  they  t»9n  ao  impatteii^ 
p9  hring  the  aiatter  to  a  conclusion  as  to  go  lata  at  night 
to  P^le^a  bouse  to  pay  their  adorattoas  to  faimy  according 
to  custttia,  asMl  that  Pole  refiisad  to  accede  to  each  a  fash 
|Mid  uoseasoDable  proceeding,  and  requested  they  wooUl 
defer  it  notil  inarniDg.  They  then  letiffody  but  iauaedK^ 
ately  after  two  of  the  candisala  came  again  to  him,  and  as«t 
•ored  htm  that  they  neqohred  nothing  of  htm  bat  arbat  waa 
usual ;  apon  which  he  gate  hta  oooaent,  bat  afterwards  rei- 
pented,  and  endeayonred  (to  vetract.  The  eaixlioais,  in  the 
siean  time^  of  their  xiwn  aecord  had  deferred  prooeeditiga 
until  next  morning,  when  a  very  different  spirttappeared/it 
the  conclave,  and  the  election  fell  upon  eafrdiaail  de  Moti«e^ 
ii4io  ve^ed  as  pope  by  the  name  of  Jaiiins  UI.  a  man  of 
whom  it  is  su£5ieient  to  say  that  be  gave  his  candtaal^s  imlt 
to  a  boy  who  had  the  cane  ef  his  racsdoey^  Wiien  Pole  ap* 
peaied,  with  abe  oHher  cavdinals,  to  perform  his  adoratioa 
to  the  new  pQf)e,  the  latter  raised  bin  up  and  easbiaeod 
ihim,  telling  hi■^  diat  it  was  to  bis  disiatenestedness  be 
owed  the  fKipacy.  How  £ar  ear  cardinal  was  really  disin* 
terested,  is  a  matter  ef  dispute.  Sowe  suppose  tbitt  ba- 
atili  had  in  Tiew  a  .manriage  with  tlie  princess  Mary,  and 
die  hopes  of  a  crown:;  and  at  is  oertaki  that  he  had  bkberto 
uever  taken  pnest's  orders,  that  he  might  beat  liberty  to 
lietum  to  the  secular  world,  Jwhiohhis  being  only  a -cardinal 
would  srot  have  opposed* 

^  The  cardinal  was  at  a  eonveat  of  the  Bona^otines  at 
MagoaanOy  in  the  territory  of  V-onioe,  whither  be  had  re^ 
tured  when  the  tranquiliity  of  Eome  was  distorbed  by  the 
JRiench  war,  wiiea  the  4mportQet  news  arrived  of  the  ao* 
oession  of  the  prinoess  Mary  to  the  thsene  of  £ng(aiid,  bjr 
the  dei^h  of  her  brother  Edward  VJ.  it  was  immediaii^ 
determined  by  the  court  of  Rome  that  he  dMuld  be  sent  aa 
legate  to  ^ngbuid^  in  evder  to  promote  that  object  to 
wUch  his  fiuniiy  bad  been  saori&eed,  the  redttottan  of  the 
kingdom  to  the  obedience  of  the  holy  see.  Pole^  how* 
ffer,  who  did  not  know  that  hja.attaijador  ^ras  taken  eiff^ 

^  O  L  E.  Hi 


iMeffmUi^d  t^fH  to  ^enii  bU  feoreiaifjr  to  Spgland  to  oag)cfi 
t)K9  QMeesary  imqiiiri^H  and  to  prei^^iH  l^tlers  to  ib(?  qui^fq^i 
irjio  s^n  dissipated  bis  fears  by  an  aqnpi^  assufi^ncf}  of  )ie« 
aititacbinent  io  tba  eatbolic  oatiso*    H^  tbea  i^t  o^^  ip  Oct, 
14133,  b«it  in  bis  way  through  Gdrfnany,  wfis  ctetaiiie4  by 
^  emperor,  wbo  was  ;then  negoiQiaung  a  marrifgi^  be^ 
Iwaeir  his  soa  Philip  and  tbe  queen  of  £ngland>  tp  wb^c|4 
be  imagiped  the  cardinal  would  be  an  ob^taicle.    This  de*' 
lay  wae  the  asore  mof tifying.  as  the  emporor  a<  tk^  p^m% 
^me  refused  toadoiit  Urn  into  bis  presence^  although  bf 
hfd  haea  eommissioned  by  the  pope  %q  endeavour  to  fiiie;* 
dialte  a  peace  between  tbe  emperor  and  the  f^re^iob  lf^if)g> 
8ot  tbe  gres^^  of  all  his  mortifioations  came  ffon^  q^e/s^i 
Mary  herself,  who  under  various  pretences,  wbicb  tbf  <^^F-r 
dteal  aa^  io  their  proper  light,  contrived  ^o  keep  }^ 
^eed  until  bepr  marriage  with  Philip  was  coneliidedf 
•   All  obatades  being  noiw  reenoved,  be  prof^eedi^d  hof^f^^ 
wards,  and  arrived  at  Dover,  Nov,  JO,   1554,  wbere  hf 
was  seeeiviad  by  soane  persons  of  rank,  and  reaqbii^g  j^pn- 
doe,  was  welconaed  by  their  majesties  in  ithe  nip^t  bi^Q^r-' 
ikble  nMuiner.     No  time  was  now  lo9i  in  endeavouring  t^ 
promote  the  great  objects  of  bis  misiiion.     Qn  the  27tb  of 
Herejonber,  the  candinal  legate  went  to  the  House  of  Peer^i 
where  tbe  king  and  queen  were  present,  and  made  a  long 
apeeeb,  in  which  be  invited  tbe  parUaoaent  to  a  reeonciliT 
ntjee  with  liie  apostolie  see :  from  whence,  he  aaid»  b# 
was  seot  by  the  vcommoo  pastor  of  Cbristendon^,  to  bri^g 
baak  tjiieBi  wbo  bad  long  strayed  from  tbe  inclosar^  of  tbe 
churcfa;  aiul  two  days  after  tbe  Speaker  repotted  l^o  jtb^ 
iioisse  of  Gofioaons  the  substance  of  this  speech.     Wbi^( 
IbUawod  may  be  read  witb  a  blush.    Tbe  !two  9o4^es  ojf 
Partiametit  agreed  is. a  petition  to  be  reconciled  to  the  ^^ 
of  Q/Mse,  which  was  presented  to  the  king  and  qut^etv,  and 
etoted,  on  the  part  of  the  parliament,  that  ^*wl\erea$  t)^ 
liad  been  guiky  of  a  most  horrible  defeetf on  and  $cb^l9 
fmm  the  Apostolic  see,  they  did  now  sincerely  r^pen^  5^ 
ft;  and  in  sign  of  their  repentance,  were  ready  to  irepevJ- 
all  th^  laws  ipade  in  prejudice  of  that  see  ;  therefore,  ^inof 
ihe  king  and  queen  bad  been  no  way  defiled  by  tb^ 
-schism,  they  prayed  them  to  intercede  wirth  tb<^  legate  \f 
4grant  them  abscdiutjan,  and  to  ceceive  th^ns  again  into  i^he 
£osQin  of  the  cboroby^*   .  This  petition  being  pe^^Q^d  kf 
jboih  Houses  on  their  knees  to  ibe  king  and  q^ee«},v(b§if 
aoiajesties  made  their intiercessian  witb  tjm  iega^e,  wtbp>  i> 

I  2 

1 16?  1^  6  L  E. 

ti  long  speech,  thanked  the  parliament  tbr  repealing  tb# 
act  against  binii  and  making  him  a  member  of  the  nation^ 
from  which  he  was  by  that  act  cat  oiF;  in  recompense  of 
which,  be  was  npw  to  reconcile  them  to  the  body  of  the^ 
ehurcb.  After  enjoining  them,  by  way  of  penaoce,  to 
repeal  the  laws  which  they  had  made  against  the  Romisb 
religion,  he  granted  them,,  in  the  pope*s  name,  a  fall- 
absolution,  which  they  received  on  their  knees;  and  bd 
also  absolved  the  whole  realm  from  all  ecclesiastical  cen^- 
•ore.  But  however  gratifying  to  the  court  or  parliament 
all  this  mummery  might  be,  the  citizens  of  London  and 
(he  people  at  large  felt  no  interest  in  the  favours  which  the 
pope's  representative  bestowed.  In  London,  during  one  of 
his  processions,  no  respect  was  paid  to  him,  or  to  the  croi^ 
carried  before  hini ;  and  so  remiss  were  the  people  in  otbev 
parts  in  their  congratulations  on  the  above  joyful  oceaaioiiy 
that  the-qcieea  was  obliged  to  write  circular  letters  to  the 
•berif&^  compelling  them  to  rejoice.  r 

■  After  the  dissolution^  of  parliament^  the  first  thing  takenr 
into  consideration  was,  in  what  manner  to  proceed  against 
tlie  heretics.  Pole,  as  we  have  before  noticed,  had  beea 
charged  by  some  with  favouring  the  protestants ;  but  h^ 
now  expressed  a  great  detestation^  of  them,  adding  pro* 
bably  something  of  personal  resentment  to  his  constitiitioiuil 
bigotry,  and  would  not  now  converse  with  any  who  bad 
been  of  that  party,  except  sir  William  Cecil.  Since  his 
arrival  as  legate,  bis  temper  appeared  to  have  undergone 
-an  unpleasant  alteration :  he  was  reserved  to  all  except 
priiili  and  Ormaneto,  two  Italians  whoia  he  brought  with 
him,  and  in  whom  he  confided.  Still  for  some  time  he 
recommended  moderate  measures  with  respect  to  heretics^ 
^bile  Gardiner  laboured  to  hasten  the  bloody  persecution 
which  followed;  but,  either  oui*argued  by  Gardiner,  or 
influenced  by  the  court,  we  find  that  he  granted  commis-^ 
sions  for  the  prosecution  of  heretics,  as  one  of  the  first 
acts  of  his  legantine  authority.  If  in  this  he  was  persuaded 
4X>ntrary  to  his  opinion  and  feelings,  he  must  have  been 
^fae  most  miserable  of  all  men ;  for  the  consequenees,  it  is 
well  known,  were  such  as  no  man  of  feeling  eould  contemn, 
-plate  without  horror. 

•  In  March  1555,  pope  Julius  IILdiedy  and  in  less  than  a 
tdonth,  his  successor  Marcellus  II.  on  which  vacancy,  the 
queen  employed  her  interest  in  favour  of  cardfaial.  Pole^ 
)»ut  without  ci&ct;  nor  was  he  more  successful  when  1iq& 

t»  0  L  E.  117 

^990at  to  Flanderathis  year^  to  negociate  a  peace  between 
fiance  and  the  emperor.  To  add  to  his  disappointments^ 
the  new,pope»  Paul  IV.  had  a  predilection  for  Gardiner, 
and.  favoured  the  views  of  the  latter  upon  the  see  of  Can^ 
terbury^  vacant,  by  the  deposition  of  Cranmer ;  nor  al- 
though the  queen  nominated  Pole  to  be  archbishop,  would 
the  pope  confirm  it,  till  after  the  death  of  Gardiner.  The 
day  after  Cranmer  was  burnt,  March  22,  1556,  Pole,  who 
liow  for  the  first  time  took  priest^s  orders,  was  consecrated 
archbishop  of  Canterbury.  .  Having  still  a  turn  for  retire- 
ment, and  being  always  conscientious  in  what  he  thought 
-his  duties,  he  would  now  have  fixed  his  abode  at  Canter- 
bury, and  kept  that  constant  residence  which  became  a 
good  pastor,  but  the  queen  would  never  sufler  him  to 
leave  the  court,  insisting  that  it  was  more  for  the  interest 
|)f  the  catholic  faith  that  he^should  reside  near  her  person^ 
Many  able  divines  were  consulted  on  this  point,  who  as- 
sured the  cardinal  that  he  could  not  with  a  safe  conscience 
jsbaadou  her  ms^esty,  ^  when  there  was  so  much  busi- 
ness to  be  done,  to  crush  the  heretics,  and  give  new  life 
$o  the  catholic  cause." 

In  November  of  the  same  year,  he  was  elected  chan- 
'Cellor  of  the  university  of  Oxford,  and  soon  after  that  of 
Cambridge,  and  in  1557  he  visited  both  by  his  commissa- 
ries. It  was  on  these  occasions  that  the  shameful  ceremon)^ 
was  ordered,  of  disturbing  the  ashes  of  Peter  Martyr's 
wife,  at  Oxford,  and  of  Bucer  and  Fagius,  at  Cambridge. 
Other  severities  were  exercised  ;  all  English  Bibles,  com» 
ments  on  them,  &c.  were  ordered  to  be  burnt,  and  such 
strict  search  made  for  heretics,  that  many  fled,  and,  ac- 
cording to  Wood,  the  university  lost  some  good  scholars* 
The  only  instance  of  the  cardinars  liberality  to  Oxford, 
was  his  giving  to  AU-Souis'  college,  the  living  of  Stanton 

,  It  was  cardinal  Pole^s  misfortune  that  he  was  never  long 
snceessful  in  that  line  of  conduct  which  be.  thought  would 
have  most  recommended  him ;  and  now,  when  he  was 
doing  every  thing  to  gratify  the  Roman  see,  by  the  perse- 
cution of  the  protest^nts,  &c.  the  pope,  Paul  IV.  disco* 
vered  a  more  violent  animosity  against  him  than  before. 
/  The  cause,  or  one  of  the  causes.  Was  of  a  political  nature. 
Faul  wais  now  engaged  in  a  war  with  Philip,  king  of  Spain 
and  husband  to  Mary,  and  he  knew  that  the  cardinal  was 
devoted  to  the  interesits  of  Spain.     He  therefore  wanted  a 

%i^  *  d  L  ft. 

legate  at  the  cOurt  6f  £ng1&i)d  Hke  hittlsdf,  tig6r6ti$  ^A 
resolute  J  leh6;  bjr  takih^  the  lead  in  coUi^cil,  iintf  gaitiih^ 
the  queen's  confidence,  inight  prevent  hef  fromettgtein^ 
Ih  ti^r  husband's  quarrels.  But  while  Pole  n^thained  itt 
ihat  station,  he  was  a|5prehensiVe  that  by  his  InstigattOi^ 
Sh6  dQight  enter  iuto  alliances  destrnetive  to  his  polities. 
Upon  f atioUd  pretensions,  therefore,  Paul  IV.  rtevived  th6 
bid  ac6u^ati6n  Against  the  cardinal,  of  being  a  suspected 
h^r^tic,  and  summoned  him  to  Rome  to  ah$werth6  ebar^^. 
Ht  deprii^ed  him  also  of  the  office  of  legate,  whtdb  he 
cbftferred  upon  Peyto,  a  Franciscan  friar,  whom  be  bad 
instde  a  cardinal  for  the  purpose,  designing  also  the  see  of 
Salisbury  for  him.  This  appointment  took  place  in  Sfept. 
l5iy,  and  the  uew  legate  was  on  his  way  to  England,  wbell 
th^  bulls  eam^  into  the  bands  of  queen  Mary,  who  having 
been  informed  of  their  contents  by  her  ambassador,  laid 
them  up  without  opeuing  them,  or  acquainting  Pole  with 
them.  She  also  directed  her  ambassadbr  at  Roiife  to  t^ll 
Iiis  holiness,  *'  that  this  was  not  the  method  to  keep  tb6 
ItltigSota  steadfast  in  the  catholic  faith,  but  rather  to  mak^ 
It  more  heretical  than  ever,  for  that  cardinal  Pole  was  th<} 
Very  Anchor  of  the  catholic  party,**  She  did  yet  more,  and 
Wth  sbmewhat  of  her  father's  spirit,  charged  Peyto  at  hi* 
peril  t&  set  fobt  upon  English  gtound.  Pole,  however. 
Who  by  ^bxht  means  became  acquainted  with  the  fact,  Ah^ 
phyeA  that  superstitious  veneration  for  th6  apostolic  see 
which  Was  the  bane  of  his  cbar^ter,  and  immediately  laid 
ilOWn  the  ehsigns  of  his  legantine  power ;  and  dispatched 
his  friend  Orm^neto  to  the  pope  with  an  apology  so  sub«- 
missrve,  that,  w^  are  told,  it  melted  the  obdurate  heart  of 
Paul.  *The  cardinal  appears  to  have  been  restored  to  his 
poWef  as  legate  soOn  sifter,  bat  did  Oot  live  to  enjoy  it  a 
full  yesir,  being  seized  with  an  &gue  which  carried  him  off 
Nov,  18,  1558,  the  day  after  the  death  of  queen  Mary. 
With  them  ejcpired  the  power  of  the  papal  see  over  the 
political  or  religious  Constitution  of  this  kingdom,  and  aft 
its  fatal  effects  On  religiOfi,  liberty,  and  learning. 

Cardinal  Pole  Was,  in  person,  of  a  middle  stature,  at)d' 
tbm  habit ;  his  compIe&iOn  fair,  with  an  open  countenance 
and  cheerful  aspect.  His  constitutioo  was  healthful,  aU 
though  not  strong.  He  was  learned  and  elOquefit^  and 
naturally  of  a  benevolent  and  mild  disposition,  but  his 
bigoted  attachment  to  the  see  of  Rome  occasioued  his 
bfeitig  concerned  iii  transactioos  which  probably  would  kiof 

P  O  L  B,  Hi 

h^^  impakii^  mih  kim ;  jet  wa  havB  no  rtMon  to  t^kk 
jfcbai  he  c^suaded  ibc^  couxi  of  quoen  Mftiy  from  ^tg  ahoi* 
mmable  crmeliief  i  aad  u  is  cartain  ^bat  many  of  tbaia  wera 
j^anriad  ^n  id  bia  aama*    Mr.  PbiUif^S)  wbo  wrote  an  elabo* 
m^  biiograpbioal  vindicatioa  of  f^ajrdiaal  Pde^  but  wbi^ 
fvoAild  not  openly  vindiaaie  tbe  at udite»  of  Mary*a  reig% 
bas  unfortunately  assertedi  that  not  one  person  was  put  ta 
daatb  in  tbe  dioc«^  of  CaotoAary,  after  tbe^cardioal  was 
fNTOBioted  to,  that  see  ;^  bat  Mr.  Ridley  bas  clesjrly  proved 
tbat  DO  les9  ibaii  twenty*foi4r  were  burnt  iu  one  year  ia 
tbat  diocese^   wbile  P<4e  was  arcbbisbap*     Gilpin,  bowr 
evev,  seettis  to  be  of  ofHuioa  tbat  be  "  would  certainly 
ba^e  prereated  tbose  reproacbos  on  bb  religion  whicb  tbig 
reign  occastoned,    had  his  resolution  been  equaL  (So  bii 
judgment.^'     Of   both   we   bave  a  raoiarkable  example^ 
alluded  lo  already^  but  more  fully  quoted  by  tbe  taine  au<> 
tbor  ia  bis  life  of  Latimer,  wbiob  seeoss  to  be  conclusive 
as  to  tbe  cardinars  real  cbaracter*    Wben^  in  a  oouncU  of 
bisiiapa,  it.waa  imitated  how  to  proaeed  with  berettca,  tbe 
cardinal  said^  <^  For  ray  pert,  I  tbink  we  sbould  be  con* 
teot  with  the  public  restoration  of  religion ;  and  iostead  of 
irritating  our  adf  ersaries  by  a  rigorous  eKecution  of  tbe 
revived  statutes,  I  couki  wish  tbat  every  bishop  in  bis 
diocese  would  try  tbe  more  winukilg  expedients  of  gentler 
ness  and  persuasion/f     He  then  urged  tbe  example  of  tbe 
emperor  Charles  V.  wbo,  by  a  severe  persecution  of  the 
Lutherans,  involved  himself  in  many  difficulties,  and  pur^ 
chased  nothing  but  dishonour^ .  Notwithstatiding  tbe  libe- 
rality  and  humanity  of  these  sentiments,  when  Garditier, 
Bonner,  and  others  equally  violent,  were  beard  in  favour 
of  severe  .measures,  Pole  bad  not  tbe  courage  to  dissent  $ 
and  tbe  result  was  a  o(nnmission  issued  by  himself,  im«- 
powering  tbe  bishops  to  try  and  examine  heretics,  agree* 
ably  to  the  laws  which  were  now  revived. 

Pole's,  private  life  appears  to  have  been  regular  and  un- 
blan^eabie*  His  behaviour  in  bis  last  moiaenta,  says  Dl* 
Neve,*  ^^  shewed  that  his  religion,  though  ilUdirected,  was 
sincere  and  genuine*"  He  appears  to  have  been  charitable 
and  generous,  and  a  kind  master  to  bis  domestics.  He  was 
naturally  fond  of  study  and  retirement,  and  certainly  better 
adapted  lo  these  than  tbe  noore  active  and  public  sceoes  gf 
life,  in  which,  however,  we  have  seen  that  he  was  very 
frequently  employed.  There  is  no'  part  of  bis  character,, 
says  tbA  author  just  quoted^  m(Mre  aQ#bl^  than  wbeu  w^ 

ft*  POLE; 

mew  him  in  bis  retirement,  and  in  ihe  social  intercoMM- 
tirith  private  fiiiends  :  here  he  appeared  to  great  advantage^ 
land  displayed  all  the  endearing  good  qualities  of  the  polite 
Scholar,  the  cheerful  companion,  and  the  sincere  friend. 
It  appears  by  Beccatelli  that  he  was  a  man  of  wit,  and 
many  of  his  repartees  would  have  done  credit  to  the  wit» 
of  a  more  refined  age. 

He  left  his  friend  Priuli,  a  Venetian  man  of  quality,  bis 
executor  %nd  heir ;  but  the  latter,  whose  attachment  to  the 
cardinal  was  as  disinterested  as  it  was  constant,  after  dis- 
charging the  specific  legacies,  divided  the  whole  of  the  pro* 
"petty  in  the  way  that  he  thought  would  have  been  most- 
agreeable  to  the  cardinal,  and  reserved  to  himself  only  hia 
friend^s  Breviary  and  Diary. 

Pole  published  some  other  small  pieces,  besides  those 
we  have  mentioned  in  the  preceding  account,  and  some 
translations  from  the  fathers.  He  was  several  years  em« 
ployed  in  collecting  various  readings,  emendations,  &c.  of 
Cicero^s  works,  with  a  view  to  a  new  edition,  but  the^e 
are  supposed  to  be  lost.  Dodd  also  mentions  a  collection 
of  dispatches,  letters,  and  dispensations,  &;c.  during  the 
time  of  his  reforming  the  Church  of  England  in  queen 
Mary's  reign,  4  vols.  fol.  which  are  preserved  among  the 
MSSi.  in  the  college  of  Doway ;  and  Tanner  notices  a  few 
^ther  MSS.  in  our  public  libraries.  In  17^4 — 1752  a  very 
valuable  collection  of  letters  which  passed  between  Pqle 
and  his  learned  friends,  with  preliminary  discourses  to  each 
Totnme,  was  published  by  cardinal  Quirini,  in  4  vols.  4to^ 
This  was  followed,  after  Quirini's  death,  by  a  fifth  volume^ 
from  his  collections.  The  title,  ^^  Cardinalis  Poll  et  alio«.> 
rum  ad  ipsum  EpistolaB.'*  Of  the  life  of  Cardinal  Pole  muck 
-Was  discovered,  and  many  mistakes  rectified,  in  consequence 
bf  the  controversy  excited  by  Mr.  Phillips's  life  (See  Phil-* 
UPS;  I'homas)  and  which  was  carried  on  with  great  spirit  ^ 
'  POLEMBERG  (Cormeuus),  or  Poelemburg,  a  cele- 
brated Dutch  painter,  was  born  at  Utrecht  in  1586,  where 
be  became  the  disciple  of  Abraham  Bloemart,  but  went  to 
complete  his  studies  at  Rome.  His  first  determination  waa 
to  imitate  the  manner  of  Elsheimer ;  but  when  he  contemn 
plated  the  works  of  Raphael,  he  was  so  affected,  that  he 
was  led  irresistibly  to  copy  after  that  much  higher  modeL 

)  Biog.  Britd— Atb.  Ox*  vol.  T,-*-Life  by  PfaiiUps,  and  tbe  Aoi>wers  by  Ridltfy, 
Veye,  &c.— and  Pye*K  Translation  of  Beccatelli's  Life  of  Pole. — Dodd's  Churcll 
»Ut^y.^Mor«>s  Life  of  Sir  Tbomas  More,  pp.  67>  H^d,  SS4,  Ate.  Ikcw 

P  OtE  M  B  ERG.  I2t 

Yhid  uniotl  of  bbjects  produced  a  mixed  but  original  siyle  i 
more  free  and  graceful  than  the  Flemish,  though  with  far 
}ess  grandeur  and  excellence  of  design  than  the  Italian. 
He  could  not  rise  to  the  execution  of  large  figures ;  bia 
best  pieces,  therefore,  are  of  the  cabinet  size ;  but  he  sur« 
passed  all  his  contemporaries  in  the  delicacy  of  his  touchy 
the  sweetness  of  his  colouring,  and  the  choice  of  agreeable 
objects  and  situations.  His  skies  are  clear,  light,  and 
transparent ;  his  back-grounds  often  ornamented  with  the 
Testiges  of  magnificent  Roman  edifices ;  and  his  female 
figures,  which  are  usually  without  drapery,  are  highly 
beautiftil.  He  returned  rather  reluctantly  to  Utrecht^ 
where,  however,  his  merit  was  acknowledged  by  the  great 
Rubens.  Charles  I.  invited  him  to  London,  where  he  was 
much  employed,  and  richly  paid ;  but,  though  he  was 
much  solicited  to  remain  here,  his  love  for  bis  native 
country  prevailed,  aiid  be  returned  to  Utrecht,  where  be 
died  in  1660,  afflqent  and  highly  esteemed.  The  genuine 
"works  of  Polemberg  are  extremely  scarce ;  but  figuires  by 
bim  maybe  found  in  the  works  of  other  artists,  particularly 
those  of  Steenwyck,  and  Kierings;  and  his  disciple  Johft 
Vander  Lis  so  successfully  imitated  his  style,  that  the 
works  of  the  pupil  are  frequently  taken  for  those  of  thii 

POLENI  (John},  an  Italian  marquis,  and  a  learned  ma« 
Ibematician,  was  born  at  Padua  in  1683.  He  was  appointed 
professor  of  astronomy  and  mathematics  iR  the  university  of 
h\s  native  city,  and  filled  that  post  with  high  reputatioD» 
In  three  instances  he  gained  prizes  from  the  Royal  Aca* 
idemy  of  Sciences,  and  in  1739  he  was  elected  an  associate 
bf  that  body.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  academy  of 
Berlin,  a  fellow  of  the  London  R<;>yal  Society,  and  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Institutes  of  Padua  and  Bologna,  and  contributed 
many  valuable  mathematical  and  astronomical  papers  to  the 
-Memoirs  of  these  Societies.  As  he  was  celebrated  for  his 
iskill  and  deep  knowledge  of  hydraulic  architecture,  he  was 
iiominated  by  the  Venetian  government,  superintendant  of 
the  rivers  and  waters  throughout  the  republic :  other  states 
also  applied  to  him  for  advice,  in  business  belonging  te 
the  same  acience.  He  was  sent  for  by  pope  Benedict  XI  V« 
to  survey  the  state  of  St  Peter's  church  at  Rome,  and  drew 
lip  a  memoir  on  what  he  conceived  necessary  to  be  dpne* 

^  PilkinftoA.'ii-D'ArgeDyiUe,  vol.  Ilf^r-D^camps,  ▼»!.  I.r-*^\VaIpole's  AaecdQt^ 


He  died  at  Padua  in  1761,  at  the  age  of  IS.  He'app^n 
to  have  acquire  rery  distingoiibed  reputation  in  bis  day^ 
jind  was  the  eonre^ondent  of  many  learned  contemporaries^ 
particniariy  sir  Isaac  Newton,  Leibnitz,  the  Bernooiili^s^ 
Wolff,  Catsini,  Graveiande,  Moschenbroeck,  FooteneHe^ 
•nd  others.  Nor  was  be  more  esteemed  as  a  matfaemati* 
eian  than  as  an  antiqaary,  and  the  learned  world  is  indebted 
to  him  for  a  valoable  supplement  to  the  coliections  of  Grtt* 
Tills  and  Gronorios^  Venice^  1737,  5  vols.  fol.  bat  these 
Tolomes  are  rather  scarce.  Among  bis  other  most  valued 
publications  are,  **  Exercitationes  Vitruviaoae,  sea  Com^ 
mentarius  Critieus  de  Vitruvii  arcbitectora,"  Venice,  1 739^^ 
4to ;  and  **  Dissertazione  sopra  al  Tempio  di  Diana  di 
£feso,*'  Rome^  1742.  Fabroni  gives  a  long  list  of  his  ina^ 
tfaematical  and  astronomical  essays,  and  of  the  MSSw  he  left 
Wbind  him.  ^  { 


POLIGNAC  (M ELCHiOR  de)  a  celebrated  French  car^^ 
dtnal,  was  born  Oct.  11,  1661,  at  Poy,  in  Velay,  and  was 
the  son  of  Louis  Armand,  viscount  de  PoUgnac,  descended 
from  one  of  the  most  ancient  families  in  Languedqc.  He 
Was  sent  early  to  Paris,  where  be  distinguished  himself  as 
•  student,  and  was  soon  noticed  as  a  young  man  of  elegant 
manners  and  accomplishments.  In  1689,  cardinal  de 
Bouillon  carried  him  to  Rome,  and  employed  him  in  several 
important  negociattons.  It  was  at  one  of  his  intervievta 
with  pope  Alexander  YIII.  that  this  pontiff  said  to  him^ 
^  You  seem  always,  sir,  to  be  of  my  opinion,  and  yet  it  ia 
your  own  which  prevails  at  last.**  We  arc  likewise  told 
that  when,  on  his  return  to  Paris,  Louis  XIV.  granted  htm 
along  audience,  he  said  as  he  went  out,  ^^Ibave  been 
conversing  with  a  man,  and  a  young  man,  who  baa. 
contradicted  me  in  every  thing,  yet  pleased  me  in  every 
thing."  In  1693,  he  was  sent  as  ambassador  into  Po* 
)and,  where  he  procured  the  prince  of  Conti  to  be 
elected  and  proclaimed  king  in  1696;  bqt,  this  eleci* 
tion  not  having  been  supported,  he  was  obliged  to  re# 
tire,  and  return  to  France,  where  he  arrived  in  169*8,  after 
losing  all  his  equipage  and  furniture^  which  was  seized*  by 
the  Dantzickers.  The  king  then  banished  him  to  his  abbey 
at  Bonport,  but  recalled  him  to  court  with  great  expressiona 
of  regard  in  1702,  and  in  1706  appointed  him  auditor  of 
the  Ruta.     M.  Polignac  then  set  out  again  for  Rome  ;  and 

1  Fabioai  Vite  lUloruoii  Tol.  XII.— Diet.  Hist 

P  0  L  I  G  M  A  C.  in 

aihlln«l  dte  U  l^reiMulttoi  who  crondutt«d  the  Fuench  af- 
Sms  there^  lillyitfg  lb6  same  opkiion  of  bim  «  cardinal  d% 
£ouiUo&  bad,  Miployad  him  in  66t0ml  negociationtf. 
GtMDg  back  to  Fraftc^  thr^a  j^eari  after,  hia  majasty  sMt 
htm  a»  |^Wnipol6fitiary  into  Holland  in  1 7 1  o,  with  mareebal 
il'UiieU«ft.  He  waa  alto  pi^nipotdnciary  at  Ibe  conferanoea 
M4p6a€«of  Ucreebt»  in  17I2  and  17I9.  The  king,  sa^ 
tkfied  wiib  bis  seri^ices,  obtained  a  cardinal's  hat  for  bim 
(be  saoBre  year^  and  appointed  bim  master  of  fais  cbapel; 
Daring  Ibie  regenoy,  cardinal  de  Polignac  was  banished  ta 
hi*  abbey  of  Anohin  in  1718,  And  not  recalled  till  172 u 
in  1724,  be  went  to  Rome  for  the  election  of  pope  6ene<* 
diot  XlII.  and  remained  there  eight  yeflrs^  being  encrusted 
with  tbe  ftffiMfs  of  France.  In  1726,  he  was  made  arobbi- 
shop  Of  Aaeb,  returned  to  bis  natita  country  in  1732,  and 
died  at  Paris^  Notember  10,  1741,  aged  80.  He  was  A 
member^df  the  French  Academy^  the  academy  of  science^ 
and  that  of  belles  lettres.  He  is  now  chiefly  remem*- 
ber^  for  his  elegant  Ltitin  poemi  entitled  *^  Anti-Lucre'* 
tius,*^  in  whith  he  refutes  the  system  mid  doctrine  of  £pi^ 
eurus,  according  to  the  principles  of  Descartes*  philosophy. 
Thvs  lie  left  to  a  friend,  Charles  de  Roth^lin,  who  published 
It  in  1747,  2  rols.  8vo.  It  has  since  been  often  reprinted^ 
and  elegantly  translated  by  M.  de  BougaiuTille,  secretary 
to  the  academy  of  belles  iettres..  His  Life  was  published  at 
Paris,  1777,  2  Vols.  f2mo^  by  F.  Chrysostom  Fauchen 
The  reyiewer  of  this  life  very  justly  lays,  that  the  man  who 
compiled  the  ^^  Anti-Lucretius,'*  and  proposed  a  plan  for 
forming  a  new  bed  for  the  Tiber,  in  order  to  recover  the 
Statues,  medals,  basso-relievos,  and  other  ancient  monu-* 
ments^  which  were  buried  there  during  the  rage  of  civil 
fiictions,  and  the  incursions  of  the  barbarians^  deserves  an 
eminent  place  in  literary  biography.  Few  works  have  been 
more  favourably  received  throughout  Europe  than  the  car-" 
dinars  celebrated  poem,  although  he  was  so  much  of  a 
Cartesian.  The  fitst  copy  that  appeared  in  England  waa 
one  in  the  possession  of  the  celebrated  earl  of  Chesterfield^ 
l^nd  such  was  its  reputation  abroad  at  that  time,  that  thia 
Copy  was  conveyed  by  a  trumpet  from  marshal  Saxe  to  thcf 
Duke  of  Cumberland,  directed  for  the  earl  of  Chesterfield* 
It  was  sent  to  him  both  as  a  judge  of  the  work,  and  a  friend 
df  the  writer '. 

1  Life  M  Abare.— Diet.  fi}8i«i^1i«it»raeVI*s  Menpirs.— Monthly  Review^ 
wl.  LVI. 

iiiH  :   T  o  LIT  h 

.  PQLITI  (Alexander),  w^  bom  at  Floretic^  in  I67$» 
;&nd  was  early  distiDguished  in  the  schools  of  philosophy  and 
.theology,  for  the  extent  of  his  memory  and  the  sagacity  of 
bis  mind*  He  became  very  early  a  teacher  in  the  sciences 
jaboye-mentioned,  and  in  rhetoric  at  Genoa;  but  in  nSS^p 
yvas  invited  to  Pisa  to  give  lectures  on  the  Greek. language^ 
«?bence  be  was  promoted  to  the  professorship  of  eloquence^ 
iwhich  had  been  some  time  vacant,  after  the  death  of  Bene^ 
<dict  Avefano.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy,  July  23,  1752. 
He  distinguished  himself  as  a  commentator  and  as  an  aa- 
|tbor,  by  publishing,  1/An  edition  of  Homer  with  Eusta^ 
thius's  commentary,  to  which  he  added,  a  Latin  transla- 
tion,  and  abundant  notes,  in  3  vols,  folio,  1730,  1732^ 
1735.  The  fourth  volume  was  in  the  press  when  he  died^ 
but  has  not  since  appeared.  2.  ^*  Martyrplogium  Roma« 
pum  castigatum,  ac  commentariis  illustratam,^*  folio,  Flo- 
rence, 1751.  3.  /*  Orationes  12  ad  Academiam  Pisanam^ 
1746.'*  4.  *' Panegyricus  Imp.  Francisco  I.  consecratosj" 
Florence,  4to.  5.  **  De  patria  in  condendis  testamentis 
potestate,''  Florence,  1712,  12mo,  in  four  books.  ^ 
.  POLITIAN  (Angelus),  a  most  ingenious  and  learned 
Italian,  was  born  July  14,  1454,  at  Monte  Pulciano  inr 
Tuscany  ;  and  from  the  name  of  this  town,  in  Latin  Mms 
Pclitianus^  he  derived  the  surname  of  Politian.  His  fathei; 
was  a  doctor  of  the  civil  law.  His  name,  according  to  Ma 
Paillet,  was  Benedictus  de  Cinis,  or,  de  Ambroginis,  for 
be  considers  the  former  as  a  corruption  of  the  Ifttter. — rPo« 
litian,  who  gave  early  proofs  of  an  extraordinary  genius^ 
bad  the  advantage  of  Cbristophero  Landino^s  instructions  in 
the  Latin  language.  His  preceptors  in  the  Greek  were 
Andronicus  of  Thessalonica  and  John  Argyropylus.  Hif 
abilities,  at  a  very  early  period  pf  his  life,  attracted  the 
notice  of  Lorenzo  and  Julius  de  Medici.  An  Italian  poem^ 
the  production  of  his  juvenile  pen,  in  which  he  celebrated 
an  equestrian  spectacle,  or  Giostra,  wherein  the  latter  bore 
away  the  prize,  greatly  contributed  to  establish  his  repu«» 
tation.  He  was  thence  honoured  with  the  peculiar  pa-> 
tronage  of  the  Medicean  family ;  and,  among  other  persona 
remarkable  for  genius  and  learning,  whom  the  munificence 
of  Lorenzo  attracted  to  Florence,  Politian  was  seen  to 
$hine  as  a  star  of  the  first  magnitude.  Lorenzo  confided 
to  him  the  education  of  his  own  children ;  and  in  tfaia 

i  Fabroni  V|t9  lUilonim.  * 

?  O  L  ITI  A  NC  125 

lioik)ttfabIe  employment  he  passed  a  gre&t  part  of  his  lire, 
fayoored  with  the  peculiar  friendshrp  of  his  patron,  and  the 
society  and  correspondence  of  men  of  letters.  Among  the 
more  intimate  associates  of  Politian,  was  Pieus  of  Miran-* 
dola,  and  between  these  eminent  scholars  there  was  a  strict 
attachment,  and  a  friendly  communication  of  studies.  The 
Platooic  philosopher,  Marsilius  Ficiuus,  conipleted  this^ 
literary  triumTirate* 

Politian  had  been  indebted  for  his  education  to  Lorenro^ 
who  had  eariy  procured  for  faifin  the  citizenship  of  Flo-^ 
rence;  placed-  him  in  easy  and  affluent  circumstances; 
probably  conferred  «n  him  the  secular  priory  of  the  college 
of  S.  GipTanni,  which  be  held  ;  and  on  his  entrance  into 
clerical  orders^  appointed  him  a  canon  of  the  cathedral  of 
Florence.     It  was  at  this  period  that  the  arts  and  sciences 
began  gradually  to  revive  and  flourish ;  philosophy  *'to  be 
freed/*  to  use  the  expression  of  aatiquaries,  "from  th^ 
dust  of  barbarism,*'  and  critictsia  to  assume  a  manly  and 
irational  appearance.    The  more  imn»ediate  causes  wbtcli 
brought  about  these  desirable  events,  were,  the  arrival  of 
4he  illustrious  Grecian  exiles  in  Italy  ;  the  discovery  of  an* 
tient  manuscripts;  establishment  of  public  libraries,  and 
seminaries  of  education;  and  especially  the  invention  of 
printipg.  No  braneh  of  science  was  cultivated  with  greatef 
ardbur  than  classical  literature  :  under  the  peculiar  patron-^ 
age  of  Lorenzo,  and  of  some  of  the  chief  of  other  states  in 
Italy,  who  imitated  his  liberality,  eminent  scholars  engaged 
with  incredible  ardour  and  diligence,  in  collating  manu- 
scripts, and  ascertaining  the  genuine  text  of  Greek  and 
Latin  authors :    explaining  their  obscurities,    illustrating 
them  with  commentaries,   translating  them  into  various 
languages,  and  iipitating  their  beauties^ 

The  *^  Miscellanea''  of  Politian  were  first  published  at 
Florence,  in  1489,  and  were  every  where  received  with  the 
greatest  ap]dau$e,  and  compared  by  the  learned  to  the 
^<  Noctes  Attics"  of  Aulus  Gellius.  His  Latin  version  of 
Herodian  is  universally  allowed  to  be  a  masterly  perform^ 
ance,  and  perhaps  no  other  translation  of  any  Greek  au-* 
ihor  has  l^een  so  niich  and  so  generally  admired.  Some 
critics  have  declared,  that  if  the  Greek  of  Herodian  could 
liave  been  suppressed,  this  work  might  have  passed  among 
likt  learned  for  the  classical  and  finished  production  of 
aome  original  pen  of  Antiquity.  Yet  amidst  such  general 
#ppEobation|  there -werc^  not  ^i^ting  othejFs  who  aocusei 

%26  ^OtlTIAM. 

\Am  of  having  publUhed  w  bi»  *w»,  »  vtf nugn  ^cviPiieljF 
lawulp^  by  Gr^^oriu^  ^f  Tipl^rn«iii:  M.  4<b  U  Mw»ojr« 
maintains  tjiat  Ommhwmf »  native  of  L^mgo^fteftrVi^^osa^ 
coaiQoonly  ^etiOQAiaat^d  Oionibon^  Yicesntioii^y  ivfis  <b0 
author  of  tbi^  prior  vief^ion ;  aod  ^od^arQur^  to  prpir^  fr^i<^ 
a  fragment  of  it»  tb»t  Politian  bad  ^een  md  fty^iiteiii  kim* 
^If  of  it.    These  detrftpiioftf,  boweverp  fca^e  noi  bw»  g0^ 

nerally  admitted.  Politian  inscribed  tbid  vief^iao  to  Popo 
I^nfioeent  VIIL  io  a  dedicntiop  wbicb  19  prefixed  lo  fM^t  of 
the  ancient  editioo^  of  ihe  work,  and  ^bicb  procwr^d  bum 
a  present  froi]Q  bis  boUneys  pf  two  hundred  g$dd  or^vi^t 
Politian  returned  tbai)k^  in  a  .courtly  and  sosoiewbat  adnla^ 
tory  epistle,  in  wbicb  be  ej^tols  the  pope's  boiuM;y,  and 
protoiiises  to  redouble  bis  efforts  to  prodi^oe  somefcfaing  mwtm 
worthy  of  so  exaked  a  patron. 

Tbe'^  Greek  Epigran^"  of  Ptditian  were  wrijbjbeo^  f/^rike 
most  part,  •  when  be  was  very  yotiog,  hm  frosa  the  addresa 
to  the  reader  prefixed  to  tbeoi,  in  the  volume  of  his  works^ 
they  appear  to  have  been  p«bUsb^d  after  bis  deaths  fron 
the  original  manuscrj^t,  by  Zenobitts  Accisyobis,  who  did 
not  consider  theoa  as  adding  m^ch  to  tbe  fanae  of  (bbe  aa^ 
thor,  and  some  of  tbem  might  have  been  avppreased,  withf 
out  injury  to  literature,  and  a&ttm\ly  with  advantage  to  Ijm 
moral  reputation  of  tbe  author^  He  is  supposed  to  har^ 
written  a  translation  of  Homer,  but  no  part  <Qf  it  is  Aoar 
known  to  exist  Of  bis  other  Latin  poems,  the  ^  llanto,^ 
^  Rusticus,"  and  probably  the  ^'  Ambna,"  were  oecasipnal^ 
and  intended  for  public  recitation ;  and  apfhear  to  ha\na 
been  published  at  the  instance  of  stMoae  of  bi«  pupils.  Per>» 
haps  bis  most  laboured  production  is  the  ^  Nubdcia,''^  vbicib 
seems  to  be  the  poem  sent  by  bigs  jto  MatibiaskiDg  of  Hun* 
gary,  as  a  specimen  of  bis  taleolis. 

The  labours  of  Politian  ca  ibe  tpandeds  of  Jostiniaa :  bis 
collations  and  corrections  of  classic  .authors,  and  tbe  lesa 
voluminous  pieces  that  are  ctmtaioed  iu  bis  woiii:s,  af9 
lasting  monuments  of  bis  erudition  and  industry;  but^ucHi 
was  his  confidence  in  bis  powers,  that  be  affeoted  to  .ooiuaf- 
der  all  bis  past  works,  merely  as  preludes  to  otberii  of 
greater  magoitude.  These,  boweifter,  he  did  oot  live  ta 

Serious  ebarges  have  beea  .alleged  agaiu^  the  purity  of 
his  morals :  but  these  are,  for  tbe  snotit  part,  allowed  to 
rest  on  the  very  questionabJe  authoeityiof  Paulus  ^oivius ;  of 
whom  it  is  said,  that  prsjudioe,  xeseAftmeut,  or  interest 

P  O  LITl  A  N.  I» 

gmapaily  guided  iiis  pen.  Politian  hta  fcMiud  able  adro^ 
cates  in  Pierius  YaleiiaDus  *^  De  Lafelicttate  Literatorum^^ 
In  Bartbius'  ^^  Adversaria/*  and  in  Mr*  Roscoe.  li  nual 
be  acknowledged,  however,  aap  bia  late  biographer^  Mr# 
Gresswell,  that  the  youthful  muse  of  Poiitian  did  not  ai-» 
ways  adfaere  to  the  strictness  of  decorum,  «fiamlttoo.eom'» 
men  amongst  the  poetical  writers  of  his  age.  A  few  of  bia 
Greek  epigrams,  as  well  aa  of  his  Latin  verses,  are  very  ex** 

The  only  probable  account  of  the  death  of  this  distin-* 
guifihed  scholar  is,  that  it  was  prematurely  occasioned  by 
bis  grief  for  the  misfortunes  of  the  Medicean  fiamily,  from 
whom  he  bad  received  so  many  favours, .  and  with  whose 
prosperity  and  happiness,  his  own  were  so  intimately  oon-* 
«ected.  This  event  took  place  September  24,  1494^  ia 
the  forty-first  yesr  of  his  age.  His  **  Letters,**  which  serve 
to  illustrate  bis  life  and  literary  labours,  were  prepared  fot 
the  press  by  himself,  a  very  short  time  before  his  deaths 
at  the  particular  request  of  the  son  and  successor  of  Lo« 
renze.  The  letters  of  Politian  and  his  friends,  in  the  ear* 
lier  editions,  at  least  in  that  printed  by  Jo.  Badius  Ascen-* 
sius  at  Paris,  1512,  are  entitled  '^  Angeli  Politiani  Epis* 
toIaB,*'  but  in  a  subsequent  edition  of  1519  from  the  same 
press,  more  properly  ^^  Virorum  lilustrium  £pistol»/*  ^ 

POLLEXFEN  (Sir  Henry),  an  English  lawyer  and 
judge,  was  descended  from  a  good  family  in  Devonshire, 
where  he  probably  was  educated,  as  Prince  intimates  that 
be  was  of  no  university.  He  studied  the  law,  however^  at 
eae  of  the  inns  of  court,  and  acquired  very  considerable 
practice  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  He  was  counsel  for 
the  earl  of  Danby  in  1€79,  wbG»m  he  advised  to  plead  his 
pardon  ;  and  the  corporation  of  London  afterwards  engaged 
him  to  plead,  with  Treby,  in  behalf  of  their  charter.  lu 
1688  he  sat  as  one  of  the  members  for  the  city  of  Exeter, 
and  he  was  retained  as  one  of  the  counsel  for  the  bishops* 
After  the  revolution  he  was  knighted,  called  a  serjeant  April 
11,  1689,  and  appointed  chief  justice  of  the  common  pleas 
#n  May  5  following ;  but  be  held  this  office  a  ^ery  short 
time,  dying  in  1692.  Burnet  calls  him  **  an  honest 
and  learned,  but  perplexed  lawyer/'  In  1702  was  pub* 
bshed  his  ^^  Arguments  and  Reports  in  some  special  cases 
in  the  King*s  Bencb  from  22  to  36  Car.IL  ^v^ith  some  case^ 

^  Gr^swelPs  Memoirs  of  PoUtiaQ«-<-Roscoe's  Lorenzo  and  Le«. 

%2$  t  D  L  L  E  X  r  E  K. 

in  the  Colnmon^  Pleas  and  Excheqaer,  together  with  dirert 
decrees  in  the  High  Court  of  Chancery,  upon  Limitaiiont 
of  Trusts  of  Terms  for  years,"  foL  with  two  tables.  Tb# 
copies  of  these  reports,  Mr.  Bridgman  informs  us,  are  Yery 
incorrect,  varying  in  the  pages,  and  in  the  dates.  In  tbo 
pages  there  is  a  chasm  from  173  to  176,  and  from  181  to 
184,  with  other  errors. ' 

POLLUX  (Juuus),  an  ancient  Greek  grammarian,  wai 
bom  at  Naucrates,  a  town  in  Egypt,  in  the  year  ISO.  Hav?> 
ing  been  educated  linder  the  sophists,  he  became  eminent 
in  grammatical  and  critical  learning;  taught  rhetoric  at 
Athens,  and  acquired  so  much  reputation,  that  be  was  ad^r 
vanced  to  be  preceptor  of  the  emperor  Comi^odus.  .  He 
drew  up  for,  and  inscribed  to  this  prince  while  his  father 
Marcus  Antoninus  was  living,  an  **  Onomasticon,  or  Greek 
Vocabulary,''  divided  into  ten  books.  It  is  still  extant^ 
and  contains  a  vast  variety  of  synonymous  words  and 
phrases,  agreeably  to  the  copiousness  of  the  Greek  lan« 
guage,  ranged  under  the  general  classes  of  things*  The 
first  edition  of  the  '<  Onomasticon"  was  published  at  Venice 
by  Aldus  in  1502,  and  a  Latin  version  was  added  in  the 
edition  of  1608,  by  Seberus;  but  there  was  no  correct  and 
handsome  edition  of  it,  till  that  of  Amsterdam^  1706,  in 
folio,  by  Lederlin  and  Hemsterhuis.  Lederlin  went 
through  the  first  seven  books,  correcting  the  text  and  ver* 
don^  and  subjoining  his  own,  with  the  notes  of  Salmasiusi 
Is.  Vossius,  Valesius,  and  of  Kuhnius,  whose  scholar  he 
had  been,  and  whom  he  succeeded  in  the  professorship  of 
the  Oriental  languages  in  the  university  of  Strasburgh* 
•Hemsterhuis  continued  the  same  method  through  the  three 
last  books.  Pollux  died  in  the  year  238.  He  is  said  to 
have  written  many  other  works,  none  of  which  are  comd 
down  to  us ;  but  there  was  another  of  the  same  name,  who 
is  supposed  to  have  flourished  about  the  end  of  the  fourth 
century,  and  wrote  **  Historia  physica,  seu  chronicon  afa^ 
origine  mundi  ad  Valentis  tempora."  Of  this  Bianconi 
published  the  first  edition  at  Bonon.  1779,  fol.  and  Igna-^ 
tins  Hardt,  a  second  in  1792,  ^vo^  without  knowing  of  th^ 


>  Koble's   Continuation    of     Granger.— Prince'«  VtTorthiet. — Bamet'fl  Owi^ 
Times.-- Bridgman*s  Legal  Bibliography. 
I  Fabric,  Bibl  Qnec,— Yotiiuc  4e  Uiit.  Or«e.— ^loant'i  Onmn, 

P  O  L  Y  ^  N  U  S.  129 

i^OLY-SNUS  is  the  name  of  many  eminent  personages 
recorded  in  ancient  writers,  particularly  Julius  Polyasnus, 
6f  whom  some  Greek  epigrams  are  extant,  in  the. first  book 
of  the  Anthologia.  But  the  PolyaBUUs  who  is  best  known> 
flourished  in  the'  second  century,  and  is  the  author  of  the 
eight  books  of  the  '^  Stratagems  of  illustrious  Commanders  • 
in  war."  He  appears  to  have  been  a  Macedonian,  and  pro.*- 
bably  was  a  soldier  in  the  younger  part  of  his  life ;  but  we 
are  more  certain  that  he  was  a  rhetorician,  and  a  pleader  of 
causes ;  and  that  he  enjoyed  a  place  of  trust  and  dignity 
under  the  emperors  Antoninus  and  Verus,  to  whom  he  de* 
dicated  bis  work.  The  "  Strategemata"  were  published  in 
Greek  by  Isaac  Casaubon,  with  notes,  in  J  589,  12mo  ;  but 
no  good  edition  of  theno  appeared,  till  that  of  Leyden, 
1690,  in  8vo.  The  title-page  runs  thus:  "  Polyeeni  Strait 
tegematum  libri  octo,  Justo  Vulteio  interprete,  Pancratius 
Mas^svicius  recensuit,  Isaaci  Casauboni  nee  non  suas  notas 
adjecit.'*  This  was  followed,  in  1756,  by  Mursinua's  edi- 
tion, Berlin,  and  by  that  of  Coray,  at  Paris  in  1809, 
8vo.  We  have  now  an  excellent  English  translation  by 
Mr.  R.  Shepherd,  1793,  4to.  It  contains  various  strata- 
gems, of  above  three  hundred  commanders  and  gene^rals  of 
armies^  chiefly  Greeks  and  Barbarians,  which  are  at  least 
entertaining,  and  illustrative  of  the  nianners  of  the  times 
in  which  those  commanders  lived ;  but  it  may  be  doubted 
whether  a  modern  soldier  would  gain  much  advantage  by 
making  himself  master  of  this  tricking  study.  The  origi- 
nal has  come  down  to  us  incomplete,  and  with  the  text  con- 
siderably mutilated  and  corrupted;  but  the  style  is  clas- 
sical, and  even  elegant. 

The  whole  collection,  says. the  translator,  if  entire, 
would  have  consisted  of  nine  hundred  stratagems ;  con- 
taining the  exploits  of  the  most  celebrated  generals,  of 
various  nations,  fetched'  from  ages  remote  as  th^  page  of 
history  will  reach,  and  carried  forward  to  our  author^s  own 
time :  so  wide  was  the  field  he  traversed  of  annals,  histories, 
and  lives,  in  the  prosecution  of  his  design  ;  a  manual,  as  he 
terms  it,  of  the  science  of  generalship.  And  in  so  large  a 
collection,  if  some  stratagems  occur,  that  bear  a  resem- 
blance to  each  other,  som^^imes  with  little  variation  em- 
ployed, by  the  same  general,  and  sometimes,  on  differeoifc 
occasions,  copied  by  others ;  the  reader  will  be  rather  sur- 
prised that  he  finds  so  few  instances  of  this  kind,  than  led 
to  have  expected  none.     Some  will  strike  him  as  unimpor- 

VoL.  XXV.  K 

130  POL  Y  JE  N  U  S. 

tanti  and  soili^  are  not  properly  military  stratagems.  Soine 
devices  again  will  appear  so  ludicrous  and  absurd,  as  no-" 
thing  but  the  barbarism  of  the  times,  the  ignorance  and 
superstition*  that  in  some  states  prevailed,  will  reconcile  to 
credibility.  The  stratagems  however  that  rank  under  those 
classes  are  few:  the  work  in  general  was  executed  with 
great  judgment ;  and,  as  the  author  himself  observes,  he 
bad  employed  upon  it  no  small  degree  of  pains. 

Polyaenus  composed  other  works  besides  his  ^  Strate* 
gemata.^*  Stobseus  has  produced  some  passages  out  of  m 
book  **  De  Republica  Macedonum  ;"  and  Suidas  mentions 
another  concerning  "  Thebes,"  and  three  books  of  "Tac- 
tics." If  death  had  not  prevented,  he  would  have  written 
^  Memorabilia  of  the  emperors  Antoninus  and  Verus :" 
ifot  this  he  promises  in  the  preface  to  his  sixth  book  of 
Stratagems. ' 

POLYBIUS,  an  eminent  Greek  historian,  was  of  Mega- 
lopolis, a  city  of  Arcadia,  and  was  the  son  of  Lycortas,  ge-* 
neral  of  the  Achseans,  who  were  then  the  most  powerful 
republic  in  Greece.  He  was  bom  in  the  fourth  year  of  the 
143d  olympiad,  or  in  the  548th  year  of  the  building  of 
Rome,  or  about  203  years  before  Christ.  When  twenty-^ 
four  years  of  age,  the  Achseans  sent  him  and  bis  father 
Lycortas  ambassadors  to 'the  king  of  Egypt;  and  the. son 
had  afterwards  the  same  honour,  when  he  wa«  deputed  to 
go  to  the  Roman  consul,  who  made  war  upon  Perses,  king 
of  Macedon.  In  the  consulships  of  iEmilius  Psetns  and 
Julius  Pennus,  a  thousand  Achseans  were  ordered  to  Rome^ 
as  hostages,  for  the  good  behaviour  of  their  countrymert 
who  were  suspected  of  designs  against  the  Romans ;  aiKi 
were  there  detained  seventeen  years.  Polybius,  who  was 
one*  of  them,  and  was  then  thirty-eight  years  of  age,  had 
great  talents  from  nature,  which  were  well  cultivated  bf 
education;  and  bis  residence  at  Rome  appears  to  hav^ 
-been  of  great  advantage  to  him ;  since  he  owed  to  it,  not 
only  the  best  part  of  his  learning,  but  the  important  friend- 
ship be  contracted  with  Scipio  and  Lcelius  ;  and  when  the 
time  of  his  detention  expired,  he  accomp8|iied  Scipio  into 
Africa.  After  this  he  was  witness  to  the  sack  and  destruc* 
Uon  of  Corinth,  and  of  the  leduction  of  Achai^l  to  the 
condition  of  a  Roman  province.    Amidst  these  dreadful 

1  Votf.  d9  HiHi  Qiao^^Fftbuo*  BibL  Oittc;-.^SIiei»ta«rd'i  TcMM^timi.^ 
Saxii  0«giaaL8t« 

^  O  L  Y  B  I  U  S;  til 

sctoes,  he  displayed  ooble  trsiits  of  patriatidtn  iiml 
disinterestedness,  which  obtained  fdr  him  so  much  cre~ 
die,  that  he  was  entrusted  with  the  car^  of  settling  the 
new  form  of  goTernment  in  the  cities  of  Gre^o^, 
which  office  he  performed  to  the  satisfaction  both  of  ttie 
jHomans  and  the  Greeks.  In  all  hi&  journeys  he  atfi«4«>' 
sed  materials  for  his  history,  and  took  such  obsefvatiotts 
as  to  render  his  descriptions  very  accurate  Although 
bis  chief  object  was  the  history  of  the  Romans,  whose  Ihn^ 
guage  be  had  learned  with  great  care,  and  the  establish^ 
HieDt  of  their  empire,  yet  be  had  in  his  eye  the  general 
bistory  of  the  times  in  which  be  lived;  and  therefore  be 
gave  bis  work  the  name  of  *^  Catholic  or  Universal  :^^  nor 
was  this  at  all  inconsistent  with  his  general  ptlr<pose,  there 
bekg  scarcely  any  nations  at  that  time  in  tbd  kno^h  world, 
which  had  not  some  contest  with,  or  dependence  upoii,  the 
Romans.  Of  foriy  books  which  he  composed,  there  remain 
but  the  first  five  entire ;  with  aii  epitome  of  thei  twelve 
following,  which,  is  supposed  to  have  been  made  by  that 
great  assertor  of  Roman  liberty,  Marcus  Brutus.  Brutus^ 
is  said  to  have  been  so  partieulariy  fond  of  Polybius,  that^ 
even  in  the  last  and  most  unfortunate  hours  of  his  life,'  hef 
amused  himself  not  only  in  readings  but  also  in  abridging 
his  history*  The  space  of  time  which  this  history  includes^ 
is  fifty-three  years,  beginnings  after  two  of  introductory 
matter^  at  the  third  book. 

How  much  this  htstortan  was  valued  by  the  ancients,  ap«- 
pears  by  the  number  of  statues  erected  to  his  honour,  and 
Cicero^  Strabo,  Josephus,  Platarob,  and  others,  have  spoken 
of  him  in  terms  of  the  highest  applause.  Livy  however 
bas  been  censured  for  calling  him  only  auiptor  baudqua*' 
quam  spernendus,  *^  an  author  by  no  means  to  be  de-^ 
spised,"  after  he  bad  borrowed  Very  largely  from  hini ;  bat 
Caaanbon  and  VTossius  think  that  according  to  thef  usual 
phraseology  of  the  aneients,  Livy's  eij^pressioii  implies  ai 
very  high  eulbgium,  Polybius's  style  is  by  flo  means  ele- 
gant,  but  the  acctifacy  a'Ad  fidelity  of  his  narrative  reiKleif 
his  history  ^  work  of  great  imporiaDce*  There  is  no  his-' 
torian  amo^g  the  ancients,  from  whdm  more  is  to  be 
leamed  of  the  events  which  he  profesise^  to  narrate,  and 
ibis  mncb  t6  be  lamented  that  his  bistoty  has  not  descended 
to  us  in  a  perfect  state.  We  hate  only  the  first  five  books 
entire,  and  an  abridgment  of  the  twelve  following,  with 
some  excerpta  or  extracts  of  this  history,  formerly  made  by 

K  2 

ISS  P  O  L  Y  B  I  U  a 

Constantiniis  Porphyrogenitus :  which  were  first  published 
in  Greek  by  Ursinus  in  1582,  and  in  Greek  and  Latin  by. 
the  learned  Henry  Valesius  in  1634.  Poly biu« .lived  to-  a» 
great  age ;  but  concerning  the  particulars  of  his  life  much 
cannot  be  collected.  He  was  highly  honoured  by  the 
friendship  of  Scipio ;  who,  when  the  other  hostages  from 
Achaia  were  distributed  through  the  cities  of  Italy,  obtaiii^cV 
leave  by  his  interest  for  Polybius  to  live  at  Rome.  He<  died 
at  eighty-two  years  of  age,  of  an  illness  occasioned  by  a 
fall  from  his  horse.  ^  ' 

His  history  was  first  published  at  Haguenau,  by  Obso- 
pseus,  in  1530,  fol.  Gr.  and  Lat.  and  was  reprinted  by  Isaac 
Casaubon  at  Paris,  1609,  in  folio,  an  edition  very  highly  va- 
lued. The  next  is  Gronpvius's,  with  many  additions,  par- 
ticularly the  *^  Excerpta  de  legationibus,  et  virtutibus ''ae 
vitiis  v"  for  the  "  Extracts  of  Constamine,"  published  se- 
parately by  Ursinus  and  Valesius,  were  upon  those  subjects. 
Gronovius's  edition  was  published,  at  Amsterdam,  1670,  3- 
vols.  8vo  'f  but  the  best,  and  indeed  an  incomparable  spe- 
cimen of  editorial  learning  and  accuracy,  is  that  of  Leipsic, 
1789,  9  vols.  8vo»  Hampton^s  English  translation  has  usu- 
ally been  reckoned  a  good  one,  but  has  been  severely  eri-. 
ticised  by  .  the  late  learned  Mr.  Whitaker  in  his  '^  Course 
of  Hannibal.*  .     ' 

POLYC  ARP,  an  apostolic  father  of  the  Christian  church, 
was  born  in  the  reign  of  Nero,  probably  at  Smyrna,  a  city 
of  Ionia  in  Asia  Minor,  where  be  was  educated  at  the  ex- 
penc^  of  Calisto,  a  noble  matron  of  great  piety  and  cha- 
rity. In  his  younger  years  he  is  said  to  be  instructed  i» 
the  Christian  faith  by  Bucolus,  bishop  of  that  plaice  :  h^t 
others  consider  it  as  certain  that  he  was  a  disciple  of  St« 
John  the  Evangelist,  and  familiarly  conversed  with  others 
of  the  apostles.  At  a  proper  age,  Bucolus  ordained  him  a 
deacon  and  catechist  of  his  church ;  and,  upon  the  death  of 
that  prelate,  he  succeeded  him  in  the  bishopric.  To  this 
he  was  consecrated  by  St,  John;  who  also,  according  to 
archbishop  Usher,  directed  his  "  Apocalyptical  Epistle,'* 
among  six  others,  to  him,  under  the  title  of  the  '^  Angel  of 
the  Church  of  Smyrna,"  where,  many  years  after  the 
apostle's  death,  he  was  also  visited  by  St.  Ignatius^ ,  Igua* 
tius  recommended  his  own  see  of  Antioch  to  the  care  aucI 
superintendance  of  Polycarp,  and  afterwards  sent  an  epistle 

■  >  Vossius  de  Hist.  Or»c.— Saxii  OMinasU— Oibdin**  Classics.  '    ' 

P  O  L  Y  C  A  R  p.  133 

to  the  church  of  Smyrna  from  Troas,  A.  C.  107;  wheri 
Polycarp  is  supposed  to  have  written  his  '^  Epistle  to  the 
Philippiaiis/'  a  translation  of  which  is  preserved  by  Dv. 

'   From  this  time,  for  many  years,  history  is  silent  concern- 
ing him,    till  some   unhappy   differences   in   the   churcli 
brought  him  into  general  notice.     It  happened,  that  the 
controversy  about  the  observation  of  Easter  began  to  grow 
very  virarm  between  the  eastern  and  western   churches; 
each  obstinately  insisting  \ipon  their  own  way,  and  justify- 
ing themselves  by  apostolical  practice  and  tradition.     To 
prevent  the  worst  consequences  of  this  contest,  Polycarp 
^ndertook  a  journey  to  Rome,  that  he  might  converse  with 
those  who  were  the  main  supports  and  champions  of  the 
opposite  party.     The  see  of  chat  capital  of  the  Roman  em- 
pire was  then  possessed  by  Anicetiis ;  and  many  confer- 
ences were  held  between  the  two  bishops,  each. of  them 
urging  apostolical  tradition  for  their  practice.     But  all  was 
managed  peaceably  and  amicably,  without  any  beat  of  con- 
tention ;  and,  though  neither  of  them  could  bring  the  other 
into  bis   opinion,  yet  they   retained  their  own  sentiments 
without  violating  that  charity  which  is  the  great  and  com- 
mon law  of  our  religion.  In  token  of  this,  they  communicated 
together  at  the  holy  sacrament ;    when  Anicetus,   to  do 
honour  to  Polycarp,  gave  him  leave  to  consecrate  the  eu- 
charistical  elements  in  his  own  church.^     This  done,  they 
parted  peaceably,  each  side  esteeming  this  difference  to  be 
merely  ritual,  and  no  ways  affecting  the  vitals  of  religion  ; 
but  the  dispute  continued  many  years  in  the  church,  was 
carried  on  with  great  animosity,  and  ended  at  length  in  a 
fixed  establishment,  which  remains  to  this  day,  of  ob$er.v« 
ing  Easter  on  different  days  in  the  two  churches:  for  the 
Asiatics   keep   Easter   on   the   next  Lord^s  day  after  the 
,Jewisb  passover,  and  the  church  of  Rome  the  next  Sunday 
'  after  the  first  full  moon  that  follows  the  vernal  equinox. 
-   During*  Polycarp's  stay  at  Rome,   he  employed  himself 
particularly  in  opposmg  the  heresies  of -Marcion  and  Va- 
lentious,  which  he  did  with  more  zeal  and  warmth  than  ori 
former  occasions.     Irenseus  tells  us,  that .  upon  Polycarp^ 
passing  Marcion  in  the  street  without  the  common  saluta^^ 
tion,  the  latter  called  out,  ^^  Polycarp,  own  us!'*  to  which 
the  former  replied,   with  indignation,  ^^  I  own  the^  to  be 
ihe  h^st-born  of  Satan.*'    To  this  the  same  author  adds^ 

I3i  P  O  L  Y  C  A  R  P. 

that,  when  any  heretical  doctrines  were  spoken  in  hit  pre-» 
aeooe^  be  would  presently  stop  bis  ears,  crying  out,  *^  Good 
God  I  to  what  limes  hast  thou  reserved  me,  that  I  should 
hear  such  things  !*'  and  immediately  quitted  the  place.  In 
the  same  zeal  he  was  Wont  to  tell,  that  St.  John,  going 
into  a  baUi  at  Ephesus,  and  finding  the  heretic  Cerinthos 
in  it,  started  back  instantly  without  bathing,  crying  out^ 
*^  Let  us  run  away,  lest  the  bath  should  £iUi  upon  us  while 
Clerintbus,  the  enemy  of  truth,  is  in  it."  Polyoitrp  governed 
the  cbui-ch  of  Smyrna  with  apostolic  purity,  till  be  suffered 
martyrdom  in  the  seventh  year  of  Marcus  Aureiius,  A.  C« 
167  ;  the  manner  of  which  is  thus  related  : 

The  persecution  growing  violent  at  Smyrna^  and  many 
baring  already  sealed  their  confession  with  their  blood,  tbe 
general  outcry  was,  ^^  Away  with  the  impious ;  let  Polyoarp 
be  sought  for."  .  On  this  he  withdrew  privately  into  a 
neighbouring  village,  where  he  lay  concealed  tor  some 
time,  continuing  night  and  day  in  prayer  for  the  peace  of 
tbe  choncxb.  He  was  thus  occupied,  when,  one  liigbt  falling 
into  a  irance,  he  dreamed  that  his  pillow  took  fire,  and  was 
burnt  to  ashes ;  which  he  told  his  friends  was  a  presage, 
that  be  should  be  burnt  alive  for  the  cause  of  Christ/  Three 
days  after  tfai^  dream,  in  order  to  escape  tbe  search  which 
was  carried  on  incessantly  after  him,  be  retired  into  ano* 
tber  village^  where  be  was  discovered,  although  some  say 
be  had  time  to  escape ;  but  he  refused  it,  saying,  '^Tbe 
will  of  the  Lord  he  done.''  Accordingly  be  saluted  his 
persecutors  with  a  cheerful  countenance ;  and,  ordering  a 
table  to  be  set  with  provisions,  invited  them  to  partake  of 
them,  only  requesting  for  himself  one  hour  for  prayer. 
This  being  over,  be  was  set  upon  an  ass,  and  conducted 
lowajrds  tbe  city.  Upon  the  road  he  was  met  by  Herod, 
aa  Ii'enarcb  or  justice  f^tbe  province,  and  bis  father,  who 
Vfive  the  principal  agents  in  this  persecution.  This  ma^ 
gistrate  taking  him  up  into  his  cbariot,  tried  to  undermine 
bis  constancy ;  and,  being  defeated  in  the  attempt,  ilirust 
ium  waA  of  the  chariot  with  so  much  violence,  that  he 
bruised  bis  thigh  with  the  fall.  On  his  arrival  at  tbe  plaoe 
gi  exeeution,  there  came,  as  is  said^  a  voice  6om  heaven,, 
saying,  ^^Polyeapp,  be  strong,  and  quit  thyself  like  a  mad." 
Being  brought  before  the  tribunal^  he  was  urged  to  sweat 
by  the  genius  of  Caesar.  ^<  Repeat,"  oontimies  the  pro-» 
i»naul«  ^^  ajad  say  with  us.  Take  aj^ay  the  impioua."  Qa 
this  the  martyr  looking  rouqd  the  stadium,  and  beholding 

r  a  L  Y  c  A  R  p.  Mf 

the  crowd  vritb  a  serere  and  angry  ooiinte&aiice>  beckoned 
vUb  bis  band,  and  looking  up  to  heaven,  said  with  a  sigby  aootfaer  tone  than  they  intended,  ^<  Take  away  the 
tnpiotis.''  At  last,  confessing  bimself  to  be  a  Christian^ 
proriaamtien  was  made  thrice  of  bis  confession  by  the 
crier,  at  which  the  people  shouted,  ^^  This  is  the  great 
teaeher  of  Asia,  and  the  ftitber  of  the  Christians ;  this  is  the 
destroyer  of  our  gods,  that  teaches  men  not  to  do  sacrifiee^ 
Off  worship  the  deities.^'  The  fire  being  prepared^  Poly^ 
carp,  at  bis  own  request,  was  not,  as  usual,  nailed,  but  only 
tied  to  tbe  stake ;  and  after  pronouncing  a  short  prayer^ 
with  a  clear  and  audible  voice,  the  executioner  blew  up 
the  fire,  which  increasing  to  a  mighty  flame,  ^^  Behold  a 
wonder  seen,"  says  Eusebius,  *'  by  us  who  were  purposely 
reserved,  that  we  might  declare  it  to  others ;  the  flames 
disposing  themselves  into  the  resemblance  arch,  like 
the  sails  of  a  ship  swelled  with  the  wind,  gently  encircled 
tbe  body  of  the  martyr,  who  stood  all  the  while  in  the 
midst,  not  like  roasted  flesh,  but  like  tbe  gold  or  silver 
purified  in  die  furnace,  his  body  sendiog  forth  a  delightful 
fragrancy,  which,  like  frankincense,  or  some  other  costly 
spices,  presented  itself  to  our  senses.  The  infidels,  ezas- 
peratcul  by^  the  miracle,  comasanded  a  spearman  to  fun  him 
through  with  a  sword :  which  be  bad  no  sooner  done,  but 
such  a  vast  quantity  of  blood  flawed  from  the  wonnd,  as 
extinguished  tbe  fire ;  when  a  dove  was  seen  to  fly  froan 
the  wound,  which  some  suppose  to  have  been,  his  soul, 
cloathed  in  a  visible  shape  at  tbe  time  of  its  departuie^.'' 
Tbe  Christians  would  have  carried  off  his  body  entire^  but 
were  not  suflCered  by  the  Irenarcb,  who  commanded  it  to 
be  burnt  to  ashes.  The  bones,  however,  were  gathered 
«p,  and  decently  interred  by  tbe  Christians. 

Thus  died  this  apostolical  man,  as  supposed,  in  May 
167.  The  amphitheatre  whereon  he  suffered  waatemain*- 
ing  in  a  great  measure  not  many  years  ago,  and  his  tomb 
is  in  a  little  chapel  in  the  side  of  a  mountain,  on  the  south- 
east part  of  the  etty,  solemnly  visited  by  the  Greeks  on  his 
festival  day ;  and  for  the  maintenance  and  repairing  of  it, 
trnveliera  were  wont  to  throw  a  few  aspers  into  an  earthen 
pet  that  stands  there  for  tbe  purpose.    He  wrote  aome 

*  The  miraculoufl  part  of  this  ao-  in  its  faTour,  by  Jortin,  who  obserfM, 

fomt  ii  treaia^  with  ridicuW  by  Mid-  that  **  tba  dreaniitaocdi  art  anAclent 

dtetoo  in  bia  *<  Free  Enquiry,'*  and  to  ereate  a  p«iiae  and  a  do«iit«'*    Rat- 

Btfenof  of  it  9  bJit  somf thing  is  «fi^rdl  markf  m.Efd.  Hisi.  toI.  I. 

iSfi  P  6  L  Y  C  A  R  p. 

faomilies  and  epistles,  which  are  all  lost,  except  that  to  tha* 
^^  Philippians/'  which  is  a  pious  and  truly  Christian  piece, 
containing  short 'and  useful  precepts  and  rules  of  life,  and* 
which,  St.  Jerome  tells  us,  was  even  in  his  time  read  in. 
the  public  assemblies  of  the  Asian  churches.  -  It  is  among. 
archbishQp  Wake*s  ".  Genuine  Epistles  of  the  Apostolic 
Fathers,"  and  the  original  was  published  by  archbishop 
^Usher  in  164^8^  and  has  been  reprinted  -since  in  yariouft 
collections.'  [Wake  has  also  given  a  translation  of  the  ac»< 
count  of  Polycarp's  death,  written  in^  the  name  of  the 
church  of  Smyrna.]  It  is  .'  of  singular  use  in  proving  the 
authenticity  of  the  books  of  the  New  Testament ;  inasmuch 
asi  he  has  several  passages  and  expressions  from  Matthew, 
Luke,  the  Acts,  St.  PauPs  Epistles  to  the  Philippians^ 
iEphesians,  Galatians,  Corinthians,  Romans,  Thessalonians, 
Colossians,  1st  Timothy,  ]st  Epistle  of  St.  John,  and  1st 
of  Peter;  and  makes  particular  mention  of  St. Paul's  Epis^ 
tie  to  the  Ephesians.  Indeed,  his  whole  '^  Epistle"  consists 
of  phrases  and  sentiments  taken  from  the  New  Testament.^ 
/  POLYCLETUS,  a  famous  sculptor  of  antiquity,  was  a 
native  of  Sicyou,  and  flourished  about  the  year  430  B.  C. 
Weknowjiothing  of  his  history  but  from  incidental  notice 
of  himiin  Pliny.  His  Doryphorus,  one  of  his  figures,  for 
his  excellence  lay  in  single  figures,  :was  esteemed,  a  canon 
of  proportion  ;  we  read  also  of  the  statue  of  a  boy,  which 
was  estimated .  at  a  hundred  talents,,  or  perhaps  nearly 
50,000/.'  according  to.  our  mode  of  reckoning.  The  em- 
pesor  Titus  had  two  naked  boys  playing  at  a  game,  by  his 
Laiid,  which  was  considered  as  a  perfect  performance. 
Lysippus  the  painter  formed  bis  manner  on  the  study  of 
the  Doryphorus  of  this  artist.* 

POLYGNOTUS,  a  celebrated  painter  of  Thasos,  flou- 
rished about  422  B.^C.and.was  the  son  and  scholar  of  Ag- 
laophon.  He  particularly  dbtinguished  himself  by  a  series 
of  pictures,  including  the  principal  events  of  theTrojan 
war.  He  refused  the  presents  offered  him  by  the  Grecians 
.on  this  :occasion  ;.  which  so  pleased  the  Amphictyons,  who 
composed  the  general  council  of  Greece,  that  they,tbanked 
him  by  a  solenin  decree  ;  and  it  was  providediby  the  same 
decree,  that  this  skilful  painter  should  be  lodged  and  en- 
tertained, at  the  public  expence,  in'  every  town  through 

•  '  '  ■ 

1  Wake's  Genuine  Epistles.— Lardner's  Works.— Care.— Mi!ner*8  Ch.  Hist^ 
-wrSaxii  Onomast. 
9  Plioy,  XXXIV.  8.— FuselPs  Lectures^  Lecture  I. 

P  O  L  Y  G  N  O  T  U  S.  1S7 

^vhich  be  passed.  The  talents  of  Polygnotus  are  celebrated 
bj  many  of  the  best  authors  of  antiquity,  as  Aristotle  and* 
Piatarcb,  Dionysius  Halicarnassensisy  Pausanias,  bat  es*' 
pecialiy  Pliny,  whose  sentiments,  as  well  as  those  of  PaU- 
sanias,  are  criticised  by  Mr.  Fuseli  in  his  Lectures  on  Paint-* 
ing.'* '      • 

f  POMBAL  (Sebastian  Joseph  Carvalho),  marquis  of, 
a  famous  Portuguese  minister  of  state,  whom  the  Jesuits,' 
whose  banishment  he  pronounced,  have  defamed  by  all 
possible  means,  and  others  have  extolled  as  a  most  able 
statesman,  was  born  in  1 699,  in  the  territory  of  .Coim**^ 
bra;. a  robust  and  distinguished  figure  seemed  to  mark' 
hiip  for  the  profession  of  arms,  for  which,  after  a  short 
trial,  he  quitted  the  studies  of  his  native  university.  He 
found,  however,  a  still  readier  path  to  fortune,  by  jonar- 
rying,  lin  spite  of  opposition  from  her  relations.  Donna 
Teresa  de  Noronha  Almada,  a  lady  of  one  of  the  first  fami- 
lies in  Spain..  He  lost  her  in  1739,  and  being  sent  on  a 
secret  expedition  in  1745  to  Vienna,  he  again  was  fortu-  marriage,  by  obtaining  the  countess  of  Daun,  a  re- 
lation of  the  marshal  of.  that  name.  This  wife  became  a 
favourite  with  the  queen  of  Portugal,  who  interested  her- 
self to  obtain  an  appointment  for  Carvalho,  in  which,  how- 
ever, she  did.  not  succeed,  till  after  the  death  of  her  hus- 
band^ John  V.  in  1750.  Her  son  Joseph  gave  Carvalho  the 
appointment  of  secretary  for  foreign  affairs,  in  which  situa- 
tion he  completely  obtained  the  confidence  of  the  king. 
His  haughtiness,  as  well  as  some  of  his  measures,  created 
many  enemies ;  and  in  1758,  a  conspiracy  headed  by  the 
duke  d'Aveiro,  who  bad  been  the  favourite  of  John  V. 
broke  out  in  an  attempt  to  murder  the  king  as  he  returned 
from  his  castle  of  Belem.  The  plot  being  completely  dis-« 
covered,  the  conspirators  were,  punished,  not  only  severely 
but  cruelly ;  and  the  Jesuits  who  had  been  involved  in  it, 
were  banished  from  the  kingdom.  At  the  death  of  Joseph, 
in  1777,  Pombal  fell  into  disgrace,  and  many  of  the  persons 
connected  with  the  conspirators,  who  had  been  imprisoned 
fromi  the  time  of  the  discovery,  were  released.  The  ene.- 
mies  of  Pombal  did  not,  however,  succeed  in  exculpating 
the  principal  agents,  though  a  decree  was  passed  in  1781, 
to  declare  the  iunoceQceof  those  who  had  be^n  released 
from  prison.     Carvalho  was  banished  to  one  of  his  estates^ 

1  Pliny,  XXXIV.  S.^Faseli's  Lecturefi  XiCCtarel. 

135  P  O  M  B  A  L. 

vAiere  he-died  in  May  llS2y  in  his  eighty-fiftb  year.  Hia 
character,  as  was  mentiotied  above,  v?as  varioasiy  repr««^ 
sented,  but  it  was  generally  allowed  that  he  possessed  great 
abilities.  A  book  entitled  ^*  Memoirs  of  the  Marquu  of 
Pombal,''  was  published  at  Paris  in  1783,  in  four  volaiDe^ 
1 2ino,  but  it  is  not  esteemed  altogether  impartial.' 

POMET  (Peter),  born  April  2,  1658,  obtained  great 
wealth  in  the  profession  of  a  wholesale  druggist ;  and  being^ 
appointed  to  superintend  the  materia  medica  in  the  king*» 
gardens,  drew  up  a  catalogue  of  ail  the  articles  in  that  col-*- 
Section,  with  some  that  were  preserved  in  cabinets,  undar 
the  title  of  "  Histoire  generale  des  Drogues,"  folio,  which^ 
besides  passing  through  some  editions4n  the  original,  waa 
translated  into. English  in  1725„  4to.  He  died  Nov.  IS, 
1699,  in  his  forty-first  year,  and  the  very  day  that  the 
king  sent  him  an  order  for  a  pension.  His  work  was  re*- 
published  by  bis  son  in  17S5,  i9  two  volumes,  4to,  but  the 
engravings  in  this  edition  are  not  thought  so  good  as  m 
die  first.* 

POMEY  (Francis),  a  Jesuit,  most  known  for  his  <<  Pan^ 
tfaeum  mythicum,'*  of  which  his  French  biographers  assert 
that  an  **  Englishman,  named  Tooke,  gave  a  translation, 
prefixing  his  own  name,  without  that  of  the  author;''  and 
this  book  has  gone  through  a  vast  number  of  editions. 
He  died  at  Lyons,  in  1673,  at  an  advanced  age.  He  had 
been  employed  as  a  teacher  of  youth  in  that  city,  and  mosfr 
Ckf  his  works  are  formed  for  the  use  of  students.  They  con- 
tist  of,  a  large  dictionary,  since  superseded  by  that  of  Jou« 
bert;  a  small  ope  in  12mo,  entitled  *^FIqs  Latinitatis  ;'* 
*^  Indiculus  univers$ilis,"  a  kind  of  nomenclator ;  colloquies; 
a  treatise  on  particles ;  and  another  on  the  funerals  of  the 
anciepts;  with  a  work  on  rhetoric.  Pomey  was  well  versed 
ID  the  Latin  authors,  but  his  publications  would  have  been 
more  valuable  had  he  been  more  attentive  to  method  land 

POMFRET  (JoHK),  an  English  poet,  was  son  of  Mr. 
Pomfret,  rector  of  Luton  in  Bedfordshire^  and  formerly  of 
Trinity  college,  Cambridge.  He  was  born  about  1667.  He 
was  edaeated  at  a  grammar-school  in  the  country,  and 
thence  sent  to  Queen's  college,  Cararbridge,  whe^e  he  took 
his  bachelor's  degree  in  1684,  and  that  of  master  in  1C98. 
He  then  went  iqto  orders,  and  was  presented  to  the  living 

}  Diet.  Hist,  t  tXvTf  IKok.  Hist  de  Mtdieiae.  *  Diet.  Hist; 

P  0  M  F  R  E  T.  139 

^  Mdden  in  Bedfordshire  Aboitt  170?,  be  qftvae  u^  to 
Lonileii  for  ioatitution  xq  »  li^rger  wA  v^ry  oontider&ble 
i'mn^ ;  hut  vas  9top|»ed  K»i9e  tim^  by  ComptoPy  then 
bishop  of  London*  on.  appouot  pf  tbes^  four  lifici  of  hi# 
poem  entitled  "The  Choice:" 

*^  And  IIS  I  xne^  approapb*d  the  vey]ge  of  life. 

Some  kind  relation  (for  1  *d  have  no  wif^) 

Should  take  upon  him  all  my  worldly  care^ 

While  I  did  for  a  better  state  prepare." 
The  parenthesis  in  these  lines  was  so  malicioasly  re- 
presented, that  the  good  bishop  was  made  to  believe  from 
it,  that  PomiVet  prefered  a  mistress  to  a  wife;  though  no 
such  meaning  pan  be  deduced,  unless  it  be  asserted,  tbs^t 
an  unmarried  clergyman  cannot  live  without  a  mistress. 
But  the  bishop  was  soon  convinced,  that  this  representation 
was  nothing  more  than  the  effect  of  ms^lice,  as  Pomfret  at 
that  time  was  actually  married.  .  The  opposition,  however, 
which  his  slanderers  had  given  him,  was  not  without  effect; 
for,  being  obliged  on  this  occasion  to  s<ay  in  London  longer 
than  he  intended,  he  caught  the  small-pox,  and  died  of  it, 
in  1703,  aged  thirty- five. 

A  volume  of  his  poems  was  published  by  himself  in 
1699,  with  a  very  modest  and  sen&ible  preface.  Two 
pieces  of  his  were  published  after  his  death  by  a  fi*iend 
under  the  name  of  Philalethes  ;  one  called  "  Reason,'*  and 
^written  in  1700,  when  the  disputes  about  the  Trinity  ran 
high  ;  the  other,  " Dies  Novissima,'*  or,  "The  Last  Epi- 
phany,''  a  Pindaric  ode.  His  versification  is  sometimes 
not  unmusical ;  but  there  is  not  the  force  in  his  writing^ 
which  is  necessary  to  constitute  a  poet.  A  dissenting 
teacher  of  his  name,  and  who  published  some  rhimes  upon 
spiritual  subjects,  occasioned  fanaticisdd  to  be  imputed  to 
him;  but  from  this  his  friend  Philalethes  has  justly  cleared 
Tiim„  Pomfret  had  a  very  strong  mixture  of  devotion  in 
him,  but  no  fanaticism. 

"  The  Choice,'*  says  Dr.  Jolmson,  '*  exhibits  a  system  of 
life  adapted  to  common  uotions,  and  equal  to  common  ex* 
pectatibns  ;  such  a  state  as  affords  plenty  and  tranquillity, 
without  exclusion  of  intellectual  pleasures.  Perhaps  no 
composition  in  pur  language  has  been  oftener  perused  than 
Pomfret's  *  Choice.*  in  his  other  poems  there  is  an  easy 
volubility ;  the  pleasure  of  smooth  metre  is  afforded  tq  tbe 
'Mr,  and  the  mind  is  not  oppressed  with  ponderous,  oi^  en- 
tangled wit;h  intri^SLt^  s^tio^qnt.  He  pleasea  many,  apd 
he  who.  pleases  many  must  have  merit,*' 

140  P  O  M  F  R  E  T. 

'  His  son,  Jo)aN,  had  the  office  of  Rouge-croix  in  the  be*^ 
raids'  c^ce^  and  wrote  some  satirical  verses  on  the  removal 
of  the  family  portraits  of  the  Howards  from  the  hall  of  the 
heralds'  college  to  Arundel  castle.  '  He  died  March  24, 
1751,  aged  forty-nine.* 

POMMERAYE  (Dom.  John  Francis),  a  laborious  Be- 
nedictine of  the  congregation  de  St.  Maur,  was  born  in 
1617,  at  Rouen.  After  a  suitable  education,  he  refused 
all  offices  in  his  order,  that  he  might  devote  himself  wholly 
to  study.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy  at  the  house  of  the 
learned  M.  Bulreau,  to  whom  he  was  paying  a  visit,  Oct. 
28,  1687,  aged  seventy.  His  works  are,  '^  L'Histoire  de 
FAbbayede  S.  Ouen  de  Rouen,  folio;  and  a  "history,  of 
the  Archbishops  of  Rouen,^'  folio,  which  is  his  best  work. 
He  published  also  a  "  Collection  of  the  Councils  and 
Synods  of  Rouen,"  4to;  "  L'Histoire  de  la  Cath6drale  de 
Rouen,"  4to;  "  Pratique  journaliere  de  I'Aumone,"  a  small 
took,  exhorting  to  give  alms  to  those  who  beg  for  the  poor. 
This  Benedictine's  works  are  not  written  in  a  pleasing  style, 
nor  are  they  every  where  accurate,  but  they  contain  many 
curious  observations." 

POMPADOUR  (Jane,  Antoinette,  Poisson,)  mar- 
chioness of,  the  celebrated  mistress  of  Louis  XV.  was  the 
daughter  of  a.  financier,  and  early  distinguished  by  the 
beauty  of  her  person,  and  the  elegance  of  her  talents. 
She  was  married  to  a  M.  d'Etioles  when  she  attracted  the 
notice  of  the  king,  and  becoming  his  mistress,  was  created 
marchioness  of  Pompadour  in  1745.  Her  credit  was  abun- 
dant, and  she  employed  it  chiefly  in  the  patronage  of  ta- 
lents, in  all  branches  of  the  polite  arts.  She  collected  alsp 
a  cabinet  of  books,  pictures,  and  various  curiosities.  She 
died  in  1764,  at  the  age  of  forty-four;  and,  it  is  said,  with 
much  more  resignation  than  could  have  been  expected  of  a 
person  so  little  advanced  in  years,  and  so  situated.  Two 
spurious  works  have  been  attributed  to  her  since  lier  death, 
the  one,  a  set  of  "  Memoirs,"  in  two  volumes,  Svo ;  the 
other,  a  collection  of  "  Letters,"  in  three  volumes,  which 
have  at  least  the  merit  of  painting  her  character  with  skill. 
The  memoirs  attribute  to  her,  in  conformity  with  the  po- 
pular ideas,  much  more  influence  than  she  actually  pos- 
sessed.' . 

^  Johnson's  Livea.— -Gibber's  Lives.— Cole's  MS  Atbeoae  in  Brit,  Mtis.-^ 
Noble's  College  of  Arms. 
*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist.  »  Diet.  Hist,  in  art.  Poisson. 

P  O  M  P  E  I.  141 

POMPEI  (Jerome),  an  Italian  poet  and  a  man  of  let-' 
ters,  was  born  of  a  noble  family  at  Verona  in  1731.     He 
became  an  early  proficient  in  classical  literature,  particu* 
larly  the  Greek,  of  which  he  was  enthusiastically  fond,  and 
attained  an  excellent  style.     At  this  period  the  marquis 
Maffei  and  other  eminent  literary  characters  were  residerit 
at  Verona,  in  whose  society  the  talents  of  Pompei  received 
the  most  advantageous  cultivation.     He  was  first  known  as 
an  author  by  "<3anzoni  Pastorali,"  in  two  vols.  8vo.    Able 
critics  spoke  in  the  highest  terms  of  these  pieces,  on  ac« 
count  of  their  sweetness  and  elegance  :  it  was  thought  by 
some  good  judges  that  they  were  never  surpassed  by  any 
productions  of  the  kind.     He  next  translated  some  of  the 
Idylls  of  Theocritus  and  Moschus,  in  which  he  exhibited  a 
very  happy  selection  of  Italian  words,  corresponding  with 
the  Greek.     The  next  object  of  his  attention  was  dramatic 
poetry,  in  the  higher  departments  of  which  the  Italians 
were  at  that  time  very  deficient,  and  he  published  in  1768 
and  1770,  his  tragedies  of  "  Hypermestra"  and  "Calli- 
rhoe,^'  which  were  represented  with  great  success  in  several 
cities  of  the  Venetian  state.     He  now  employed  several 
years  on  a  translation  of  "  Plutarch's  Lives,"  which  ap- 
peared in  1774  in  four  vols.  4 to.     This  work  gave  him  con- 
siderable reputation  as  a  prose  writer  and  scholar,  and  it 
ranks  among  the  very  best  classical  versions  in  the  Italian 
language.    In  1778  he  published  two  volumes  of  "  Nuove 
Ganzoni  Pastorali :"  he  also  published  poetical  versions  of 
the  *'  Hero  and  Leailder  of  Musaeus;"  of  the  "  Hymns  of 
Callimachus ;"   "A  hundred  Greek  Epigrams;"  and  the 
"  Epistles  of  Ovid."     He  was  a  member  of  some  of  the 
academies,,  and  he  served  his  native  city  in  the  capacities 
of  secretary  to  the  tribunal  of  public  safety,  and  to  the 
acadenay  of  painting.     He  died  at  Verona  in  1790,  at  the 
age  of  fiftyruine,  and  his  memory  was  honoured  by  various 
public  testimonies,  and  by  the  erection  of  bis  bust  in  6ne 
of  the  squares  of  the  city.     He  was  highly  respected  and 
esteemed,  as  well  for  his  morals  as  for  his  literary  taleuts, 
and  his  fame  was  not  limited  to  the  confines  of  Italy.     An 
edition  of  his  works  was  published  after  his  death  in  six 

vols.  SVO.'  J      .  .  :  ' 

POMPEY,  or  P0MPEIUS  (Cnbius),  surnamed  Mag- 
Rus,  ot  the  Greaty  was  of  a  noble  Roman  family,  the  son 

,  *  •  ■  ft  ' 

*  F^brooi  Vitae  ItalQruaii  vol.  XV, — Athenaeum,  vol.  IV, 

H2  P  O  M  P  E  Y. 

of  Po^peiQs  Strabo,  and  Lticiii«.  Me  was  born  I&6  daine 
year  with  Cicero^  but  nine  motilhs  iater^  fiameijF,  tn.ebe 
consulship  of  Cepio  and  Seaanusi  106  years  before,  the 
Christian  si'a.  His  father  wasa  general  of  great  abilities^ 
and  under  bioi  be  learned  the  art  of  war.  When  be  was 
only  twenty-three  be  raised  three  legions,  which  be  led  to 
Sylla.  Three  years  after^  be  drove  the  oppooents  of  8yUa 
froBi  Africa  And  Sicily.  Young  as  be  was»  be  bad  already 
won  the  soldiers  sufficiently,  by  his  miidDdss*  and  military^ 
talentSi  to  e Jccite  the  jealousy  of  Sylla,  who  therefore  re^ 
called  hinti  to  Rdooe*  His  sbldiers  would  have  detained 
biiB  in  spite  of  the  dicDator'a  orders^  but  he  obeyed,  and 
was  rewarded  on  his  arrival  by  the  name  of  Magnus,  given 
him  by  Sylla,  and  soon  after  eonfirmed  unantniously  by  hi^ 
countrymen.  He  obtained  also  the  honours  of  a  triumph^ 
which  the  dictator  permitted  raliber  unwillingly,  and  was 
the  first  instance  of  a  Roman  kmgbt,-  who.  had  not  risen  to 
any  magistracy,  being  advanced  to  that  elevation.  Tbia 
was  in  8 1  B^  C.  In  a  short  time,,  be  had  obtuoled  as  moob 
power  by  the  voluntary  favour  of  the  people,  as  Sylla  hod 
i>efo«e  by  arms :  and  aftef  the  death  of  tlMt  extraordinary 
man,  obligefd  Lepidus  to  quit  Rome^  and  then  unidertook 
the  warngaittst  Sertoriild  in  Spaib,  which  be  .brought  to  i» 
fOrtuuate  conclusion*  For  this  victory  he  triumphed  a  se^ 
eodd  time,  B.  C.  73,  being  still  only  in  the  rank  of  a  kni^bt; 
Not  long  afterwards  he  w^  chosen  consuh.  In  that  office 
be  re- established  the  power  of  the  tribunes;  ^lidL,  in  the 
eourse  of  a  few  years,  ext^fmiinated  the  pirates  who  in-f. 
fested  the  Mediterra^eiln^  gained  great  advaititages  against 
Tlgfanes  and  Mitbridates,  and  carried  bis.  victorious  arms 
into  Media,  Albania,  Iberia^  and  the  most  important  parts 
of  Asia ;  and  so  extended  the  boundaries  of  the  Roman 
empire,  that  Asia  Minor,:  which  before  formed  the  extre^ 
mity  of  M  provinc^es,  now  became,  in  a  manner,  the  centre 
of  tbem.  When  he  returned  to  receive  a  triumph  for  these 
victories,  he  courted  popularity  by  dismissing  his  troops 
and  entering  the  city  as  a  private  citizen.  He  triumpbed 
with  great  splendour ;  but  not  feeling  his  influence  such  as 
be  bad  hoped,  he  united  witb  Gaosar  and  Grassus  to  form 
the  first  triumvirate.  He  strengthened  his  utiion  with 
CaeMr  by  marrying  bis  daiigbter  Julia ;  be  was  destined 
nevertheless  to  find  in  Csesar  not  a  friend,  but  too  auccessi* 
ful  a  rival.  While  Caesar  was  gaining  in  his  long  Gallic 
wars  a  fame  and  a  power  that  were  soon  to  be  invincible, 

P  0  M  P  £  Y.  143 

Pompey  was  eadeavonriilg  to  cultivate  his  poptiUtrity  and 
inflaeDce  in  Rome.  Ere  long  tbey  took  directly  contrary 
pai^es.  Pompey  became  the  hope  and  the  support  of  the 
patrtoiaos  and  tbe  senate^  while  C»sar  was  the  idol  of  the 
people.  On  the  retam  of  the  latter  from  Gaul,  in  the 
year  51  A.  C.  the  civil  war  broke  out^  which  terminated^ 
as  is  well  known,  by  tbe  defeat  of  Pompey  in  the  battle  of 
Pharsalia,  A.  C.  '49.  and  the  base  assassination  of  him  by 
the  officers  of  Ptolemy  in  Egypt.  It  appears  that  Pompey 
had  not  less  ambition  than  Csssar,  but  was  either  more 
acrapuions,  or  less  sagacious  and  fortunate  in  his  choice  of 
means  to  gratify  that  passion.  He  was  unwilling  to  throw 
off  the  mask  of  virtue  and  moderation,  and  hoped  to  gatft: 
every  thing  by  intrigue  and  tbe  appearance  of  transcendanfi 
iDerit.  In  this  he  might  have  beeA  successful,  had  he  not 
been  opposed  to  a  man  whose  prompt  and  decisive  mea*-» 
sures  disconcerted  his  secret  plans,  drove  things  at  once  to^ 
extremities,  and  forced  him  to  have  recourse  to  the  deci-> 
aion  of  arms,  in  which  victory  declared  against  him.  Tbe 
moderate  men,  and  those  who  were  sincerely  attached  to 
tbe  repuUie  of  Rome,  dreaded,  almost  equally,  the  succes9 
of  Pompey  and  of  C»sar.  Cato^  who  took  the  mourning 
habit  on  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil  war,  had  resolved 
upon  death  if  Csesar  should  be  victorious,  and  exile  if  suc-> 
<sess  should  declare  for  Pompey.* 

POMPiONAN  (John  James  le  Franc),  marquis  of,  a 
French  nobleman,  still  more  distinguished  by  his  talents  in 
poetry  than  by  bis  rank,  was  born  at  Montauban  in  1709. 
He  was  educated  for  tbe  magistracy,  and  became  advocate'*> 
general,  and  first  president  of  the  court  of  aids  at  Mont- 
auban* liis  indination  for  poetry,  however,  could  not  be 
repressed,  and  at  tbe  age  of  twenty- five  be  produced  his 
tragedy  of  ^  Dido,"  in  which  he  approved  himself  ^  not  only 
one  of  the  most  successful  imitators  of  Racine,  but  an  able 
and  elegant  poet.  After  this  success  at  Paris,  he  returned 
to  his  duties  at  Montauban,  which  he  fulfilled  in  the  most 
nprigbt  manner ;  bat  having  suflFered  a  short  exile,  on  ac« 
coimt  of  some  step  which  displeased  the  court,  he  became 
digosted  with  the  office  of  a  magistrate.  As  he  bad  row 
|ilsa  increased  his  foftune  by  an  advantageous  matriage,  he 
^eteMttined  to  remove  to  Paris,  where  at  first  he  was  re- 
ceived as  his  virtues -and  his  talents  deserved.     His  sincere 

1  Plntarob.—  RoBaaii^liitorj. 

144  1»  O  M  P  I  G  N  A  N. 

attachment  to  Christianity  brought  upon  hixn  a  perseetttion 
from. the  philosophiste,  which,  after  a.time,  drove  him 
back  to  the  country. .  Voltaire  and  his  associates  had  now 
inundated  France  with  their  deistical  tracts;  the  mate* 
rialism  of  Helvetius  in  his  book,  de  PEsprit,  had  just  beea 
brought  forward  in  the  most  triuoiphani  manner ;  the  ene- 
mies of  Christianity  had  filled  the  Enct/clopBdie  with  the. 
poison  of  their  opinions,  and  had  by  their  intrigues  formed 
a  powerful  party  in  the  French  academy,  when  the  mar- 
quis of  Pompignan  was  admitted  as  an  academician,.. in 
1760.  He  had  the  courage,  at  his  admission,  to  .pronounce 
a  discourse,  the  object,  of  which  was  to  prove  that  the  man 
of  virtue  and  religion  is  the  only  true  philosopher.  Froin 
this  moment  he  was  the  object  of  perpetual  persecution «r 
Voltaire  and  his  associates  were  indefatigable  in.  poarmg 
out  satires  against  him  :  his  religion  was  called  hypocrisy^ 
and  his  public  declaration  in  its  favour  an  attempt  to  gain 
the  patronage  of  certain  leading  men.  These  accusations^ 
as  unjust  as  they  were  illiberal,  mingled  with  every. species 
of  sarcastic  wit,  had  the  effect  of  digusting  the  worthy  mar-, 
quis  with  Paris.  He  retired  to  his  estate  of  Pompignan^ 
where  he  passed  the  remainder  ofhis  days  in  the  practice  of 
a  true  philosophy,  accojnpanied  by  sincere  piety,;  and  died 
of.  an  apoplexy  in  1784,  at  the  agie  of  seventy-five,  most 
deeply  regretted  by  his  neighbours,  and  dependents.  The 
shameful  treatment  of  this  excellent  man,  by  the  sect 
which  then  reigned  in  the. academy,  is  a  strong  illustration 
of  that,  conspiracy  against  religion,  so  ably  detailed  by  M. 
Barruely  in  the  first  volume  of  his  Memoirs  of  Jacobinism. 
V^henonce  he  had  declared  himself  a  zealous  Christilan  no. 
merit  was  allowed  him,  nor  any  effort  spared  to  overwheltn 
him  with  disgrace  and  mortification.  His  compositions  ne^ 
vertheless  were,  and  are,  esteemed  by. impartial  judges. 
His  "  Sacred  Odes,"  notwithstanding  the  sarcasm  of  Vol- 
taire, ^^  sacred  they  are,  for  no  one  touches  them."  abooiul 
in  poetical  spirit,  and  lyric  beauties ;  though  it  is  con- 
fessed also  that  they  have  their  inequalities..  His^^Dls* 
courses  imitated,,  from  the  books  of  Solomon,"  contain 
important  moral  truths,  delivered  with  elegance^  and 
frequently  with  energy..  His  imitation  of  the  Georgics  of 
Virgil,  though  inferior  to  that  of  the  abb^  De  Lille  (iwhose 
versification  is  the  richest  and  most  energetic  of  modem 
French  writers),  has  yet  considerable  merit :  and  His 
**  Voyage  de  Languedoc,"  though  not  equal,  in  easy  and 


Unify  nagB^ncd  to  that  of  ChipeHa,  is'  cAfierioe  in  «lb* 
ginee,  toi^wtness^  and  Taiiety.  He  wrote  ai«o  soaM' 
(^ras  which  werginot  acted ;  and  a  conMdjr  io  Terae,.  ih^ 
dhe  act,  catted  -^^  Lea  Adieux  de  Man,''  which  waa  repve* 
seMedl  wiih  soccesB  at  the  Italian  comic  tbealve  in  FWitw 
'the  HMUNjOid  of  Pompignaii  was  distiDguisbed  abo  as  a  wvh 
1^  iti  prode.  His  ^^  Euit^inm  on  the  Dake  of  Bnngiindy,^^ 
18. written  with  an  affecting  sioiplioity.  His  <<i)iaKirta« 
tba^i'*  his  ^'  Letter  to  the  younger  Racine,^'  and  his  <<  Aca- 
demical DiscouFses/'  all  prove  a  soond  judgaient,  a  eomct- 
taste^  and  a-  genins  improved  bj  careful  stwiy  of  the  elassie 
models.  He  produced  also  a  ^'  Translation  of  some  dia^ 
l^l^lefi  6t  Ltdcian/*  and  some  '^Tragedies  of  JSschylus,'* 
vi^ich  am  very  general^  esteemed.  He  was  allowed  ta 
be  cmaa  of  vast  literature,  and  almost  universal  knofsfedge 
in  the  ine  mKs.  Yet  sncfa  a  man  was  to  be  ilJU treated^  and 
orotbed  if  possible,  because  he  had  the  ^rtoe  to  declare 
^liaMelf  a  paftiaan  cKf  religion*  .  Even  his  enemies,  arid  th# 
most  indexible  of  them,  Vokaiffe,  were  unable  tp  deny  the 
mevit  of  some  of  his  poettcal  compositions.  The  following 
stanza  in  particoUr,  ifi  ^<  An  Ode  on  the  Death  pf  Rous<r 
seaoj"  obtained  a  triumph  for  him  in  defiance  of  prejudice. 
The  intwfttion  seems  to  be  to  illustrate  the  vMxity  of  those 
who  speak  against  religion  : 

'  ^LeNila  vii  ser'sa^rivi^eff 
.       V  Be  noifs  hibltans  das  deserts 
InnUler  par  teiurs  (^  8«iivag«s 
L*Astre&]at^t  4e  ruQivers, 
Cris  impiijfgflans !  fuiyuys  bizarrgs ! 
Tandis  que  ces  moiistres  barbares 
Poussoient  d'insoleutes  claxpeurs, 
Le  IMeu^  poursuivaht  sa  carriere^ 
Venelt  des  torrens  de  lumieitt 


Sur  ses  otacaia  btanpb^matenrs 

"  Thus  on  the  bofdera  of  the  Nile,  the  black  inhabitants 
inseU  by  their  swage  eries  the  ^r  of  day.  Vain  qries^ 
and  capnoious'liiry !  Bot  whiie  these  barbarous  moinsteva 
send' up  their  insolent  chunonr^  4be  God,  purs«ing  hia 
oareer,  poura  floods  of  light  upon  his  dusky  blaspbeipeFs*?* 
*^^l  have  chardiy  ev<«r  seen,^'  says  M/ la  Harpey  !^|ii^ 
gaaadiar  idea,  ^presseii^  by  a  more  noMe  unagi^,  nor  wilk 
a  4bore  imprisssive  h|«mony  of  fengai^ge.  I  racitei^  the^ 
pesiBg#  one  day  toVfdtacfe,  who  aokaowledged  tb%t  it. 
united  all  the  qualities  of  the  subliipe ;  and^  when  I  named 
the  ajtithor,  still  praised  it  more.** 

Vol.  XXV.  L 

146  P  O  M  P  I  G  N  A  N. 

The  marquis's  brother,  John  Georgk  Le  Franc,  a  pre-*' 
late  of  great  merit,  waa  ^archbishop  of  Vienne,  and  like 
him  combated  the  principles  .  of  the .  philosophists.,  .He 
wrote  various  caatrbversialand  devotional  works,  and  some, 
of  another  description,  asf  "A. Critical  Essay  on  the  p^e-. 
sent  State  of  the  Republic  of  Letters,"  1743  ;  "  Pastoral 
Instructions  for  the  Benefit  of  the  new  CoBverts  within  bia 
Diocese  j  "  Devotion  not  at, enmity  wiUi  Wit  and  Genius.;" 
^.<  Mandates  prohibiting  the  Reading  of  the  Works  of  Rous-*^ 
seau  and  tbe  Abbd  Raynal;."  He  died,  in  1 7  90,  soon  after 
the  revolution  had  begun  its  destructive  work,  which  be  ia 
vain  endeavoured  to  resist.  ^  .  >.  , 

'  POMPONATIUS  (Peter),  a  modem  Aristotelian,  wa^ 
born  at  Mantua  tn  1462.  He  d^ivered  lectures  on^  the 
philosophy  of  Aristotle  and  Averroes  at  Padva  and  Bologna^ 
where  his  eloquence  and  talents  procured  hi|n  many  audi- 
tors. He  was  at  Bologna  when  he  composed  .bis  cele-. 
brated  little  treatise  ^^  De  immortalitate  Anim»,''  in  whkh. 
he  was  supposed  to  call  in  question  the  immortality  .of  .the 
soul,  at  least  he  maintained  that  all  natural  reason  waa 
s^ainst  it,  but  rev^tion  for  it,  and  upon  the  latter  account 
be  believed  it  It  is  probable,  however,  that  the  iatpves- 
sion  it  made  on  the  public  mind  was  not  very  favourable  to 
the  received  opinions,  as  pope  Leo  X.  thought  itnecessaiy 
to  suppress  the  work  by  a  bull ;  and  it  was  at  his  request 
that  Augustine  Nipbus  wrote  a  treatise  with  the  same  title, 
^*  De  immortalitate  Animae,^'  in  which  he  undertook  to 
prove  that  this,  doctrine  kr  not  contrary  to  the  principles  of 
the  Aristotelian  philosophy.  Some  time  after,  Pompona- 
tius's  opinions  were  referred  to  tbe  arbitration  of  Bembus, 
who  endeavour^  to  justify  him,  and  succeeded  so  far  as  to 
obtain  permission  for  him  to  issue  a  second  edition  of  the 
work,  as  well  as  to  save  the  author  from  the  vengeance 
of  the  church.  Brucker  is  of  opinion  that  notwithstanding 
Pomponatius's.  pretences,  he  had  more  respect  for  the  au-r. 
thority  of  Aristotle,  than  for  that  of  Jesus  Christ.  Ho 
addsj  that  though  much  addicted  to  superstitioQ  and  fana:- 
ticism,  and  a  zealous  advocate  for  judicial  astrology,  qs 
appears  from  his  book  .<<  De  Incantatioi;iibus,^'  ^^  On  £a*- 
<jiantmeats,"  be  had  an  understanding  capajl>le  of  peoe- 
.traling  into  the  depths  of  the  Peripatetic  system,  in  ihe 
study  of  which  he  chiefly  followed,  tbe  coikmeiuariea  o£ 

1  Dwt  Hist. 

POMPON  ATI  U  S.  147 

Afdirodisflens.  His  writings^  though  barbaroifs  und  .inele-* 
gant  in  style,  discover  great  acuteoew  and  s^^btlety  of 
thought/  He  also  wrote  a  treatise  on  ^*  Fate  and  Free  will.'* 
He  died  in  1525.  He  had  many  followers  of  great  cele- 
brity; among  whom  were  Simon  Porta,  Julius  Caesar  Sea* 
]iger,  and  Lazarus  Bonamicus.  Vanini,  the  Atheist,  is 
said  by  some  to  have  been  his  pupil ;  but  this  is  impossible, 
for  Pomponatius  died  in  the  year  1525,  and  Vanini  was  not 
born  till  the  year  1586.  .        . 

The  first  edition  of  Pomponatius  '^  De  Immortalitatej"  a 
copy  of  which  is  in  Mr.  Gressweirs  possession^  is  without 
date ;  but  the  colophon  informs  us,  that  the  author  com- 
pleted it  in  1516.  The  first  with  a  date,  and  along  with 
bis  other  tracts,  is  that  of  Venice  1525,  folio ;  the  second, 
of  the  <<  De  immortalitate''  only,  is  that  of  1534,  12mo.^ 


POMPONIU8  LJETUS  (Julius),   an  eminent  Italian 
antiquary,  all  whose  names  were  of  his.  own  choice,  was 
the  illegitimate  offspring  of  the  illustrious  house  of  Sanse- 
verino,  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples;  but  this  was  a  circum* 
•stance  on  which  he  preserved  an  inflexible  silence^  and  ad- 
intued  no  conversation  or  questions  on  the  subject.     Evjen 
•  when  that  family  sent  him  an  invitation  to  reside  with  them, 
he  rejected  it  by  a  laconic  note  which  is  preserved  by  Tira«- 
boschi :  '^  Pomponius  Lsetus  cognati^  et  propinquis  suis 
-salutem.     Quod  petitis  fieri  non  potest.  Valete.''     *^  Pom- 
ponius LsBtus  to  his  kinsmen  and  relations  :  what  you  ask 
'camiot  be'  granted.     Farewell."     He  went  young  to  Rome, 
where  be  studied  first  undei:  a  very  able  grammarian  of  that 
time,  Pietro'da  Monopoli,  and  afterwards  under  Laurentius 
Valla.     On  the  death  of  this  eminent  scholar  in  1457,  he 
was  thought  qualified  to  succeed  him  in  his  professorship. 
He  now  began  to  found  an  academy,  the  members  of  which 
.were  men  of  letters,  fond  of  antiquary  researches,  like  him- 
self, but  who  sometimes  entered  upon  philosophical  dis- 
.  f  nssions*     They  were  mostly  young  men,  and  in  their  zeal 
lor  past  times^  the  glorious  days  of  Rome,  adopted  La- 
tinized names.    Our  author  took  that  of  Pomponius .  Lsetus, 
%nd  Buonaccorsi  that  of  Callimachus  Experiens,  j^c.     In 
fhmr  philosophical  discussions,  they  went  so  far  as  to  com- 
pare ancient  with  modern  institutions,  not  much  to  the 
-  credit  of  the  latter ;  and  at  length  this  was  represented  to 

1  Gen.    Diet.-^BracKer.-*Niceroii,  toY.  XXV.--Grefltwta*f  PolitmA.— And 
'  Rowoe**  Leo,  obi  plara. 


i  a  p  0  Tn  p  o  :n  I  D  6. 

ptpe  ^anl  IL  (whom  we  ham  recently  noticed. as  die  fierse* 
tUtot  of  Platiaa)  first  as  inferring  a  contempt  for  reUgion  ; 
secondly,  as  an  attack  on  die  chnrch ;  and  hsdy,  as  a  eoo- 
apiracy  against  the  pope  hinsself.  The  pope,  either  really 
wrmedy  or  pretending  to  be  so,  ordered  all  the  nepuben 
of  Ae  academy  to  be  arrested^  that  could  be  found,  andl 
imprisoned  and  put  them  to  the  torture,  of  which  one  rerj- 
pfonri^ing  young  acholiir  died :  and  although  Pomponias 
was  at  this  time  (1468)  at  Venice,  and  had  been  indeed 
residing  for  three  years  with  the  Ccnrnaro  family,  he  was 
-dragged  in  chains  to  Rone,  and  ihaned  the  same  horriUe 
ftte  as  his  fellow  «cademiciaiis ;  and  akhoagh,  a6er  varioiiflt 
^xatnioadons,  conducted  by  the  pope  himself,  no  proof  of 
giSHt  appeared,  he  and  ins  eocnpamons  remained  in  con- 
finement a  very  considerable  time.  The  death  of  thm 
persecutor,  however,  restored  them  to  liberty,  and  it  ^was 
«K>  inconsiderable  testimony  4|f  dieir  innocence  that  his  suc- 
cessor Siztus  IV.  equally  strict  in  matters  of  hereay,  made 
Platina  librarian  of  the  Vatican,  and  restored  Pomponiusto 
ills  professorship,  in  which  office  he  continued  to  draw  a 
great  concourse  of  scholars.  He  also  endeavoured  to  revive 
his  academy,  against  which  Paul  II.  had  been  so  inveterate 
^at  he  forbid  its  name  to  be  mentioned  eilberin  jest  or 
earnest,  *<  vel  serio  vol  jooo,*'  and  we  find  two  grand  com- 
'memorations  held  by  the  menbera,  in  1482  abd  1483 ;  the 
one  on  account  of  Ibe  death  of  Platina,  the  oiher  to  cele- 
%nite  the  foundatim  of  Rome. 

Pomponius  was  never  rich,  hut  it  is  a  Hustafce  that  be 
died  in  an  hospital.    In  1484,  during  a  public  cofl(»mo- 
tion,  his  library  and  goods  were  destroyed ;  but  the  loss 
'was  soon  made  up  by  bis  friends  and  scholars,  so  that  at 
last  his  homse  waa  better  furnished  than  before.     He  was 
-indeed  universally  esteemed  for  the  ptobity,  simplicity,  and 
'even  the  eccasiooal  harshness  of  his  manners.     He  died  at 
Rome  in  149S,  ^nArnM  interred  with  honourable  solemnity^ 
He  wrote  some  woA<^  illustrative  of  the  manners,  customs, 
-and  laws  of  the  Eoman  republic,  and  the  state  of  ancient 
%ome.    These  are,  treatises  on  the  priesthood,  the  magis- 
trates, the  lawsy  an  abridgment  of  die  history  of  the  em- 
'perors,  ftom  the  death  of.  the  younger  Gordianus  to  the 
•  etile  of  Justin  III,  all  whi<5h  sh^w  great  research  and  eriy- 
^ 'ditien.    He  also  was  a  commentator  pn  some  ancient  au « 
:  ibfiQ ;  hp.  corrected/or  the  press  the  fiot  edition  pf  Sall^ist, 
and  collated  it  with  some  ant  lent  MSS.  althougb  his  name 

P  O  M  P  D  N  I  U  B.  1«9I 

II  tiot  teefixtioned  by  our  bibUograpfaen. .  He  extended  Iha 
sftiae  caore  to  thvuporiu  o€  ColaBaftlla,.  Yarro^  Nonius  fila^«« 
cdlta^  Plitty  the  younger,  and  wrote  iMtet  on  QntndHaiii 
aftd  Virgil.  His  own  worb.  were  collected  in  one  toL  ftvo^ 
▼ery*  rdre^  printed  at  Ments,  1 5S launder  the  title  ^  Opera 
Pofii^onii  Lesti  varia.'"^ 

PONTANUS  tJoHN  Jo^i^N),  a  very  learned  Itidian^ 
was  bom  at  Cerreto,  ki  Umbria,  in  1 42(1,  and  settled  at 
Nkiptesj  where  bis  merit  procured  bim  iliustrioiis  friends^ 
He  'becsroie  preceptor  to  Alplionsa  the  youi^er,  kin^  of 
Arragon,  to  whooi'  he  was  afterwards  secretary  and  coini'^ 
sellor  of  slate.  Having  reconciled  this  prince  to  his  &thet 
Ferdinand,  and  not  being  rewarded  by  the  latter  as  he 
flioiigbt  be  deserved,  he  aimed  against  him  ^*  A  Dialogue 
^u  IhgnaliiQde/'  in  which  also  he  launched  oiot  into  dke 
praises  l>f  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  his  great  enemy*  Fer-^ 
dinand  had  the  magnanimity  to  despise  his  censures,  and 
iuAir  hiia  to  bold  his  appointments.  Pbntanus  died,  .ac<^ 
eording  to  Moreri,  in  1503,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seveo^ 
aecording  to  others  two  years  later.  His  epitaph  is  famoui^ 
and,  tbougb  vain  enough  in  the  beginning,  concludes  with 
a  ^fine  thought,  which  seeos  to  have  suggested  the  still 
more  sublime  close  of  Dr.  Foster's  epitaph  ou  himself 

Sum  Jobannes  Joviantis  PontanuSy 
QxxMa  a»iareru&t  bona  Musib^  > 

Suapexerunt  nri  frobi> 

HoaestavOTunt  R^;ea>  Domim. 

Sdfl  quid  sim»  aut  quia  potius  fuerim. 

Cgo  vero  te,  Uo&pes^  noscere  in  tenebris  nequeo; 

Sed  teipsum  ut  noscas,  rogo.-Vale. 

He  wrote  the  **  History  of  the  Wars  of  Ferdinand  I.  and 
John  of  Anjou,*'  and  several  works  in  prose,  which  were 
collected  and  publis)ied  at  Venice  by  D'AsoIa,  in  1513^ 
15 IS,  in  3  vols.  8vo.  His  poetical  works  were  published 
by  Aldus,  in  1505,  in  8vo,  and  again  in  1513,  1518,  in  2 
vols.  Many  have  considered  bim  as  the  most  accomplished 
poet  and  scholar  .of  bis  age;  but,  like  too  many  scholars, 
he  was.  infected  with  the  licentiousness  which  then  prcr . 



1  Tiraboschi.— Ginguen^  Hist.  Litt.  d*Italie.<— Beloe's  Aneodatei.— Chao^ 
fiie^^Jabric.  BibV  ttt  Med: 

*  Tvabofcbi.7-ChAttftp2e, — ^Niceron,  vob. VIII.  and  X. — ^Bloant's  Censura.-v- 
^oscoe'8  Leo.-^resswen't  Pdlitian,  &c.— GiDgaene  Hist  Litt.  d'ltalie.— For 
lut  wMrks  see  Bmnet'i  Maoiiel  da  Libraire. 

l£(a  P  O  N  T  A  N  u  s. : 

PONTANUS.  (John  Isaac),  hhtoriographer  to  hi$* 
Danisb  majesty,  and  to  the  province  of  Guelderland,  was 
of  a  family  of  Harlem,  but  was. born  in  Denmark,  in  1571,^ 
and  died  in  1640,  aged  69,  at  Harderwick,  where  he  had. 
taught  physic  and  mathematics.  His  works  are,  ^^His- 
toria  Urbis  et  Rerum  Amstelodamensium,"  folio;  ^^Iti-. 
nerarium' Gallise  Narbonehsis,"  l2mo;  ^*  Rerum  Danica- 
rum  Historia,!'  .folio.  This  history, ,  which  is  esteemed, 
comes  dewn  to  1548  ;  and  M.  de  Westphal,  chancellor  of 
Holstein,  printed  the  Supplement  in  vol.  II.  of  his  ^*  Monu-* 
menta  inedita  Rerum  Germanicarum,''  &c.  Leipsic^  1740,. 
folio;  which  includes  the  reigns  of  Christiern.I.  and  the 
five  succeeding  kings,  with  a  life  of  Pontanus.  ,  Pontanus 
wrote  also,  ^^  De  Rbeni  divortiis  et  accolis  populis  adversus 
Ph.  Cluverium,''  1617,  4to,  a  learned  and  judicious  work ; 
*^  Discussiones  Hist;oric8s,"  8vo  ;  *^  Historia  Geldrica,''  fol.; 
•*  Origines  Francicae,"  4to ;  the  "  Life  of  Frederic  II.  king 
of  Denmark,"  published  1737,  by  Dr.  George  Krysing,  a 
physician  at  Flensburg.  Pontanus  left  several  other  works 
in  MS. ;  among  others,  an  account  of  women  who  have  dis- 
tinguished themselves  by  their. learning.  He  also  wrote, 
some  very  iudiffereut  verses  published  at  Amsterdam  '  ia 
1634,  12mo.* 

PONT  AS  (John),  a  celebrated  casuist,  was  born  De- 
cenlber  2,  1638,  at  St.  Hilaire  de  Harcourt,  in  the  diocese 
of  Avranches.  He  completed  his  studies  at  Paris,  took 
holy  orders  at  Toul  in  1663,  was  admitted  doctor  of  canon 
and  civil  law  three  years  after,  and  appointed  vicar  of  St. 
Genevieve  at  Ps^ris.  After  be  had  zealously  discharged 
the  duties  of  this  situation  for  twenty-five  years,  he  became 
sub-penitentiary  of  Paris,  and  died  in  that  city,  April  27^ 
1728,  aged  ninety,  leaving  a  large  *^  Dictionary  of  CaseA 
of  Conscience ;''  the  most  complete  edition  of  which  is  that 
of  1741,  3  vols,  folio.  M.  Collet  has  published  an  abndge-r 
jnent  of  it  in  two  volumes,  4to.  His  other  works  are, 
'^  Scriptura  sacra  ubique  sibi  constans,'*  quarto ;  in  which 
he  reconciles  the  seeming  contradictions  in  the  Penta-; 
teuch  ;  <*  Les  entretiens  spirituels  pour  iAstruire,  e^horter, 
et  consoler  les  Mstlades ;"  s^nd  a  great  number  of  other  re- 
ligious books.  *  1 

PONTAULT  (Sebastian  Beaulieu  de),  an  eminent 
French  engineer,  is  considered  as  the  first  military  topo? 

1  Chaufepie.— Kiceron,  vol.  XXXlf.--Moreri«  •  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist.. 

P  O  NT  A  U  LT.  151 

Ifrapbeir,  or  rather  as  the  Itivehtor  of  that  art»  in  the  time 
of  Louis  XIV. ,  It  was  bis  practice  to  follow  the  armyy 
and  coAstriict  upon  the  spot  plans  of  the  battles  and  sieges^ 
with  historical  and  perspective  accompaniments.  We  find 
many  of  his  plans  in  the  <<  GEvre  de  Delle-Bella ;"  but 
his  most  important  work  is  entitled  <^  Les  glorieuses  Con- 
qolgtes  de  Louis-le-Grand :  ou  Recueil  de  Plans  et  Vues 
4es  places  assiege^s,  et  de  celles  ou  se  sont  donne6s  des 
hataiUes,  avec  des  Discours/*  2  vols,  folio.  This  worky 
one  of  the  most  magnificent  of  the  kind,  comprehends  all 
the  operations  of  war,  from  the  battle  of  Roeroi,  in  1643, 
to  the  taking  of  Namur,  in  169^.  De  Pontault  died  in 
1674;  but  the  work  was  completed  to  the  above  date  at 
the  expence  of  his  niece,  the  widow  of  the  sieur  Des 
Roches.  This  edition  is  usually  called  the  Gr^nd  Beaulieu^ 
todistingu^^  it  from  one  on  .a  reduced  8cale>  in  oblQng 
•quarto,  cal  ;d  the  Fetit  Beaulieu,  of  which  there  ^re  two 
series,  onqin  three  volumes,  comprehending  views  of  the 
actions  in  the  .Netherlands;  the  other  in  four,  which  in«- 
.<;ludes  those*  of  France.  From  the  death  of  this  abie^drafi^s- 
nao,  military  jtopography  is  said  to  have  been  prod^uctive  of 
^'very  few  good  specimens  in  France,  until  witliin  the  last 
fifty,  years. 

'Perrault  informs  us,  that  Pontault  went  into  the  army  at 
the  age  of  fifteen,  and  behaved  with  so.  much  spirit  at  the 
siege  of  Rochelle,  that  the  Cing  gave  him  the  post  of  com- 
missary of  artillery,  although  then  so  young.  He  wa$^aCter- 
wards  present  at  most  of  the  battles  and  sieges  which  be  has 
described,  ai^d  did  not  quit  a  military  life  until  the  Iqss  of 
«an  arm  and  other  wounds,  with  the  approach  of  old  age, 
rendered  retirement  necessary.  ^ 

PONT£  (Francis  da),  one  of  a  family  of  artists,  was 
-originally  of  Vicenza,  but  settled  at  Bassano,  a  small  town 
on  the  Brenta,  whence  he  was  called  Bassan,  or  Bassano. 
Be  may  be  considered  as  the  head  pf  the  Bassanese  school : 
and  his  ed4icalion  is  said  to  have  been  sufficiently  le^rqed. 
The  different  styles  that  discriminate  his  works  clearly  shew 
which  were  the  fixst  and  which  the  la^t  IJeis  diligent,  but 
dry,  in  the  St.  Bartolomeo  of  the  cathedral,  more  genial 
and  mellow  in  another  picture  of  the  cb.urchi>f  S.  Giovanni 
at  Bassano  :  but  in  the  Pentecost  whigh  he  painted  in  the 
v^illage  of  Olero,  he  shews  himself  alo^ost  a  modern  painter; 

;  Biog.  UolT.  art,  Beanliea;— PemniU  Lei  Hommef  lUostren 


Ut  PONTE.      . 

the  arnmgenilBnt  is  masterly;  ibm  cokmr  kts  f«aHiy»  Tft* 
rietjr^  li^moiiy^>  tibe  eipressiod  is  warfn, .  pleasing^  atid 
eharacMrislie  of  tlie  lujb^ject.  He  Was  the  father  aini  fica( 
instmctor  of  Jacob  da  Ponte.    He  died  about  1 5  SO.  ^ 

t^ONTE  (Jacob  da),  cilled  also  II  Bassano,  aod  IMm 
BAS9AN  Vj&CGma,  4rsU  born  at  Bassino,  ISIO,  aod  iaitia^ 
in  thd  finit  principle  of  the  art  by  his  fadier,  of  iMch  tbm 
proefc  are  hU  earliest  works  in  the  church  of  S^  Bernard 
dlno.  He  weat  to  Venice/  recommended  to  BonifiudQ^  4 
fisaftter  not  lesis>  jealous  of  his  'mystery*  than  Titian  or 
Tintoretto ;  so  that  JiaCob  saw  little  mor6  of  bis  method 
than  what  he  could  discover  through  a  key-bole  or  a  cre^- 
Vice«  The  short  time  he  staid  at  Venice  was  empbyed 
•drawinjgfrotii  the  designs  of  Parmegiano,  and  in  making  co^ 
pies  firaoa  the  pictures  of  Bonifazio  and  Titian,  whose  scho^ 
iar  he  is  even  called  in  some  MS.  and  not  without  probabi* 
lity,  if  conformity  of  manner  were  sufficient  to  prove  it,  ao 
mtich  does  his  second  siyleresemble  that  of  Titian.  Thed^fath 
t)f  his  father  obliged  him  to  return  and  to  fix  himself  at  Basi- 
i^a'ao,  a  small  opulent  towh  surrounded  by  a  picturesque 
^country,  abounding  in  cattle  Mid  pastures,  and  coavenL- 
ently  situated  for  mari^ets  and  fairs:  from  which  objects 
arose  his  third  style,  natural,  simple,  and  pleasing,  th^ 
Itsdian  prelude'  to  that  which  aftenirards  distinguished  the 
FlemijA  school.  In  the  handling  of  the  pencil  he  had  two 
imethods  r  one  highly  finished^in  blended  tints,  and  only  «t 
last  decided  by  bolder  touches;  the  second,  which  must 
be  the  testtlt  of  the  first,  was  formed  of  simple  pencil* 
trtrokes,  and  dashes  of  gay  and  lucid  tints,  laid  on  with* 
eonscious  power,  and  a  kind  of  contemptuous  security, 
which,  on  close  inspection,  appear  a  confused  mass,  at  a 
distance  from  a  magic  charm  of  colours.  His  composition 
in  both  is  the  same,  and  peculiar  to  himself,  blendmg  ciiv 
cttlar  with  triangular  forms^  and  the  most  contrasted  pos- 
tures with  paraUel  lines.  He  veils  his  light,  and  by  its  sq-> 
het  distribution,  the  frequent  tisO  of  demi^rii^ts,  and  little 
or  no  black,  contrives  to  produce  harmony  finom  the  asoat 
opposite  colours.  Iti  the  degradation  of  his  lights,  hedfteo 
tnakes  the  shade  of  ao  interior  figure  serve  for  the  ground 
of  an  exterior  one,  and  strikes  the  strongest  lights  od  the 
most  angular  parts,  such  as  the  top  of  tte  sboulden,  the 
knei?,  the  elbows.    His  drapery,  simple  in  appearance,  is 

I  Filki^gtoDy  by  Faielt; 

P  O  N  T  E.  .  ISI 

disfio^ed  with  ^remt  art  for  tbis  purp^Nie^  and  the  Md%  lire 
vArii^  according  to  the  difference  of  the  «tufi«  with  ua^ 
usual  fefinement.  His  colours  even  bow  have  the  brilliancy 
of  genu^  especially  the  greets  which  emerald  lustr« 
peculiar  to  himself 

In  the  beginning  he  aimed  at  grandeur  of  style,  and  left 
some  traces  of  it  in  certain  pictures  still  existing  in  frdnt 
of  the  house  Michieli,  chiefly  remarkable  for  a  figure  of 
Slunson  slaying  the  Philistines,  with  a  flerceness  not  un* 
worthy  of  Midiael  Angela     But  whether  prompted  by 
nature  or  judgment,  he  soon  con6ned  himself  to  smaller 
proportions  and  subjects  of  less  energy*     Even  in  altar* 
pieces  bis.6gures  aie  generally  below  the  natural  size,  and 
sddom  much  alive ;  so  that  some  one  said,  the  elders  of 
Tintoretto  hfkd  all  the  rage  of  youth,  and  the  youth  of  Bas^ 
saoo  all  the  apathy  of  age.     His  situation,  d>e  monotoor 
and  floeanneas  of  the  objects  that  surrounded,  him,  limited 
his  ideas,  debased  bis  fancy,  and  caused  frequent  repeti«- 
tidnr  of  the. same  sobjects  without  much  variation.     He  bad 
contracted  the  habit  of  working  at  his  ease  in  his  study 
assisted  by  his  scholars,  and  of  dispatching  the  produce 
10  Venice,  or  the  most«  frequented  fairs.     Hence  those 
swarms  of  pictures  of  all  sizes,  which  make  it  less  a  boast 
for  a  collector  to  possess  a  Bassan,  than  a  disgrace  not  to 
have  one.    The  Banquet  of  Martha  and  the  Pharisee^  the 
Prddigal  Son,  Noah's  Ark,  the  Return  of  Jacobs  the  An- 
nunciation to  the  Shepherds,   the  Queen  of  Sbeba,   the 
Three  Magi,  the  Seizure  of  Christ,  and  the  taking  down 
from  ihe  Cross  by  torch-light,  nearly  coimpose  the  series 
of  his  sacred  subjects.    The  profane  ones  consist  chiefl|r 
in  markets,    rustic  employments,    kitchens,   larders,  &o. 
His  daughters  generally  sat  for  his  females,  whether  queens, 
Magdalens,  or  country  wenches.     The  grand  objection  to 
his  workii  b  a  repetition  of  similar  conceits ;  but  these,  it 
must  be  allowed,  he  carried  to  a  high  degree  of  perfec- 
tion.    He  lived  equally  employed  by  the  public  and  the 
great,  and  highly  esteemed, .  if  not  by  Vasari,  by  the  most 
celebrated  of  his  contemporaries  and  rivals,  Titian,  Titlr 
toretto,  Annibai  Caracci,    and  Paul  Veronese.     He  died 
in  1592,    aged  eighty*two,   le|iviag  four  sons,    Francis, 
Lsander,  John  Baptist,,  and  Jerom ;  all  of  whom  preserved 
the  reputation  of  the  family,  in  a  considerable  degree,  for 
4Dany  years. ' 

^  PSUH&gtoa,  by  Fmli.-^-D'ArgeiiTUIe,  T^.  I.-^ir  J.  lUyaol Js^  Wotkft.  > 

154  PONTIUS. 

•  PON*riUS'  (CoKStantine),  a  Spanish  divine  and  mar-* 
tyr^  <;aHed  also  De  Fuekte^  was  a  native  of  the  town  of  St. 
Clement,  in  New  Castiife,  9Sad  was  educated  at  the  univer* 
sity  of- ValladoHc),  where  he  Jbeca^ie  an  excellent  Jjnguist. 
After  taking  his  doctor^s  degree  he  obtained  a  canonry  in 
the  metropolitan  church  of  Seville,  and  was  made  theologi- 
cal professor  in  that  city.  '•  His  learning  and  eloquence 
becoming  known,  he  was  appointed  preacher  to  the  eai- 
peror  Charles  V.  and  afterwards  to  his  son  Philip  11.^ 
tvholn  he  attended  into  England,  where  he  imbibed  the 
principles  of  theRefoiaaation.  After  his  return  to  Spain^  \ 
he  resumed '  bis  employment  of  preacher  at  Seville,  where 
the  change  in  bis  sentiments  was  first  suspected,  and  then 
discovered  by  a  treacherous  seizure  of  his  papers.  He 
did  not,  however,  affect  any  denial,  but  boldly  avowed  his 
principles,  and  was  therefore  thrown  into  prison, 
was  kept  for  two  years,  and  would  have  been  burnt  sdive,  to 
which  punishment  he  was  condemned,  had  he  not  died- of 
e  dysentery,  occasioned  by  the  excessive  heat  of  his  place^of 
cohfinement,  and  the  want  of  proper  food.  This  hap- 
jpened  the  day  before  bis  intended  execution,  and  his  ene* 
'faiies  not  only  reported  that  he  had  laid  violent  hands  on 
iiimself,  to  escape  the  disgrace,  but  burnt  nis  remains  and 
effigy,  having  first  exposed  them  in  a  public  procession, 
^s  an  author,  bis  works  were  *' Commentaries*'  ou  the 
-Proverbs,  Ecclesiastes,  the  Song  of  Solomon,  and  Job; 
^*  A  Summary  of  the  Christian  Doctrine ;"'  **  Sermons,*' 
and  other  smaller  pieces.^  .  , 

PONTOPPIDAN  (Eaic),  bishop  of  Bergen,  who  was 
'born  in  1698,  at  Aarhuus,  in  Denmark,  and  died  in  1764» 
wrote  several  works  respecting  the  history  and  geography 
^f  that  kingdom  ;  one  of  which,  his  <^  History  of  Norway,?' 
<was  translated  into  English  in  1755.  His  other  publica- 
tions are  less  known  in  this  country.-*-He  must  be  disting- 
uished from  another  Danish  writer  of  both  his  names^ 
(author  of  a  Danish  grammar,  a  collection  of  epigrams  and 
other  articles  of  Latin  poetry.  He  was  born  in  1616,  and 
-died  in  1678.  • 

'.    PONTORMO.     See  CARRUCCL  ^ 

,  POOL,  or  POOLE  (Matthew),  a  learned  .Noncm- 
fomiist,  was  born  in  the  city  of  York  in  1624.  He  was 
the  son  of  Francis  Pool,  esq.  by  a  daughter  of  alder«*> 
man  Toppin  of  York,  and  was  descended  from  the  ancient 
faniljref  the  Pools  or Tooles,  of  l^rinkbill,  in  Derbyshire^ 

1  6«D.  Diet — Mcreri.— Bea«  Icones.  '  Moreri.— 'Diet.  Hiit. 

POOL.  1«: 

but  his  grandfather,  being  obliged  to  lei^ye  tliil^ollmtjr  fin 
account  of  bis  attachment  to  tb'i  reforiiiatiini^>  lived  «t  SUie^; 
bouse,  .and  afterwards  at  Drax*^abbey,  in  Yorkshire.     Our 
author  was  educated  at  EmaBttelrcoUege,  Cambridge,  un-> 
der  the  leaf  oed  Pt.  Wimfaington,  and  took  the  degree  o£ 
H«  A.  in  which  be  was  incorporated  at  Oxford/ July  14^ 
^tift57«  -  Having  long  before  this  adopted  the  prevailipg  no- 
tions during  the  usurpation,  concerning  ecclesiastical  po- 
lity, on  the  presbyterian  plan,  he  was  ordained  according 
to ;  the  forms,  then  used;  and  about  1648,  was  appointed 
rector  or  rather  minister  of  St.  Michael  le  Querne,  in  Loa- 
don,  in  which  he  succeeded  Dr.  Anthony  Tuckney. 
'    His  first  publication  appeared  in  1654,  against  the  So- 
cmian  tenets  of  John  BiddJe,  and  was  entitled  **  The  Blas- 
phemer slain  with  the  sword  of  the  Spirit,  or  a  plea  for  the 
Godhead:  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  wherein  the-  Deity  of  the 
Spirit  is  provedj  against  the  cavils  of  John  Biddle,''  I2mo« 
In  .1657  be.we.nt  to.Oxford,  to  be  present  at  the  instalta^ 
tion  of  Richard  Cromnvell^  w.ho  then  succeeded  his  father 
Oliver,  a?  cbdncelior  of  that  university,  and  it  was  upoQ 
this:  occasion  that  Mr.^ Pool  was  incorporated  M.A. ,  {e 
the  following  year  he  published  a  spb^me  of  education 
under  the  title  of>  ^*.  A  model  for  the  maintaining  of  stu« 
dents  of  choice  abilities  at  the  univjersity,  and  principally 
in  order  to  the  ministry.     Together  with  a  Preface  before 
it,  and.after  it  a  recommendation  from  the^  university  ;  aal 
two  serious  exhortations  recommended  unto  all  the  uii» 
feigned  lowers  of  piety  and  learning,  and  more  particularlj 
to  those  rich  men  who  desire  to  honour  the  Lord  with  their 
substance,"  1658,  4to.     Among  the  learned  persons  who 
approved  this  scheme,  we  find  the  names  of ^  John  Wor« 
thington,  John  Arrowsmith,  Anthony  Tuckney,.  Benjai;nill 
Whichcot^  Ralph  Cudvvorth,  and  William  Dillingham.     Its 
-object  was  to  provide  a  fund,  out  of  which  a  certain  nuin* 
ber  of  young  men  might  be  maintained  at  the  university, 
who  could  obtain  no  other  maintenance  by  ej^hibitious, 
scholarships,  &c.     Dr.  Sherlock,    afterwa^rds  dean  of  $t» 
Paul's,  was  indebted  to  this  fund,  being  supported  oat  of 
it  in  taking  his  bachelor's  degree.*    The  .whole  sum  raised 
iiras  about  90Q/.  but  the  restoration  put  a  stop  to  any  far- 
ther accumulation.  . 

In  support  of  the  opinions  of  himself  and  bis  party,  be 

published. in  16^9,  aletter,  in  one.sbeet;4to,  addressed  to 

.  die  lord  Charles  Flef^twood^  and  delMfered  ip  him  on  the 

1*«  P  O  O  L- 

l^thof  December,  Wbtcb  related  to  the  juncture  of 
at  tbat  time  ;  and  in  the  same  year  appeared  *<  Quo  War-^ 
lanto :  a  moderate  debate  about  the  preaching  of  tmor^i^ 
daiued  persons :  election,  ordination,  and  the  extent  of 
the  ministerial  relation,  in  vindication  of  the  Jus  Divinam 
Ministerii,  from  the  exceptions  of  a  late  piece,  entitled 
*  The  Preacher  sent.' "  4to.  I A  the  title-page  of  this  "  Quo 
Warranto''  it  is  said  to  be  written  by  the  appointment  of 
the  provincial  assembly  at  London.  In  1660  be  took  m 
ihare  in  the  morning  exercise,  a  series  of  sermons  then 
preached  by  those  of  the  London  clergy  who  were  deemed 
puritans;  and  he  contributed  some  of  the  most  learned  and 
argumentative  of  their  printed  collection.  The  same  year 
be  published  a  sermon  upon  John  iv.  23,  24,  preached  be«» 
fore  the  lord  mayor  of  London  at  St.  Paul's,  Aug.  26,  in 
the' preface  to  which  he  informs  us  that  be  printed  it  exactly 
as  it  was  preached,  in  conseqtience  of  some  misrepresenta* 
tions  that  had  gone  abroad ;  one  of  which,  says  be,  nvat 
*'  tbat  I  wished  their  fingers  might  rot  that  played  upon 
the  organs.''  This  expression  be  totally  denies,  but  ad« 
fuits  that  be  did  dislike  and  speak  against  instrumental  or 
VocsA  music  when  so  refined  as  to  take  up  the  attention  of 
the  bearers—*"  I  appeal,"  he  adds',  **  to  the  experience  of 
any  ingenuous  |>erson,  whether  curiosity  of  voice  and  mu^ 
ftical  sounds  in  churches  does  not  tickle  the  fancy  with  a. 
carnal  delight,  and  engage  a  man's  ear  and  most  diligent 
attention  unto  those  sensible  motions  and  audible  sounds, 
and  therefore  must  necessarily,  in  great  measure,  recall  hm 
from  spiritual  communion  with  God ;  seeing  the  mind  of 
man  cannot  attend  to  two  things  at  once  witb  all  it's  might 
[to  each],  and  when  we  serve  God  we  must  do  it  witb  aH 
our  might.  And  hence  it  is,  that  the  ancients  have  some 
of  them  given  this  rule;  that  even  vocal  singing  [in 
churches]  should  not  be  too  curious,  sed  legenti  simUiar 
fUam  canenti.  And  Paul  himself  gives  it  a  wipe,  Eph.  ▼.  19^ 
Speaking  to  yourselves  in  psalms^  and  hymns^  and  spirihttd 
iongs^  making  melody  in  your  hearts  to  the  Lord.**  Tbam 
aerixfon  was  revived  in  169S,  4 to,  witb  the  title  of*  A 
reverse  to  Mr.  Oliver's  Sermon  of  Spiritual  WorsiiJip.^* 
The  descendants  of  the  nonconformists  have,  however,  ia 
our  times  effectually  got  rid  of  their  prejudices  againat. 

However  Mr.  Fool  might  vindicate  himself  against  tlia 
tnisnepreseotations  of  this  sermon,  be  refused  to  compljr. 

FO  O  U  157 

fikhthe  aetof  uniformity  in  16^2,  and  tberefom  incttfroil 
an  ejectment  from  his  reotory ;  upon  which  occasion  h« 
iprim^ed  a  piece  in  Latin^  entiCled  ^<  Fox  clamsntis  in  &•» 
^erio.'*^  Hp  then  submitted  to  the  law  with  a  commend^ 
able  resignation,  and  enjoying  a  paternal  e9tate  of  one 
hundred  pounds  per  annum,  sat  down  to  his  studies,  re^ 
solving  to  employ  his  pen  in  the  service  of  religion  in  gtr 
neral,  without  interfering  with  the  controversies  of  the 
times«  With  this  view,  be  formed  the  design  of  a  very 
laborious  and  useful  work,  which  procured  him  n^icj^ 
credit  at  the  time,  and  entitles  him  to  the  regard  of  posv 
terifcy/y^ThTs-wai.  his  "Synopsis  Criticorum,'^  publisbel 
in  J6d9,  and  following  years,  in  5  very  large  volumei^  ia 
folio,  some  account  of  which  may  not  be  uninteresting^  as 
it  throws  some  light  on  the  state  of  literary  trade  and  public 
spirit  in. those  days.  As  it  was  probable  that  this  wor^ 
which  was  suggested  by  bishop  Lloyd,  would  be  atteijdeji 
with  an  enormous  expence,  Mr.  Pool,  after  he  had  formed 
his  pUui,  and  partly  prepared  his  .materials,  endeavouired 
first  to  discover  what  likelihood  there  was  of  pitblic  enoour 
ragenient,  apd  with  this  view  published  as  a  specimen  of 
the  \fork,  the  sixth  etiapter  of  Genesis,  with  ae  address 
-and  pjroposals.  In  these  be  solicited  the  subscritptions  of 
^^  the  friefids  of  religion  and  learning^  to  the  "  Synopsis,** 
»vhich  was  io  consist  of  three  volumes  folio,  of  9B0  sheets 
•each,  at  4L  each  copy,  and  the  number  of  his  subsoribem^ 
'there  is  reason  to  think,  was  from  the  beginning  very  j^reat, 
jmen  of  all  parties  discovering  an  eagerness  to  encourage  a 
work  the  utility  of  which  was  so  obvioy9.  That  the  .sub*- 
aeidbears  might  be  satisfied  as  to  their  money  being  pr oe 
perly  expended,  a  committee  of  divines  and  ge^emeu 
of  psoperty  eonsenled  to  act  as  trustees  for  ihe  manager 
ment  of  the  fund*  These  were,  sir  Jsjues  Langbam,  Dr. 
Patack,  JDc  Tillotson,  Dr.  Micklethwait,  2>r.  Wharton, 
John  King,  of  the  Inner-Temple,  esq.  and  JAr.  Stillingfleet, 
jny  three  of  whom  juigbt  impower  the  treasurer,  William 
iWebb,  esq.  to  is^ue  money  for  carrying  on  the  wortr. 

.  Aiofig  with  this  specimen  aud  proposak,  Mr.  Pool  fnub-^ 
lished  the  opinions  of  <<  several  eminent,  reverend,  and 
^learned  persons,  bishops  and  others|,*'  in  favour  of  th^ 
wwadi^,  and  of  his  ability  to  etj^ute  jit>  of  wbiph  he  was  au^ 
"thoTi^ed  to  maJie  this  use.  Among  the  prelates  who  re- 
.eomfuendi^tbe^'SypopsiV'  ,#$;*  vxvkvbiph  they  ^^were 
persuaded  would  teud  wetf  OHicb  to  theadraocemetitof 

15a  POOL. 

leligipn  and  l«mii»g,  were  Morley,  bishop  of  Winctreiter^ 
ReyooIcU  of  'Norwich,  Ward  of  Salisbury,  Rainbow  of 
Carliste,  Blandford  of 'Oxford,  Dolben  and  Warner  of 
Socbester,  Morgan  of  Bangor,  and  Hacket ;  of  Lichfield 
«nd  Coventry ;  and  among  the  other  divines,  several  of 
whom  afterwards  were  raised  to  the  episcopal  bench,  w^e 
Dr.  Barlow,  provost  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford ;  Dr.  Wil- 
kins,  Dr.  Castell,  Dr.  Lloyd  (whom  some,  as  we  have  ob* 
served,  make  the  first  instigator),  ■  Dr.  Tiltotson,  Mr.  Stil* 
lingfleet.  Dr.  Patrick,  Dr.  Whichcot ;  Dr:  Bathurst,  pre- 
sident of  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  Dr.  Wallis  and  Drv 
Ligbtfoot,  with  the  -most  eminent  and  learned  of  the  non- 
conformists, >  Baxter,  Owen,  Bates,  Jacomb,  Horton,  and 
Manton.  Most  of  these  signed  their  opinions  in  a  body ; 
but  bishop  Hacket,  Dr.  Barlow,  Dr.  Lightfoot,  and  Dr. 
Owen,  sent  him  separate  letters  of  encouragement,  in  Ian* 
guage  which  could  not  fail  to  have  its  weight  with  the  pub- 
lic. He  also  acknowledges,  with  great  gratitude,  tbe  mu- 
nificent aid  he  received  from  sir  Peter  Wentworth,K;B. 
who  appears  to  have  been  bis  chief  .'p^atron,  and  from  sir 
Orlando  Bridgman,  the  earls  of'  Manchester,  Bridgwater, 
JLauderdale,^  and ,  Donegal ;  >the  lords  Truro,  Brooke,  and 
Cameron,  sir.  William  Morrice,  sir  Walter  St.  John,  sir 
Thomas  Clifford,  sir  Robert  Murray,  .&c.  &c.  &c. 

With  much  encouragementhe  ihad  also  some  difficulties 
to  encounter.  When  the  first- volume  was  ready  for  the 
press,  an  obstruction  which '  appeared  very  formidable 
was  thrown  in  his  way  by  Cornelius  Bee,  a  bookseller, 
who,  in  a  paper  or  pamphlet  called  ^^  The  case  of  Cornelius 
-Bee,"  accused  Mr.  Pool  of  invading  his  property.  To  un* 
derstand  this  it  is  necessary  to  know  that  this  Mr.  Bee,  un- 
questionably a  man  of  an  ente^prizing  spirit*,  equal  per- 
haps to  any  instance  known  in  our  days  among  the  trade, 
Jiad  published  a  very  few  years  before,  i.  e.  in  1660,  tbe 
.'f  Critici  Sacri,''  or  a  body  of  criticisms  of  the  most 
learned  men  in  Europe,  amounting  to  ninety,  on  the  Old 
and  New  Testament,  given  at  large  from  their  works,  and 

>extending  to  nine  volumes  folio.     Bee  bad  a  patent  for  this 

/  ,         I     • »  .    •     .  • 

*■  Faller,    after .  mentidniog  that  btbei  in  Uieir  laps,  whom  theji:  cait- 

Knighton^tlFIistory was** fairly  printed  not' bear  in  their  wombs.  'And  tbas 

with  other  Uistonans^  on  the  comineDd-  thit  industrious' statioBeT    (theagh  ifo 

.able  cost  of  .Cornelius  Bee/'  adds,  in  fatfier)  hath  beenfosterrfather  to  mao^ 
his  quaint  way^  **  Thus  it  is  some  com-  ■  worthy  books,  to  the  great  profit  of 

Ibrt  and  contentment  to  such,  whom  posterity/*  Fuller's  Worthies,  Leicea- 

oatvre  hfitbdenied  to  be  mothers,  that  terfbire^  p.  133-.  .  . 
tlity  may  be  drye  nurses,  and  dandle 

P  O  O  L.'  159 

wwkf  Bad  BDXiiiestionaUy  (dciM^ed  every  encoaragemeot 
and  protection  the  law  could  give,  but  the  language  of  his 
patent  seems  to  have  given  him  a  narrpw  notion  of  literary 
property.  It  stated  that  no  perscmjUould  print  the  Critics 
either  in  whole  or  inpart^  and  therefore  he  considered 
If  r.  Pool  as  prohibited  from  taking  any  thing  from  this  vast 
collection  of  criticisms  which  separately  were  in  every^ 
persons'  hands,  or  from  making  any  abricjgmeht,  or  com« 
piling  any  work  that  resembled. the  "  Criticrfiaori/*  how^. 
ever  improved  in  the  plan,  or  augmented,  as  Pool's  was, 
from  a  variety  authors  not  used  in  it  .  He  also  .c)oj|i|iplained 
that  he  should  sustain  a  double  injury  by  the  ,^.  Synopsis  :'* 
first,  in  the  lo^s  of  the  sale  of  the  remaining  copies  of  his 
own  work,  foe  which  he  did  Mr.  Pool  the  honour  to  think 
there  wonld  be  no  longer  a  demand ;  and  secondly,  in  being 
prevented  from!  publishing  an  improved  edition  of  the 
^'  Critici  Sacri^'  which  he  intended; 

In  answer  to  this,  Mr.  Pool  said,  that  as  soon  as  he 
heard  of  Mr.  Bee*s  objections,  be  took  the  opinion  of 
counsel,  which  was.  in  favour  of  bis  proceeding  w$ih.  the 
**  Synopsis ;"  that  be  also  offered  to  submi|.the  matter  to 
arbitration,  which  Bee  refused,  and  that  he  in  vain  pro« 
posed  other  terms  of  accommodation,  offering  him  a  fourth, 
part  of  the  property,  of  the  work,  which  Mr.  Bee  treated 
with  contempt;  ^f  but,'Vadds  Pool,  *^ \  doubt  not  Mr.  Bee 
Will  .be  more  reconciled  to  it  the  next  time  that  Mr.  Pool 
shall  make  him  such. another  offer,"  which  we  shall  see 
proved  to  be  true.  With  regard  to  the  supposed  iojuiry 
that  would  accrue  to  Mr.;Bee,  part  appears  imaginary,  and 
part  contradictory.  W^*: learn  from  this  controversy,  that 
the  price  of  the  '*  Critici iSacri*'  (which,  as  well  as  of  the 
'*  Synopsis,''  has  been,  in  our  time,  that  of  wasfte;  pa'per) 
was  originally  13/.  lO^./and.Bee  says  in  his  preface,  and 
truly,  that  for  this  sum  the  purchaser  had  more  works  than 
he  cottld  have  bought  separately  for  50L  or  60/;  But  as 
he  had  blamed  Pool  for  occasioning  a  depreciation  of  the 
remaining  copies  of  the..'^  Critici  Sacri,"  the  latter  tells 
him  that  if  this  was  a  crime,  he  was  himself  guilty  of  it  in 
two  ways;  for  first  when  .he  brought  down  the  price  of 
divers  books  from  50/.  or  60/.  to  13/.  10^.  the  possessors  of 
those  books  were  forced  to  sell  them  at  far  lower  prices 
than  they  cost;  and  secohfily.  Pool  contends  that  his.p/o* 
jected  new  edition  of  the  *^  Critici  Sacri"  would  be*« 
nifest  injury  to  hundreds  who  bought  the  old  one  it%^ 

i«e  p  o  o  L* 

aiie  some  seroions,  already  meirtiotted)  Ui  the  ^  Morning 
Exercise ;"  a  poem  and  two  epitaphs  upon  Mr.  Jeremjr 
Whitaker;  two  others  upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Richard 
Yines ;  and  another  on  the  death  of  Mr.  Jacob  Stock ;  m 
prefoce  to  twenty  posthumous  Ser4S)ons  of  Mr.  Nalton*s^ 
together  with  a  character  of  him.  He  also  wrote  a  volume 
of  ^^  English  Annotations  on  the  Holy  Scripture  ;*'  but  was 
prevented  by  death  frotn  going  ferther  than  the  56th  chap- 
ter of  Isaiah.  Others  undertook  to  complete  that  work^ 
whose  names  Ant  Wood  has  mistaken.  From  Galamy  we 
learn  that  the  59th  and  eoth  chapters  of  Isaiah  were  done 
by  Mr.  Jackson  of  Moulsey.  The  notes  on  the  rest  of 
isaiah  and  on  Jeremiah  and  Lamentations  were  drawn  up 
by  Dr.  CoUinges ;  Ezekiel  by  Mr.  Hurst ;  Daniel  by  Mr^ 
Cooper ;  the  Minor  Prophets  by  Mr.  Hurst ;  the  four  Evaa^ 
gelists  by  Dr.  Collinges ;  the  Acts  by  Mr.  Vinke ;  the 
Epistle  to  the  Romans  by  Mr.  Mayo ;  the  two  Epistles  te 
the  Corinthians,  and  that  to  tbe  Galatians,  by  Dr.CelliHges; 
that  to  the  Ephesians  by  Mr.  Veale ;  the  Epistles  to  the 
Pfailippians  and  Colossians  by  Mr.  Adams ;  the  Epistles  to 
Timothy,  Titus,  and  Philemon,  by  Dr.  Collinges ;  that  te 
the  Hebrews  by  Mr.  Obadiah  Hughes ;  the  Epistle  of  St. 
James,  two  Epi^les  0f  St.  Peter,  and  the  Epistle  of  St. 
Jude,  by  Mr.  V'Cale ;  three  Epistles  of  St.  John  by  Mr. 
Howe  ;  and  the  Book  of  the  Revelaftions  by  Dr.  Collinges; 
These  Annotations  were  printed  at  London  1685,  in  twe 
Tolumes  in  folio,  and  vej^inted  in  1 700,  which  is  usuall j- 
called  the  best  edition,  although  it  is  far  from  corrects 
We  have  the  original  proposals  for  this  work  also  before 
us;  but  there  is  nothing  very  intenesting  in  them,  unless 
that  they  inform  us  of  the  price,  which  was  1/.  5s,  per  vo<^ 
lume,  or  a  penny  per  sheet,  which  appears  to  have  beea 
the  average  price  of  folio -printing  at  that  time* 

When  Oates's  depositions  concerning  the  popish  plot 
were  printed  in  167!^,  Pool-found  his  iisHaae  in  the  list  of 
those  that  were  to  be  cut  off;  and  an  incident  befel  hin^ 
aoon  after,  which  gave  him  die  greatest  apprehension  of 
bis  danger.  Having  passed  an  evening  at  alderman  Ash- 
urst's,  he  took  a  Mr.  Cfaorley  to  bear  him  company  home* 
'When  they  came  to  the  narrow  passage  wbixeh  leads  frooft 
Clerkenwell  to  St.  John's^-court^  there  were  two  men. 
standing  at  the  entrance;  one  of  whom,  as  Pool  came^ 
along,  cried  out  to  tiie  olihor,  <'  Her«  he  is  P  upon  whiehr 
the  other  replied^  **  Let  him  alone,  for  there  is  somebody 

POOL.  1st 

lyitJbbim.*^  As  soon  as  they  tyei;ie  pasised,  P9olas]^e(}  bi.f 
friend^  if  he  heard  what  men  said?  ana  Ppon  bis 
answering  ^bat  he  had,  **  Well^"  replied  Popl,  ^*  I  ba4 
been  murdered  tp-night  if  yop  b?id  not  beei^  vitb  ;me.'* 
Ijt  is  said,  that,  before  this  incident,  be  gaye  not  the  l^ast 
credit  io  what  w^s  said  in  O^tps's  d^po^itjoji  ^  b^uj;  tben  he 
t^hoyght  prqper  tp  retice  to  )Song.n,d^  where  hp  jjied  in  OqU 
qf  tbe  same  year^  1679^  ppt  without  a  suspicioij  of  heiug 
poi^pned,  as  Oalawy  relates.  ,  ^is  bp,dy  wa^  inte)rred  ivi  ^ 
vault  belonging  to  the  English  ^^rcbants  at  Aqis.terdam.    ^ 

It  h^s  been  said  th^t  Pool  lived  and  died  ^  single  man. 
This,  however,  was  qot  the  .case.  Niceron  te^s  ys  tb^t  ho 
B^4  a  son  who  died  in  1697,  ^  piece  of  ipform^Hon  which. 
be  probably  took  frooi  the  account  of  Mr.  P90I,  prefixed  to 
the  Franpfort  edition  of  t,he  ^^  Synopsis^'?  1694.;  .^nd  in 
Smith's  Obitqajry  (in  Peqk'^  "  Desid^erata")  we  hay^  a 
notice  of  jtbe  bi^cial,  Aug^  11,  1668,  of  **  Mrs.  Poole  (wifj^ 
to  Mr.  Matth,ew  Poole  preacher),  £^t  St.  Andrew's  ^olbprn. 
Dr.  Stillingfleet  preacher  pf  ner  funei^l  serpipn.'*  * 

POPE  (Alexandjer),  the  most  elegant  and  popular  of 
^1  JInglish  poets,  was  born  in  Looibard. street^  Lopdpn^ 
May  22,  1688,  wh^re  his  fa.tjier^  ^linen-draper^  had  g.c- 
quired  a  property  of  20,000/.  His  mother  was  daughter  pf 
W illiam  Turner,  ejsq.  of  Yor^,  two  of  whose  sons  <^ied  in. 
the  service  of  Charles  I.  and  a  third  became  a  genera^ 
bj^cer  in  Spain,  and  from  thi^  last  Mjrs.  Pope  is  ss^id  to 
have  inherited  what  sequestrations  and  forfeitures  had  I^eft; 
10.  the  faA;iily.  Both  his  parents  were  Roman  catholics,  ^e 
.was  frpm  his  bir.tjh  of  a  constitution  tender  and  delicate  ; 
but  is  said  to  have  shewn  remarkable  gentleness  an,d  pweet- 
ness  of  disposition.  The  weakness  of  his  body  continuetjl 
throughout  life,  and  was  so  .grea^t  th^t  .he  constantly  wore 
s.tays;,  but  the  piildness  of  bi.s  mind,  ,s^ys. Johnson,  per- 
Jiaps  ended  with  his  childhood.  His  voice,'  when  he  wa.s 
young,  .was  so  pleading,  that  hp  was  called  in  fpndne^i 
**  the  little  Nightinga,le." 

He  was  taught  to  read  by  an  aunt  who  vras  particularly 
Ibnd  o/hijii,  and  to  write  by  copying  printed  oopks,  wbi<;b 
be  did  jgill  his  life  with  great  skill  .and  dexteVity,  ftlthqugb 
Jiis  ordinary  h^ni  y^  i&r  ftopti  elegant.  ji,i  jtb^  .a^g!e.of  was  placed  under  the  care  of  Tavecner,  ia  Rpmi{>h^ 

'     1  Biog.  3  rit— Calamy.— fQen.  pict,— Birch»/i  T(ltotwp,-^^^r%m:9r.r^A^,  iOx,' 
.foMI^-rkJowbtefJl  Life  of.Combsier,  p- 51.— PrppowU  teipefi^jng  hU  SvmynfH^ 
io  a  volume  of  Ti  acUi,  Jo  \k9  .pgwession  of  the  f^ditpwr.— ^^iceioa,  vqI,  ^'XfUV, 

M    2 

164  to  P  E. 

priest^  who  taught  him  the  rudiments  of'  the  Greek  und 
Latin  languages  at  the  same  time,  a  method  tery  rarely 
practiced.     Having  improved  considerably  under  Taverner^ 
he  was' sent  to  a  celebrated  seminary  of  catholics  at  Twy« 
ford,  hear  Winchester ;  but  in  consequence  of  his  writing 
a  lampoon  on  his  master,  one  of  his  first  efforts  in  poetry,, 
he  was  again  removed  to  a  school  kept  near  Hyde-park* 
corner.     His  master^s  name  here  is  not  mentioned  by  any 
of  his  biographers,  but  it  was  probably  John  Bromley,  who 
wad  curate  of  St.  Giles's  in  the  fields  in  the  beginning  of 
James  II.'s  reign,  soon  after  became  a  decided  catholic^ 
and  losing  bis  employment  at  the  revolution,  taught  a 
i^chool  with  good  reputation.      Dodd  was  informed  that 
Pope  was  one  of  his  pupils.     Before  his  removal  to  this 
last  place  he  had  been  much  a  reader  of  Ogilby's  Homer,, 
and  Sandys'  Ovid,  and  frequently  spoke,  in  the  latter  part 
of  his  life,  of  the  exquisite  pleasure  which  the  perusal  of 
these  two  writers  gave  him.     He  now  had  an  opportunity 
of  visiting  the  playhouse^  and  became  so  delighted  with 
dieatrical  exhibitions,  that  he  formed  a  kind  of  play  froia 
the  chief  events  of  the  Iliad  as  related'  by  Ogilby,  with 
9ome  verses  of  bis  own  intermixed.     He  persuaded  a  few 
of  the  upper  boys  to  act  in  this  piece  ;  the  master^s  gar- 
dener represented  the  character  of  Ajax ;  and  the  actors 
were  dressed  after  the  pictures  of  his  favourite  Ogilby^ 
which  indeed  were  designed  and  engraved  by  artists  of 

In  17bo,  when  he  had  attained  his  twelfth  year,  he  re- 
tired  with  his  father  to  Biufield'near  Oakingham  ;  and  for 
some  time  was  under  the  care  of  another. priest  named 
Dean,  but  with  so  little  advantage,  that  the  youth  deter- 
mined to  study  on  a  plan  of  his  own,  Reading  all  such  books 
as  be  could  procure;  but  with  a  decided  preference,  even 
at  this  early  age,  to  poetical  works.  It  does  not  appear 
that  any  of  the  learned  professions  were  pointed .  out  to 
him*,  or  that  bis^father  attempted  in  any  way  to  direct  his 
studies.  *^  He  was,"  says  Dr.  Warton,  *'  invariably  and 
solely  a  poet,  from  the  beginning  of  his  life  to  the  end.** 
Of  the  poets  which  he  read,  Dryden  soon  became  his  fa- 
vourite and  model ;  and  we  are  told  that  he  entreated  a 
friend  to  <;arry  him  to  Button's  coffee-bouse  which  Dryden 

*  Peirliapii  bis  deformity  of  perton  fiMroiity  aroM  bfti  not  been  MCertiiiited  ^ 
flight  sofgest  an  tiofitiien  for -the  but  most  probably  it  wat  frwoaarick-* 
WaraedprofeMMNEia.    Whence  Uiv  4^»    cty  oonirtiliiti^a. 

P  O  P  R  i«5 

ibeqiIbQted,  tbat  he  might  gratify  himself  with  the  bore 
sight  of  a  man  whom  be. so  maeh  admired,  and  of  whom 
he  continaed  to  speak  well  throughoiit  life. 

How  early  Pope  began  to  write  cannot  be  ascertained : 
some,  think  the  **  Ode  to  Solitude,*'  written  at  twelve  years 
of  age,  was  his  earliest  production  ;  but  Dodsley,  who  lived 
in  intimacy  with  him«  had  seen  pieces  of  a  still  earlier  date. 
,At  fourteen,  he  employed  himself  in  some  of  those  trans- 
lations apd  imitations  which  appear  in  the  first  volume  of 
his  works  ;  and  still  zealous  in  the  prosecution  of  his  poeti- 
cal studies,  he  appears  at  this  time  ambitious  to  exhibit 
-specimens  of  every  kind  of  poetry.     He  wrote  a  comedy, 
a  tragedy,  and  an  epic  poem,  with  panegyrics  on  all  the 
princes  of  Europe ;  and,  as  he  confesses,  <^  thought  himself 
the  greatest  genius  that  ever  was."  Most,  however,  of  these 
puerile  productions  he  afterwards  destroyed.     At  sixteen 
he  wrote  his  *^  Pastorals,"  which  laid  the  foundation  of  last- 
ing hostility  between  Philips  and  himself,   but  were  the 
means  of  introducing  him  to  the  acquaintance  and  friend- 
ship of  Sir  William  Trumbull,  who  had  formerly  been  much 
Ml  public  life,  as  a  statesman,  and  was  then  retired  within 
a  short  distance  of  Biufield.     Trumbull,  who  was  pleased  to 
find  in  his  neighbourhood  a  youth  of  such  abilities  and  taste 
as   young   Pope,    circulated  his  **  Pastorals"    among  his 
friends,  and  introduced  him  to  Wycberley  and  Walsh,  and 
the  wits  of  that  time.    They  were  not  however  published 
until  1709,  and  then  only  in  Tonson*s  Miscellany.     Of 
their  poetical  merit,  it  seems  now  agreed  that  their  chief 
excellence  lies  in  correctness  and  melody  of  versification, 
and  that  the  discourse  prefixed  to  them,  although  much  of 
it  is  borrowed  from  Rapin  and  other  authors,  is  elegantly 
and  elabonitely  written.     Froifi  this  time  the  life  of  Pope, 
as  an  author,  may  be  cplnputed,  and  having  now  declared 
^himself  a  candidate  for  fame,  and  entitled  to  mix  with  his 
brethren,  he  began  at  the  age  of, seventeen  to  frequent 
the  places  where  they  used  to  assemble.    This  was  done 
without  much  interruption  to  his  studies,  bis  own  account 
of  which  was,  that  from  fourteen  to  twenty  he  read  only 
for  amntement,  from  twenty  to  twenty- seven  for  improve- 
jnent  and  instruction  :  that  in  the  first  part  of  his  time  he 
desired  only  to  know,  and  in  the  second  he  endeavoured 
to  judge.     His  next  performance  greatly  increased  bis  re- 
putation: this,  was  the  <*  Essay  on  Criticism,"  written  in 
1709 f  and  published  in  1711,  which  Dr.  Johnson  haii  cha* 

166  P  6  P  M. 

i^cterizied,  di  aisj^Iaying  "  such  cxtfeifl  of  cdtnfjreh^hsion, 
'$iich  nicety  of  distinction,  such  Acquaintance  with  n^iinkincf, 
and  such  knowledge  both  of  ancient  and  niddern  leatttin^y 
as  are  not  often  atttiined  by  the  mature^t  Age  and  longest 
#*p$i*iencc."  It  found  its  way,  however,  fath^t  slowly 
into  the  world ;  biiit  when  the  author  had  sent  copies  tb  Lord 
Lansdowne,  the  Duke  of  Buckinghdm,  and  other  gr^at 
*ien,  it  began  to  be  called  for.  It  was  ih  this  **  Essay"  he 
ttiAde  his  attack  on  Dennis,  which  provoked  those  hostilities 
bfetween  theta  that  never  Were  completely  Appeased.  Den- 
nis's reply  was  sufficiently  coarse,  but  he  appears  to  havfe 
been  the  first  who  discovered  that  leading  dhAi^aCterislic  of 
Pope,  his  propensity  to  talk  too  frequently  of  bis  owii  vii*- 
tues,  And  that  sometimei^  irheii  they  were  least  tisible  tb 

The  **  MessiaV  appeArifed  first  in  the  Spectator,  1713, 
^th  A  warm  recommendation  by  Steele,  and  raised  thto 
highest  expectations  of  what  the  authbr  was  capable  of  per-* 
forming ;  but  he  wAs  hot  so  hAppy  in  his  **  Ode  on  St. 
Cecilia's  Day.''  This  w&s  fblloived  by  the  beautiful  little 
ode,  "The  Dying  Christian  to  his  Soul,"  written  at  Steele's 
desire,  to  be  set  to  music.  In  this  he  owns  his  obligations  to 
the  versies  6f  Adrian,  And  the  fragment  of  Sappho,  butsayi 
tiotbirig  of  Fiatman,  whose  ode  he  not  only  ioiitated,  but  co'- 
pied  some  lines  of  it  verbatini.  The  very  pathetic  "  Elegy 
to  the  memory  of  an  tinfortunate  Lady"  Wai  probably  Writteh 
about  this  time,  but  whb  the  lady  iitsk  reinains  a  ms^ter  of 
conjecture.  One  story,  in  a  note  Appended  to  Dr.  John^ 
son's  life  of  Pope,  is,  that  her  name  wAs  Withinbury,  dr 
Winbury ;  that  she  was  in  love  with  Pope,  and  would  have 
married  him ;  that  her  guardian,  thougb  she  was  deformed 
in  person,  lookiiig  upon  such  a  match  as  beneath  her,  sent 
her  to  a  content,  &c.  where  she  committed  suicide ;  but 
all  this  has  been  contradicted,  and  nothing  i^ubstituted  in 
its  room  much  more  worthy  of  belief. 

In  the  same  year,  1711,  he  produced  the**  Rape  of  the 
Lock,"  a  poem  which  at  once  placed  hiih  higher  than  ^tif 
modern  writer,  and  exceeded  every  thing  of  the  kirid  thathAd 
appeared  in  the  republic  of  letters.  It  was  occasioned  bjr 
a  frolic  of  gallantry ,~in  whifch  Lord  Petre  cut  off  a  favouritfe 
.  lock  of  Mrs.  Arabella  Termor's  hair,  and  this  fdmiliarity 
being  so  much  resented  as  to  occasion  A  serious  rupture 
between  the  two  families,  Mr.  Caryl,  a  friend  to  both,  de^ 
-yired  Pope  to  write  something  that  might  bring  them  int^ 


Wter  buioour*  Two  cantos  were  a<;corduigI]r  produced  ia 
a  fortnight^  and  published  w  ooe  of  Lintot's  Misc^lUoi^s ;  and 
i^ndiDg  th^se  received  with  univerial  appiau$e,  be  pext 
jear  enlarged  the  poeoi  to  five  cantos^ :  4nd  by  the  addi* 
tioa  of  the  machinery,  of  the  Sylpb$i  placed  the  ^'  Rape  of 
tbp  Lock"  above  all  other  mock  ber<:^ic  poemji  whatever. 

It  appears  by  a  letter  to  Steele^  dal^d  Nov.  161,  1712^ 
t^at  be  then  first  commuivicated  to  hii^  ^  The  Temple  of 
Fame,^'  though  be  bad  written  it  two  years  before*  Tb^ 
descriptive  powers  of  Pope,  Warton  thinks  ar^  qiucb  mora 
visible  and  strong  in  this  poeooi  than  in  the  *^  Windsor 
Forest"  which  followed  it  in  th^  order  of  publication,  aU 
though  the  first  part  was  published  in  1704.^  The  ja^t  of 
bis  separate  publications  which  appeared  about  this  timQ 
was  the  *^  Epistle  from  Eloisa  to  Abelard,"  in  which  it  ba^ 
been  jiistly  said  that  he  excelled  every  composition  of  the 
same  kind.  Its  poetical  merit,  however,  great  as  it  is,  if 
scarcely  sufficient  to  make  the  reader  forget  the  inber^nl 
indelicacy  of  the  story,  oir  its  pernicious  tendency. 

Having  amply  establbhed  his  fame  by  sq  many  excellent, 
and  by  two  incomparabley  poems,  the  *^  Rape  of  the  Lock" 
and  the  *^  Eloisa,"  be  now  meditated  what  Warton,  somer 
what  incautiously,  calls  ^'  a  higher  effort,"  his  translation  of 
Homer.  A  higher  effort  it  certainly  was  not  than  the  poen^f 
just  mentioned,  bqt  we  may  allow  it  was  '^  something  that 
might  improve  and  advance  his  fortune^  as  well  as  his  fame." 
A  clamour  was  raised  at  the  time  that  be  had  not  sufficient 
learning  for  such  an  undertaking;  and  Dr.  Johnson  says, 
that  considering  his  irregular  education,  and  course  of 
}ife,  it  is  not  very  likely  that  he  overflowed  with  Greek  j 
but  this,  it  is  knowp,  be  supplied  by  the  aid  of  his  frieiidsi 
or  by  scholars  employed,  of  whom  he  had  no  personal  knowr 
ledge,  as  the  celebrated  Dr.  Jortin,  who,  when  a  soph  at 
Cambridge,  made  extracts  from  Eiistatbius  for  bis  notes. 
This  translation  Pope  proposed  to  publish  by  subscription^ 
in  six  vols.  4to»  at  the  price  of  six  guineas,  and  his  list  of 
subscribers  soon  amounted  to  575,  who  engaged  for  654f 
copies.  The  greatness  of  the  design,  and  popularity  of  tb^ 
author,  and  the  attention  of  the  literary  world,  naturally 
raised  spch  e:spectation$  of  the  future  sale,  that  the  book- 
sellers made  their  offers  with  great  eagerness :  but  th^ 
highest  bidder  was  Bernard  Lintot,  who  became  proprietor^ 
on  condition  of  supplying,  at  his  own  expence,  all  tb? 
Cippies  whicb  were  to  be  delivered  to  subscribe^r/i,  pr,  pr^r 

Ui  P  O  t*^  E. 

sented  to  friends,  arid  paying  2001.  for  every  volume,  so 
that  Popeobtained^ntbewbole,tbesutnof53i20/.  4s.  Tbis 
money  he  partly  laid  out  in  annuities,  particularly  one  of 
200/.  a  year,  or  as  some  say  500/.  from  the  Duke  of  Buck- 
ingham, and  partly  in  the  purchase  of  a  bouse  at  Twicken- 
ham, to  which  he 'now  removed,  '  having  persuaded  bia 
father  to  sell  his  little  property  at  Binfietd. 

The  publication  of  the  first  volume  of  the  ^  Iliad'*  was 
attended  by  a  circumstance  which  interrupted  the  friendship 
that  had  lohg  subsisted  between  Pope  and  Addison.   This 
was  the  appearance  of  a  translation  of  the  first  book  of  the 
Iliad  under  the  name  of  Tickell,  which  Pope  had  reason 
to  think,  and  confidently  asserted,  was  the  work  of  Addison 
himself,  and  not  of  Tickell.     In  the  collection  of  Pdpe*s 
letters,  in  Johnson's  life,  and  in  the  notes  to  Addison's  life 
in   the  "Biograpbia  Britannica,"  written  by  Mr.  JuiHice 
Blackstone,  are  many  particulars  of  tbis  unhappy  quarrel,' 
the  real  cause  of  which  is  not  very  clear.     Every  candid 
reader  will  wish  tbieit  a  charge  of  disingenuity  against  so 
amiable  a  man  as  Addison,  ^could  be  clearly  refuted,  and 
Blackstone  has  made  considerable  progress  in  this.     Pope^s 
biographers  seem  to  think  that  much  cannot  be  learned 
from  the  evidence  of  style,  and  that  this  translation  of  the 
first  book  of  tbe  Iliad  is  more  likely  to  have'  been  written 
by  Tickell  than  by  Addison.     With  bis  usual  frankness  and 
good  nature,  Steele  once  endeavoured  to  reconcile  Pope  and 
-Addison ;  but,  in  the  interview  he  procured,  they  so  bitterly 
upbraiided  each  other  with  envy,  arrogance,  and  ingrati- 
tude, that  they  parted  with  increased  aversion  and  ill-wilL 
Pope  was  chiefly  irritated  at  the  calm  and  contemptuous 
unconcern  with  which  Addison  affected  to  address  him  in 
this  conversation,  and  his  miiid  had  been  alienated  from 
'  Mm  long  before,  owing  to  a  notion  that  Addison  was  jear 
lous  of  bis  fame.  Of  Tickell's  translation  no  more  appeared 
thannhis  first  book;  and  if  we  may  be  permitted  to  add  one 
to  tbe  many  conjectures  already  offered  on  this  subject,  we 
should  say  that  probably  no  more  was  intended,  and  that 
this  specimen  was  published  ratber  to  alarhfi  Pope's  vanity 
than  to  hurt  his  interest  or  bis  fame. 

During  the  publication  of  the  Ui^df  Pope  found  leisure 
to  gratify  his  favourite  passion  of  laying  out  grounds,  which 
he  displayed  with  great  taste  and  judgment  at  his  newly 
purchased  house  at  Twickenham.  This  spot  was  visited 
vid  admired  by  the  first  men  of  thii  couutry,  and  (re* 

P  O  P  £♦  169 

f|QJ&ntly  by  Frederick,  prince  of  W^les,  who  contributed 
some  ornamental  articles ;  and  for  nearly  a  century  it  gon?- 
tinued  to  be  an  object  of  curiosity;  but  in  1807  the  house 
was  entirely  pulled  down,  and  the  grounds,  from  the  many 
alterations  they  have  undergone,  can  no  longer  be  associ- 
ated with  the  taste  and  skill  of  Pope.  Herein  1717  hi* 
father  died,  after  having  lived  to  spend  the  greater  part  of 
the  20^00/.  which  be  acquired  in  trade,  but  which,,  being 
disaffected  to  government,,  he  would  not  trust  in.  any  gf  its 
funds,  and  therefore  he  went  on  consuming  the  principal* 
His  son,  celebrated  him  with  equal  elegance,  tendernesf, 
and  gratitude,  in  the  '*  Epistle  to  Arbuthnot,"  The  yefr 
b^oire  he  had  published  in  folio  atollection  of  all  his  poems, 
with  that  sensible  preface  which  now  usually  stands  at, the 
head:  of  his.  works. 

.  In  1720,  the  publication  of  the  ^^  Iliad*^  was  completed, 
aj»d  in  1721  he  acted  as  editor  of  the  poems  of  his  friend 
Parnell,  to  which,  be  prefixed  the  fine  epistle  to  Lord  Ox- 
ford. .  Pope  loved  money,  and  in  1720  had  been  one  of  the 
adventurers  in  the  South- Sea  scheme,  but  from,  this  be  es^ 
caped  without  being  a  very  great  loser ;  the  sapae  motive, 
though  his  rem'uoeration  did  not  much  exceed  200A  <  in« 
jduced  him  to  become  editor  of  Shakspeare,  for  which  be 
MFas  totally  unfit.  Tonson  wished  to  have  a  good  name  pre* 
•^xed  tp  his  edition,  and  Pope^s  was  , then  the  fir^t^amoiig 
living  poets.  His  labours  were  attacked  by  Theobald,  first 
ia  his  ^^  Shakspeare  Restored,"  and  afterwaifds  in  bis  own 
^edition,  to  which  Warburton  contributed  many  remarks. 
Pope  was  much  mortified  by  this  failure,  but  is  said  to  have 
recovered  his  tranquility  by  reflecting  that  he«  had  a  mind 
.too  great  for  the  petty  employments  of  collators,  commen- 
tators, and  verbal  critics.  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  Mai- 
Jbt  obtained  Pope's  friendship  by  addressing  to  bim^an 
:epUtle  on.  "  Verbal  Criticism."  What  sort  of  friend  Mal- 
'  let  proved  at  lasit,  we  have  already  mentioned  in  our  acr 
count  of  him.  .  \ 

Soon  after  this  Pope  issued  proposals  for  a  translation  of 
.the  ^*  Odyssey ;"  but  of  this  he  pertormed  only  twelve 
books,  namely  the  third,  fifth,  seve^ith,  ninth,  teiith,  thir- 
^  tejsDth^  fourteenth,  fifteenth,  seventeenth,  twenty. first, 
•.twenty-second,,  and  twenty-fourth.  The  rest  were  trans- 
Jated  by  Fenton  and  Bropme,  and  Pope  is  said  to  have 
^iyen  the  Coirmer  three  hundred,  and  the  latter  five  hundred 
...  pounds  for  their  assistance ;  but  as  the  number  of  subscri-- 

170  POPE. 

hen  equalled  that  of  the  Iliad,  bis  own  profits  must  hav» 
been  yerj  cotisriderable.  About  tbis  time  he  was  full  of 
grief  and  anxiety,  on  account  of  the  impeachment  of  his 
friend  bishop  Atterbury,  for  whom  he  seems  to  have  felt 
the  greatest  affection  and  regard;  and  being  summoned 
before  the  Lords  at  the  trial,  to  give  some  account  of  At« 
terbury's  domestic  life  and  employments,  not  being  used  to 
speak  in  a  large  assembly,  he  made  several  blunders  in  the 
few  words  he  had  to'utten  It  is  remarkable  that  the  day 
which  deprived  him  of  Atterbliry,  restored  to  him  anothei 

>  friend,  Bolingbroke,  ,who  continued  in  habits  of  intimacy 
with  him  during  the  whole  of  his  life. 

In  1727,  Swift,  who  had  long  corresponded  with  him^ 
coming  to  England,  joined  with  Pope  in  publishing  in 
4  vols.  8vo,  their  miscellanies  in  prose  and  verse.  To  these 
Pope  wrote  a  preface,  complaining,  among  other  instances, 

.  of  the  ill  usage  he  had  received  from  booksellers,  and  of 
the  liberty  one  of  them  (Curll)  had  taken  in  this  same  year 
to  publish  his  juvenile  letters,  purchased  from  a  Mrs.  Tho« 
mias,  a  mistress  of  his  correspondent  Mr.  Cromwell.  Pope 
bad  been  intimate  with  this  lady  in  his  young  days,  but 
was  now  so  seriously  hurt  at  the  publication  of  his  letters, 
although  he  knew  that  she  did  it  from  distress^  that  he  took 
a  severe  revenge  in  a  poem  called  "  Corinna,"  and  in  the 
'^  Dunciad,''  which  appeared  in  the  following  year.  The 
object  of  this  celebrated  satire  was  to  crush  all  his  adversa- 
ries in  a  mass,  by  one  strong  and  decisive  blow.  Qis  own 
account  of  tbis  attempt  is  very  minutely  related  by  Pope 
himself,  in  a  dedication  which  be  wrote  to  Lord  Middle- 
sex, under  the  name  of  Savage  the  poet,  who  assisted  Pope 
in  finding  out  many  particulars  of  these  adversaries,  [f  we 
may  credit  this  narrative,  Pope  contemplated  his  victory  of^et 
Dunces  with  great  exultation  ;  and  such,  says  0r.  Johnson, 
was  his  delight  in  the  tumult  he  had  raised,  that  for  a  while 
his  natural  sensibility  was  suspended,  and  he  read  re- 
proaches and  invectives  without  emotion,  considering  them 

'only  as  the  necessary  effects  of  that  pain  which  he  rejoiced 
in  having  given.  He  would  not  however  have  long  in- 
dulged tbis  reflection,  if  all  the  persons  he  classed  among 
the  Dunces  bed  possessed  the  spirit  which  animated  some 
of  them.  Pucket  demanded  and  obtained  satisfaction  for 
a  scandalous  imputation  on  bis  moral  character;  and  Aarob 
Hill  expostulated  with  Pope  iu  a  manner  so  much  superior 

P  O  B  B.  171 

<b  all  ^ean  «dlfchati(>ii^  that  Pope  '^  was  reduced  to  siiesk 
and  shuffle,  Sometimes  to  deny,  and  sometimes  to  apolo- 
gize :  be  first  endeavours  to  wound^  and  is  then  afraid  to 
own  that  be  meant  a  blow."  There  are  likewise  some 
names  intfodoced  in  this  poem  with  dis^respect  which  could 
receive  no  injury  from  snob  an  attack.  His  placing  the 
.learned  Beiilley  among  dunces,  conld  have  occurred  to 
Pope  only  in  tbe  moitient  of  bis  maddest  revenge :  Bentiey 
,had  spoken  troth  of  tbe  translation  of  the  Iliad :  be  said  i{t 
was  ^  a  fiwe  poeiti,  but  not  Homer."  This,  which  has  ever 
since  been  the  opinion  of  the  learned  world,  was  not  to  be 
-refated  by  tbe  contemptuous  lines  in  which  Bentiey  is 
tiientioned  in  the  ^  Dunciad."  On  the  other  hand,  the 
real  IKinceS)  who  are  tbe-^majority  in  this  poem,  were  be- 
neath the  notice  of  a  man  who  now  enjoyed  higher  fame 
than  any  poetical  contemporary,  and  greater  popularity, 
and  greater  favour  with  men  of  rank.  But  it  appears  to 
have  been  Pope's  opiuion  that  insignificance  should  be  no 
protection,  that  even  neutrality  should  not  be  safe,  and 
that  whoever  did  not  worship  the  deity  he  had  set  up^ 
should  be  punished.  Accordingly  we  find  in  this  poem 
contemptuous  allusions  to  persons  who  had  given  no  open 
provocation,  and  were  nowise  concerned  in  the  author** 
literary  contests.  The  ^^Dunciad^'  indeed  seems  intended 
as  a  general  retreptacle  for  all  bis  resentments,  just  or  un>- 
just ;  and  we  find  that  in  subsequent  editions  he  altered, 
arranged,  or  added  to  his  stock,  as  he  found,  or  thought  he 
found  new  occasion  ;  and  the  hero  of  tbe  *^  Dunciad,'*  who 
was  at  first  Theobald,  became  at  last  Gibber. 

The  "  Dunciad"  first  appeared  in  1729;  and  two  years 
after.  Pope  produced  his  "^  Epistle  to  Richard  Earl  of 
Burlington,  occasioned  by  his  publishing  Palladio's  designs 
of  the  Baths,  Arches,  Theatres,  &c.  of  aocrent  Rome,  &o,** 
Of  the  merit  of  this  highly«finished  poem,  there  is  no  dif^ 
ference  of  opinion  ;  but  it  gave  rise  to  an  attack  on  Pope's 
private  character  which  was  not  easily  repelled.  Dr.  War« 
ton  says,  ^'The  gang  of  scribblers  immediately  rose  up  to- 
gether, and  accused  him  of  malevolence  and  ingratitude,  in 
having  ridiculed  tbe  house,  gardens,  chapel,  and  dinners, 
of  the  Duke  of  Chandos  at  Canons  (who  had  latety,  as  they 
affirmed,  been  his  benefactor)  under  the  name  of  Timon. 
Be  p^emptorily  and  positively  denied  the  charge,  and 
wrote  an  exculpatory  letter  to  the  Duke^-  with  tbe  asaeve^ 

1T2  POPE. 


rations  of  which  letter,  as  the  last  Diike  of  Chandos  totj 
me,  his  ancestor  was  not  perfectly  satisfied.'*  It  was  not 
•therefore  the  *^  gang  of  scribblers**  who  brought  this  accu- 
sation^ but  all  the  family  and  connections  of  the  iDuke  of 
Chandos,  and  no  defence  has  yet  been  advanced  which  can 
induce  any  impartial  reader  to  think  the  accusation  unjust. 
What  seems  to  have  injured  Pope  most  at  the  time  was^ 
that  the  excuses  he  offered  were  of  the  same  shuffling  kind 
which  he  employed  in  the  case  of  Aaron  Hill,  and  which, 
wherever  employed,  have  the.  effect  of  doubling  the  guih 
of  the  convict.  This  was  one  of  the.circumstauces  which 
induce  us  to  think  that  Pope  greatly  injured  his  personal 
character  by  the  indiscrimipate  attacks  in  his  '^  Dunciad,*' 
and  by  the  opinion  he  seems  to  have  taken  up  that  no  man 
was  out  of  his  reach. 

In  1732,  Pope  published  his  epistle  ^'Ou  the  use  of 
Riches,**  addressed  to  Lord  Bathtirst,  which  he  has  treated^ 
in  so  masterly  a  way,  as  to  have  almost  exhausted  the  sub- 
ject. His  observation  of  human  life  and  manners  was  in- 
deed most  extensive,  and  his  delineations  most  exact  and 
perfect.  It  is  very  hazardlpus  to  come  after  him  in  any 
subject  of  ethics  which  be  has  handled.  Between  this  year 
A»d  1734,  he  published  the  four  parts  of  his  celebrated 
'^  Essay  on  Man,**  the  only  work  from  his  pen  which  equally 
engaged  the  attention  of  the  moral,  the  theological,  and 
the,  poetical  world.  He  appears  himself  to  have  had  some 
fears  respecting  it,  for  it  appeared  without  his  name,  and 
yet  it  is  wonderful  that  the  style  and  manner  did  not  betray 
him.  AVhen  discovered  it  was  still  read  as  an  excellent 
poem,  abounding  in  splendid  and  striking  sentiments  of 
religion  and  virtue,  until  Crousaz  endeavoured  to  prove,  and 
not  unsuccessfully,  that  it  contained  tenets  more  favourable 
tQ  natural  than  to  revealed  religion.  Crousaz  Was  answered 
hy  a  writer  who  a  considerable  time  before  had  produced 
«and  read  a  dissertation  against  the  doctrines  of  the  **  £ssay 
on  Man,*'  but  now  appeared  as  their  vigorous  defender. 
This  was  the  learned  and  justly  celebrated  Warburton, 
who  wrote  a  series  of  papers  in  the  niontbly  journals  called 
,« The  Republic  of  Letters*'  and  «  The  Works  of  the 
Learned,**  which  were  afterwards  collected  into  a  volume. 
Pope  was  so  delighted  with  this  vindication,  that  he  eagerly 
sought  the  acquaintance  of  Warburton,  and  told  him  be 
understood  his  opinions  better  than  he  did  himself;  which 
may  be  true,  if,  as  commonly  understood,  Bolingbroke 

POPE,  *  in 

fcrnished  those  sobtle  principles  by  which  Pope  at  firsts  and 
his  readers  afterwards,  were  deceived.  The  consequences 
of  this  acquaintance  to  Warburton  were  indeed  momen- . 
tons,  for  Pope  introduced  him  to  Murray,  afterwarids  the 
celebrated  Lord  Mansfield,  by  whose  interest  he  becanoe 
preacher  at  Lincohi's  Inn  ;  and  to  Mr.  Allen,  *^  who  gave 
him  his  niece  aiid  his  estate,  and  by  consequence  a 
Bishopric ;''  and  when  he  died  he  left  him  the  property  of 
his  works. 

Few  pieces,  in  Warton's  opinion,  can  be  found  that,  for 
depth  of  thought  and  penetration  into  the  human  mind  and 
heart,  excel  the  Epistle  to  lord  Cobham,  which  Pope  pub^^ 
Kshedln  1733,  and  which  produced  from  his  lordship  two 
very  sensible  letters  on  the  subjects,  and  characters  intro* 
dnced  in  that  epistle.     In  the  same  year  appeared  the  fir>st 
of  our  author's   Imitations  of  Horace,  and  in  1734,  the 
Epistle  to  Dr.  Arbuthnot,  which  was  considerably  altered. 
It  was  first  called  ^'  A  Prologue  to  the  Satires,'^  and  tbeo' 
^  A  Dialogue."     Pope  did  not  always  write  with  a  decided 
preference  of  form  or  manner,  for  his  admirable  poem  on 
^^The  Use  of  Riches''  he  called  an  epistle  to  lord  Bathurst, 
although  that  nobleman  is  introduced  as  speaking,  and 
speaking  so  insignificantly,    that,  as  Warton  informs  us^ 
he  never  mentioned  the  poem  without  disgust.     Pope's  af- 
fectionate mention  of  his  mother  in  this  Epistle  to  Arbuth^ 
not  must  always  be  quoted  to  his  hono^ur. .   Of  all  his  moral 
quaiitiei$,  filial  affection  was  most  predominant.     He  then^ 
in  L735,  produced  the  Epistle  on  the  ^^  Characters  of  Wo- 
men," in  an  advertisement  to  which  he  asserted  that  no  one 
character  was  drawn  from  life.     Pope  had  already  lost  some 
credit  with  the  public  for  veracity,  and  this  assertion  cer* 
tainly  was  not  believed,  nor  perhaps  did  he  wish  it  to  be 
believed,  for  in  a  note  he  informed  his  readers  that  the 
work  was  imperfect,     because  part    of    his    subject  was 
"  Vice  too  high'.'  to  be  yet  exposed.     This  is  supposed  to 
allude  to  the  character  of  the  first  duchess  of  Marlborough 
under  the  name  of  Atossa^  which  was  inserted  after  her 
death,  in  a  subsequent  edition,  although  Pope  received 
«£lOOO.  from  her  to  suppress  it.     This  is -said  to  rest  on  the 
sole  authority  of  the  late  Horace  Walpole,  lord  Orford  ;  but 
jf  told  by  him  as  we  find  it  in  Warton's  and  Bowles's  edi«- 
tions  of  Pope's  works,  it  confutes  itself.    The  fact  as  they 
relate  it  is,  that  Pope  received  ^1000.  from  the  duchess^ 
promising  on  th^se  terms  to  suppress  the  character,  and 

174  POP  E. 

ibaM  he  fonk^e  mdfteyAnd  then  publislied  it  Bbl  Popi^ 
could  not  have  published  it,  icMr  it  did  not  appear,  accordiBg 
to  Warton's  aeeount,  until  1746,  two  years  after  bis  death ! 
It  oiigbt  then  probably  have  been  found  among  Mn  Pope's 
]dSS.  and  ia^erted  without  any  great  blame  by  those  who 
knew  ootbing  of  the  bargain  with  cbeiluchess,  if  there  was 
ajsren  «uch  a  bangain. 

In  1736  and  1737  he  published  more  of  his  Imitations  of 
Horace,  all  with  his  name,  except  the  one  entitled,  *^  Sober 
Advice  from  floraoe  to  the  yomig  Gisfrtlemen  atoout  town,'^ 
which  he  was  ashamed  to  sueknowLedge  although  he  so&red 
Dodslay  to  publish <it  as  his  own  iu  a  12m0  e<i&ion.  In.tha 
last  nseotioned  year  appealed  an  edition  of  Juis  ^^  Letters^^ 
published  in  4to.  by  a  large  jsubscription.  His  friend  Mr/ 
Allen  of  Bath  had  suc^  an  opinioa  of  Pope  jtbat  be  adrised 
this  publication,  frpm  whicb,  he  said,  <'  a  perfeot  systeoA 
of  morals  might  be  extracted,"  and  OESeced<to  be  attheoost 
of  a.  publication  of  them.  Pope  preferned  Jthe  paibronage 
of  the  public,  but  yet  wanted  some  apology  f(ur  publishing 
bis  own  letitexs.  Dr.  Johnson  relates  where  he  found  that^ 
in  the  following  wofds : 

'^  One  of  the  passages  of  Pope^s  life,  iwhioh  seems  ^o 
deserve  someinquiry,  was  a  publication  of  Letters  between 
him  and  his  friends,  wiiich  falling  into  Ihe  bands  of  Curll, 
a  rapacious  bookseller  of  no  good  fame,  wiere  by  him; 
printed  and  sold.  This  volume  containing  some  lettiera 
from  noblemfin.  Pope  incited  a  prosecution  aga,inst  faini 
in  the  House  of  Lords  for  breach  of  {privilege,  and  attended 
himself  to  stimulate  the  resentment  of  his  .'firiends.  Curll 
appeared  at  the  bar,  and  knowing  himself  in  no  ^danger^ 
spoke  of  Pope  with  very  little  reverence.  '  He  had,'  said 
Curll,  ^  a  knack  ..of  versifying,  but  in  prose  I  .think  myself 
a  match  for  him.'  WJien  the  .orders  of  the  house  weve  -ex-* 
amined,  none  of  them  appeased  to  have  been  infringed: 
durll  went  away  triumphant,  and  Pope  was  left  to  seek 
fiOBoe  other  remedy. 

^^  CurU's  Account  was,  that  one  evening  a  man  in  a  cler^ 
gyman's  gown,  ibut  with  a  lawyer's  iband,  ^brought  and  of- 
iesed  to  sale  a  number  of  printed  volumes,  which  be  found 
to  be  Pope's  epistolary  correspondence  :  that  he  asked  na 
name,  and  .was  told  none,  but  gave  the  price  denumded, 
and  thought  himself  authorized  to  upo  his  purchase  to  hi^ 
own  advantage. — That  Curll  gave  4i  true  account  of  the 
transaction  it  is  reasonable  to  Joelieire,  liecauae  no  fidse- 

.   P  O  P  1.  175 

!kbod  was  ever  yet  detected;  and  'when,  some  years  afteiw 
msadB^  I  mencioned  at  to  Liatot,  the  san  of  Bernard,  be  de*- 
clared  bis  opinion  to  be,  that  Pope  ,kneiv  better  than  any 
body  else  how  Curll  obtained  the  copiesi  because  another; 
parcel  was  at  the  saine  time  sent  to  himself,  for  which  no 
price  had  ever  been  demanded,  as  he  made  known  fata 
resolution  not  to  pay  a  porter,  and  consequently  not  ta 
deal  with  a  naoieleBS  agent. 

'^  S^uch  care  had  been  taken  to  make  them  public,  that 
they  were  sent  at  once  to  two  booksellers ;  to  Curll,  wh« 
was  likely  to  seize  them  as  a  prey ;  and  to  Lintot,  who 
might  be  expected  to  give  Pope  information  of  the  seeming 
injury.  Lintot^  I  believe,  did  nothing;  and  CUirll  did 
what  was  expected.  That  to  make  them  public  was  tha 
only  purpose,  may  be  reasonably  supposed,  because  tho 
nnmbens  offered  to  sale  by  the  private  messenger,  shewed 
that  hope  of  gain-  could  not  have  been  the  motive  of  the 

*^  It  seems  thatP€>pe,  being  desirous  of  printing- bis  let* 
lers^  and  «ot  knowing  how  to  do,  without  imputation  of 
vanity,  what  has  in  this  country  been  done  very  rarely^ 
contrived  an  appearance  of  compulsion  :  that,  when  he 
could  c^omplain  that  his  letters^. w^ie  surreptitiously  pnb-^ 
lisbed,  he  might  decently  and  defensively  {rablish  them 
himself.**  ^ 

Soch  was  the  artifice,  which,  however,  was  soon  de^^ 
lected,  for  no  man  could  for  a  moment  doubt  that  the  let- 
ters were  conveyed  to  Curll  by  Pope  himself,  that  he  might 
have  a  pretence  for  an  edition,  which,  being  avowed  by 
himself^  wou^d  obtain  the  preference- over  every  other. 
Could  a  doubt  remain,  it  must  be  removed  by  the  notes  and 
information  respecting  these  letters  in  Mr.  Bowles's  edition 
of  his  works.  .As  to  the  letters  themselves,  Warton  says 
"  tbey  'are  all  over-crowded  with  professions  of  integrity  and 
disinterestedness,  with  trite  reflections  on  contentment^and 
retirement ;  a  disdain  of  greatness  and  courts;  a  oontempt 
of  fame ;  and  an  afFeoted  strain  of  common*plaee morality." 
Affeetatien  indeed 'petvades  the  greater  part  of  the  corre- 
spondence, and  those  objects  are  mentioned  with  the  greater 
disdain,  which  were  the.  objects  of  their  highest  ambition. 

Returning  to  his  more  original  publications.  Pope  now 
issued  -those  two  diabgues  which  were  named,  from  the 
year  in  which  they  appeared,  ^*  Seventeen  hnndred  and 
^thirty  eighty^'  andare^among itbe  bjtterest-of  satipes.    £.very. 

176  POPE* 

species  of  sarcasm  and  mode  of  style  are  here  alternately 
employed ;  ridicule,  reasoning,  irony,  mirth,  seriooaness^ 
lamentation,  laughter,  familiar  imi^ery,  and  high  poetical 
painting.  Although  many,  persons  iu  power  were  highly 
provoked,  he  does  not  appear  to  have  been  very  directly 
menaced  with  a  prosecution ;  but  Paul  Whitehead,  who 
about  this  time  wrote  his  *^  Manners,'*  and  his  publisher 
Dodsley,  were  called  to  an  account,  which  was  supposed  to 
have  been  intended  rather  to  intimidate  Pope,  than  to  pu^ 
Jiish  \Vbitehead,  and  Pope  appears  to  have  taken  the  hint; 
for  be  discontinued  a  Third  Dialogue,  which  he  bad  begun^ 
and  never  afterwards  attempted  to  join  the  patriot  with  the 
poet  He  had  been  led  into  this  by  his  connection  with 
the  prince  of  Wales  and  the  oppobitioo,  but  he  could  not 
have  long  been  of  service  to  them.  Had  tb.ey  come  into 
office,  he  must  have  been  either  silent,  or  ofi'eusive,  for  he 
was  both  a  jacobite  and  a  papist.  Dr.  Jobuson  says  very 
justly  that  he  was  entangled  in  the  opposition  now,  and  had 
forgot  the  prudence  with  which  he  passed,  in  his  earHer 
years,  uninjured  and  .unoffending,  through  much  more 
violent  conflicts  of  faction. 

Ceasing  therefore  from  politics,  for  which .  he  was  so 
uofit,  he  amused  himself,  in  1740,  in  republishing  **  Se^ 
lecta  Carmina  Italorum,*'  taken,  without  acknowledgement, 
frpm  the  collection  called  '^  Anthologia,''  1684,  12mo,  a|«- 
tributed  to  Atterbury,  falsely,  as  Warton  asserts,  but  justly 
according  to  every  other  opinion.  The  work  however  ia 
more  imperfect  than  it^would  have  been  had  he  consulted 
other  collections  of  the  kind.  His  last  performance  shewed 
either  that  his  owp  judgment  was  impaired,  or  that  ha 
yielded  too  easily  to  tbatof  Warburton,  who  now  advised  bioi 
to  write  the  fourth  book  of  the  ^^  Dupciad  ;*'  and  iu  1743  he 
betrayed  a  yet  greater  want  of  judgment  by  printing  a  new 
edition  of  the  Dunciad,  in  which  he  placed  Cibbcr  in  the 
room  of  Theobald,  forgetting  how  opposite  their  charactera- 
were.  He  had  before  this  introduced  Cibber  with  con- 
temptuous mention  in  his  satires,  and  Cibber  resented 
both  insults  in  two  pamphlets  which  gave  Pope  more  unea* 
siness  than  he  was  willing  tp  allow. 

The  time  was  now  approaching,  however,  in  which  all 
bis  contests  were  to  end.  About  the  beginning  of  1 744 
bis  health  and  strength  began  visibly  to  decline.  Besides 
his  constant  head-acibs,  and  severe  rheumatic  pains,  he  had 
been  afflicted^  for  five  years,  with  an  asthfna,  which  waa 

p  OPE.  177 

'  suipected'to  be  occasioned  by  a  dropsy  of  the  breast.  la 
the  mouth  of  May  he  became  dangerously  ill^  and  op  the 
vixth  was  all  day  delirious,  which  he  mentioned  four  day^ 
afterwards  as  a  sufficient  humiliation  of  the  vanity  of  man^ 
be  afterwards  complained  of  seeing  things  as  through  s^ 
curtaihy  and  in  false  colours,  and  one  day  asked  what  arm 
it  was  that  caipe  out  from  the  wall.  He  said  that  his 
greatest  inconvenience  was  inability  to  think.  Bolingbroke 
sooaetiihes  wept  over  him  in  this  state  of  helpless  decay ; 
arid  being  tord  by  Spence,  that  Pope,  at  the  intermission 
of'  his  deliriousness,  was  always  saying  something  kind 
either  of  his  present  or  absent  friends,  and  that  his  huma- 
nity seemed  to  have  survived  his  understanding^  answerc^d^ 
^^  It  has  so  :'*  and  added,  **  I  never  in  my  life  knew  a;  man 
that  had  so  tender  a  heart  for  his  particular  friends,  or 
more  general  friendship  for  mankind.'*  At  another  time  he 
said,  *^  I  have  knoi^n  Pope  these  thirty  years,  and  value 
myself  mor.e  in  his  friendship  than*' — his  grief  then  sup^ 
pressed  bis  voice.  Pope  eicpressed  undoubting  confidence 
of  a  future  state.  Being  asked  by  his  friend  Mr.  Hooke,  a 
papist,  whether  he  would  hot  die  like  his  father  and  mo- 
ther, and  whether  a  priest  should  not  be  called ;  he  an- 
sweredy  *^  I  do  not  think  it  is  essential,  bi^t  it  will  be  very 
right :  and  I  thahk  you  for  putting  me  io  mind  of  it.V  In 
the  morning,  after  the  priest  had  done  his  office,  he  said, 
*^  There  is  nothing  that  is  meritorious  but  virtue  and  friend- 
ship, and  indeed  friendship  itself  is  only  a  part  of  virtue." 
He  died  in  the  evening  of  May  30,  1744,  so  placidly,  that 
the  attendants  did  not  discern  thee^act  time  of  his  expira-* 
tion.  '  He  was  buried  at  Twickenham,  near  hift  father  and 
motherJ  where  a  monument  was  afterwards  erected  to  him 

:  Some  idea  of  Pope's  character  may  be  derived  from  the 
preceding  particulars,  and  more  may  be  learned  from  his 
biographers  Ruffhead,  Johnson,  Warton,  and  Bowles. 
Many  circuQtstances,  however,  still  want  explanation,  al- 
though upon  the  whole  we  cannot  be  said  to  be  ignorant  of 
the  temper  and  character  of~a  man  whose  publications  .and 
quarrels  form  a  great  part  of  the  literary  history,  of  the  first 
half  of  the  eigbte^h  century,  and  of  which  spme  notice 
Ttkdi  been  taken  by  every  journalist,  every  critic,  and  eyery^ 
biographer,  from  his  own  to  the  present  times..  A  large 
volume  niight  be  filled  with  even  a  moderate  account  of 
Vol.  XXV.  N 

Pope^s  contests,  and  less  than  such  a  rolurae  perhaps  would 
'riot  tie  SdftsftttoV^/  "?  ••*  '^'''^ '''  ''  ^'^^'^  •*'  *•  n.3f:ir,.^^ 
'^'''Wetya'^ealri^stdy  copied  an  expression  of  pr.Warton's^ 
that  P6[ie  W^  ini^riattfy'^idd'  sotSy 'i  bbeV'Tro^*  tUe  VegiS- 
»it)gof  b'is4ife  id  ili^  ^nd^'.'kria  Wfe  A^y  Wdd  fVbdi'lh^'^ama 
^Ifegattt'^dritic;  tbit  his'  WhoWliffej  4*d^e^%'Mr  'o*  ft,^iH 
%{bkn^s'  aVid"  in  h^^li^, '  ^i  d^v'bte'cf  miW  ifbr^i^ltd^^  diHi- 
'g«nbdi' td  iMlttvsite  cb^t  on'd  art'Tn  Whii:h  h^  ha^ 
%6 'excel,  Aid-  W  S^BttK'be'dld  WUi."  1?  IJ'tibt'iiJr  irifeV- 
tion,^kowdver,  to^xiiatiae^'irfhikii'erits'a^^i^jSoetV'  '.t^Kat 
kas  been-  idV^Ac^d%  br;  Jbbftioti^Sind^bKmhon  inust 
ifiijperi^ae^^Il-htber  efiTohl ;  \)Ut  v/^  m^O)^  WcntUedf  to  ^e- 
grtt  that-be'  iddcd  -io' HttleH^ tte  « JiiftV it "tiid'lite'rary 
chatatt^,  irid  thdt  tis^i>a:asi6ni'^6r'e  VUfgir  a'nrf  vulffar^ 

fitettj^  WVfengej^nd  no  disctli?rge!  6f  abrltnohy;  beneath  him  ; 
fthd  Vks  dorttinaaHy*end^aVoiirihy;*tA*  drdWotri  Hft'  ifeWtest  by 
ijdadklsb-stratigl^thsUhai8l0'aAifi^^^^  iiy  ji^ocyrly  dis? 

byiiW  wit;  that  evdr'ddigbtM  49 
mnthin  talking  6f"fti^  iiibney.^"In''htJ  letters 'aad  in  his 
poems,'' tife'^gardensf^'And  hft  ^rott6,  'fefs  'dbthcuhi'  and  h$ 
rinesj  t>r'^me  hfnts  of 'his  bbuf^k^,'  Hik  ali^aV^^to  Wl^ound^ 

In  constitution  he  was  constantly  a  valptuclinaiian.  ^is 
pei'sdti  Wa^s if^fbrtn^U;  atid  He'i^d&'sd  feetife  ay'r/bV^t^eable 
tocfrfesi^  br-  iibdtess  Himself  *Wltlttirf'SiSikanbW-''Sucfr*^ 
stat^  of  bddy  genmil^pro'dticei'k  cma1ti^'d6^rfee  of  fi^rita'- 
bility  aritt'p^vishtllefes,  wTiich'th'u^t  tfatbri1fy^^e*t/eitty 

liot- tbri trtpeV  Hte^ffir  &  ibitf  ^ito\  'ih Ti^fe privati  hifeiti^iiM 
daprieroul^  ahd  cigbrisfvle/^nd  wH6e^pelited'tfia^''ev^iir  t!hih^^^ 
sh<>nrd  ^tve^W&y  t8  Ws  *ttfmouV."  ^«^Wb  thtfs  jirbMtril 
cb'ntradietionk; 'anfl  rl^hl^  Motti&adtloh^V  ^roth  vtliic&HS 
might  have  bfeerf  ffee/lt  lie'cJoWtf'KaVe*  lived  dft'^his*  o*n 
^pletredSuVes^of^niurfiAdfaai'fe. '-' '^  ^^'  "  ''''"  '^"  ';   ' 

P  0  P  %  '1V9 

Bat  if  Pope  •crktefd'yneitiles/Ke'alsb'cbmjinale^ 
and  had  afpifeasnt^  ifi«riiimerdting  'ttie  knen  idii^ii  'Mi 
ffiAth  Wbom  be  tcus  atfqdainted,  and  to  gain^ho^e'fiiiVdur'fa^ 
|>^aetiseU  hx>  mettnticfss  or  ^eVvitity.  It  ie  indded  dlo««^ieH 
tint  ^be  tt^ver  flaittei'dd  tbbiie  wboHi  h^  did  hbt'lbVi?,  br 
praised  those  whom  he  did  not  esteem.  And  '^k^  fro&i  his 
jaiiraittres 'and  biis('c4pHciods  faabUsy  be  must  'b±vk  ^en.a 
;rery  diiRKgreeftbte  g^«st,  hfe  ft-eqtient  r6dfeptibn  in  tfab 
immes  and  at  the  tables  of  then  bf  bigb  i^nk  Ts  a  jifbJf 
jdiactbe/e  was  mtldb  in  bfs  chai'actbr  to  ^diiiine  of  eke^ds, 
tmUB;pi«sumptt6n  tbdt  dbtne  of'tht^  failin'gs  wtiich  bav^ 
bebn  *  reported  «rf  b)m  May  haVe  beeh  <exa^gem6d  Uj^  lii^s 
(toeinicfs.  ^'A  tbttfi/*  says  bis  ablest  bib|rHfiber,  '^<  ^ 
MToh  eaahed  sop^iot^tV,  atld  so  Uttte  moderatibn,  Wolitii 
^iktorslty  bave  M  bU  dennqd^bcies  ob^erV^d  sfhd  ^'^gVd- 
taled  :  ttndfihose  Wh6  t6u\A  t16t  deny  that  b^  ^^as  ib^^ciell^ntl 
^/fwiU  ngbice  to  find  ftiat  he  ^air  frot  perfect.*'  tJbfoHii- 
nately  some  of  those  imperfectioDs  wiere  tob  bbVi'du's 'fdi* 
fcoucerfinent.  1Pdp&  ilral»,  lEimdng  otbler  instances,  W&b  all 
htsfdefedts  of  p^ttron,  li  man  of  gallantry,  and  b^sidWHii 
p^^s1|mp>toous  ^tvd  ridiculoirs  loVe  for  lady  Mkty  Wbrtley 
Alontdgae,  oarrried  tm  an  intercourse  Witli  th6  l^ts^^ 
pbuiit^  whfdb  cM^h\^  was  not  of  ^be  PliatonSic  kind. 
From  tfae  accoont  gif^n  by  Mr.  Bbwles;  in  bis  Vbceht  tM 
of  Pope^  ind  ttie  itiei*'  Letters  pablisbed  in  Mr.  ftbxVte^^'^ 
«diUoa  of  bib  ^rtt^,  ho  gr^sii  bbscurity  nbw  rest^  on  th^ 
tiatiif e  of  that  cc/Aliection. 

^  This  transifeitt  )^6tite  of  the  Mr^ses  Blouht  leads  fo  & 
i^emark  tb^t  b6  Wte  liot  alwayi  forttinate  fti  hi^  frie'n^shVps. 
Martha  Blount,  to  whom  be  was  most  iitt^ehed;  des^eVtfed 
khn  in  h]!8  l&st  iHi^^s^;  brid  Bbringbroke,  wh<ynl  )fvk  have 
steci  weeping  over  the  dying  bard^  and  pb'dt'ing  out  th^ 
jtftMnona  of  the 'witfib^t  affection  for  the  A-iehd  h^  v^ds 
about  to  lose,  soon  employed  the  hireling  M^H^t  t6  bliblc'en 
|Vi|ieV  cbarticter  in  tbe  y^r^  article  for  which  be  thought 
btm  tnoBtefltimabi^,  the  (iuHty  drid  honodr  of  his  'frieridships. 
We  hifve  ahr^&dy  ni^tiee^  this  Affair  in  bitr  dbcbuVit  oi 
MaUe^  (vot.^XXl.  p.  195,)  and  ^hall  no^  only  ISrf^fl'y  saV' 
tta%  vkr  l^o^nfs  d^aCb,  it  Wi^  disclbs^d  io  Loi^d'  Biiliri^- 
brokier  by  Miiltbt>  H^a  bad  hU  ihfbrthatloti  iVbik^  £  UHHte^, 
th«l  Pope  bitd  priht^d  ah  editibii  of  ib^  l^ss^^  bri  d  ^^Pk- 
4lriot'Kiiig/'  Bilt,  a^^  tli^e  h^^  bfi^ri  rtiutb  ib!^6(ibb^titioii 
addlnitreprfs^ht^tioh  te^p^bting ttitkaffiafit', W^^r^  ii£ii)^y  Vo^ 
be  able^  in  this  place,  to  state  the  circumstances  atteilara^ 

N  2 

lip  POP  E. 

it  on  unquestionable  authorityi  that  of  a  gentleman  to 
'whom  the  following  particulars  were  more  than  once  r0^' 
lated  by  the  late  earlof  Marchmont,  and  who,  besides  the 
obliging  communication  of  them,  has  conferred  the  addi;- 
.tfonal  favour  of  permitting  us  to  use  his  name^  the  Right 
Hon.  George  Rose. 

''  The  Essay  (on  the  Patriot  King)  was  undertaken  at 
the  pressing  instance  of  lord  Cornbury,  very  warmly  supf^ 
ported  by  the  earnest  entreaties  of  lord  Marchmont,  witk 
which ,  lord  Bolingbroke  at  length  complied.  When  it 
was  written,  it  was  shewn  to  the  two  lords,  and  one  otheir 
confidential  friend^  who  were  so  much  pleased  with  it^  that 
•  they  did  not  cease  their  importunities  to  have  it  published^ 
till  his  lordship,  after  much  hesitation,  consented  -  ta  print 
it;  with  a  positive  determination,  however,  against  a  pob<^ 
lication  at  that  time,  assigning,  as  his  reason,  that  the  work 
was  not  finished  in  such  a  way  aft  he  wished  it  to  be^  before 
jit  went  into  the  world. 

''Conformably  to  that  determination,  some  copies  of 
the  Essay  were  printed,  which  were  distributed  to  lord 
Combury,  lord  Marchmont,  sir  William  Wyndham,  Mr. 
Lyttelton,  Mr.  Pope,  and  lord  Chesterfield;  one  only 
having  been  reserved*  Mr.  Pope  put  bis  copy  into  the 
hands  of  Mr.  Allen,  of  Prior  Park,  near  Bath,  stating  to^ 
him  the  injunction  of  lord  Bolingbroke ;  but  that  gentle-^ 
man  was  so  captivated  with  it  as  to  press*  Mr.  Pope  to  allow 
him  to  print  a  small  impression  at  his  own  expense,  using 
such  caution  as  should  effectually  prevent  a  single  cop^ 
getting  into  the  possession  of  any  one,  till  the  consent  of 
the  author  should  be  obtained. 

''  Under  a  solemn  engagement  to  that  effect,  Mr.  Popet 
very  reluctantly  consented  :  the  edition  was  then  printed/ 
packed  up,  and  deposited  in  a  separate  warehouse,-  of 
which  Mr.  Pope  had  the  key. 

''  On  the  circumstance  being  made  known  to  lord  Be« 
lingbroke,  who  was  then  a  guest  in  his  own  house  at  Bat-^ 
tersea  with  lord  Marchmont,  to  whom  he  bad  lent  it  for  two 
-or  three  years,  his  lordship  was  in  great  indignation ;.  to 
appease  which,  lord  Marchmont  sent  Mr.  Grevenkop  (a 
German  gentleman  who  had  travelled  with  him,  and  was 
afterwards  in  the  household  of  lord  Chesterfield  when: lord 
lieutenant  of  Ireland,)  to  bring  out  the  whole  edition,  oB 
which  a  bonfire  was  instantly  made  on  the  terrace  at  Bat^ 

P  O  P  E.  -  181 

r'Tbisf  pUin  unTarnidfaed  tale,  our  readers  will  probajbly 
think,  tends  very  much  to  strengthen  the  vindication  which 
W«rburton  offered  for  his  deceased  friend^  although  he 
wttn  ignorant  of  the  concern  Alien  had  in  the  matter ;  but 
it  will  be  di65cult>to  find  an  excuse  for  BolingbroW,  who/ 
forgetting  the  honourable  mention  of  him  in  Pope's  wiii| 
a:thing  quite  incoqapatible  with  any  hostile  intention  ]to- 
ivards  him,  could  employ  such  a  man  as  Mallet  to  blast  the 
memory  of  Pope  by  telling  a  tale  of  "breach  of  felthj*' 
with  every  malicious  iiggravation,  and  artfully  concealing 
what  be  must  have  krtown,  since  lord  Marchmdnt  knew  it, 
tbe  share  Allen  had  in  the  edition  of  the  Patriot  Kin sf. 
.Of  tbe  editions  of  Pope's  works,  it  is  unnecessary  to 
mj^ntion  any  other  thatt  those  of  Warburton,  and  Johnson 
(the  poems  only),  Warton,  and  the  recent .  one  by  Mr. 
Bowles,  which  contains  many  additional  letters  and  docu- 
ments illustrative  of  Pope's  character  and  connections.* 

POPE  (Sir  Thomas),  founder  of  Trinity  college.  Ox- 
ford,  was  born  at  Dedington,  in  Oxfordshire,  about  the 
year  1508.  His  parents  were  William  and  Margaret  Pope, 
tbd  daughter  of  Edmund  Yate,  of  Stanlake,  in  Oxford- 
sfalre.  Shei  was  the  second  wife  of  our  founder's  father, 
aitd  after  his  death  in  1523,  was  again  married  to.  John 
Bnstarde,  of  Adderbury,  in  the  same  county,  whom  she  sur« 
vived^  and  died  in  1557.  The  circumstances  of  the  family^ 
if  not  opulent,  were  *^  decent  and  creditable.'* 

Thomas  was  educated  at  the  school  of  Banbury,  kept  by  ^ 
Thiomas   Stanbridge,    of   Magdalen  college,  an  eminent 
tutor,  and  was  thence  removed   to   Eton   college,  from 
which  he  ifs  supposed  to  have,  gone  to  Gray's  Inn,  where 

Je  studied  the  law.  Of  his  progress  at  the  bar  we  have  ho 
ccount ;  but  bis  talents  must  have  discovered  themselves  at 
an  early  period,  and  have  recommended  him  to  the  notice 
of  his  sovereign,  as  in  October  1533,  when  be  was  only 
tw'enty^seven  years  old,  he  was  constituted  by  letters-pa- 
tent of  Henry  Vlll.  clerk  of  the  briefs  of  the  star-chamber 
at'Westminster,  and  the  same  month  received  a  revei*sionary 
grant  of  the  office  of  clerk  of  the  crown  in  Chancery.  Of 
this  last  he  soon  after  became  possessed,  with  an  annual  fee 
of' twenty  pounds  from  tbe  hanaper,  and  also  a  robe  with 
fur  at  the  feast  of  Christniias  and  Pentecost,  from  tbe  king^s 

.  i  Joboson,  WartoD,  and  Bowles's  Uvei. — D*Israeli  has  an  excellent  chapter 
•to  P^pe'tf  Quarrels  in  his  **  QuarieU  of  Authors.'" — I2iug.  Brit.  &c.  &a»  &c. 

1^  POPE. 

gr^pt  w,nf4TfhG*     Two.  y^Ks  ajfte^,  in  Noven4>^- 1 63  ? j ; Ire 

agCji  iQ  t^e,  Tpwje;:  of  Lpnclori,  which  hip  biographer,  thmk** 
h^.qpiU<?fl  ajjpqf:: eight  ypf^^  aft^r  for  ^qm^.vfptfi,  valiiah)^,^ 
pr^f^lpiQi^iX^^.   T^  saoiie  year  he  feceiyed^a,  parent  for  a  apwr^ , 
co^t  of^aj-Qr^s^itp^.DjB  DOf^Jei  by  hion  wd  hi«  pi^^rityi  wfeict^ 
•rejhQ?^  of,  Triqitycpite^^    Io.Oc.tober.l53ft,  bqx^c^iv^,, 
th|^^,bQjfip.ifr.(\f  knighthpod^  at;.thes^Q^^  m;ith,  Hefirjy^.. 

Hbwiard,  a/terw^rd^.tb)?  galJant  and  upfprtui^afe  €;9ifL  o£;* 
Si^ijrey,^    Id,  D^cepjber,.  he  was  appointed^  tou  efpfgf'iH^,, 
joiqtl^, with  .Wiliiarn-Smy the,  th^  offijce  of^  c|ei:k,p£  all  tb^^. 
briefs  fn .  tbp  ^tar-cbf(p(ibef  jblK  Wesiqin«|er,     In  Bebr  l^3^k 
b^  .ottt^iji^d  a^  his^ojyn  tnstanc^t  ajn^^^VayaljJicei3we,f<)r 
enferqsing  the  o6Bf;^  of  clerk^of  tbe.crowpjQxpxi^uQCijpi^^ 

with,  Jqhn  X-Mpa^^  afterwards  an  eminent  crowJ?  law^^F  *^- 
the^reign  of,  Edward  yj. 

Sopie,  ottbe^e  apppintments^:  it  is,,p4pb?^ble,.  be.pvKed;(Q^tf 
Sir.,T^oiiias|  JVfpre,  wi^b  w^ooi  be  ,wp  parly  ,a€jci4^ii^ ted,  and 
sojcpj^  t^n'ofd  Apdley,  hqi\}  Jor^.chaiiceyojjj;  ^h\i^  ip,153a,  ,. 
he  receu;e4!, one. of  greater  importance,,  being  coiysti^vtefl  by, 
the,  kingji^  trppqrer  pf  thcj.comrtpf  ap^a^f;nta|i9n$ pii.its /5r$j^ 
establ^sljinent  by  act  of  pg^rliaq^ep^.,    The^,biisijje;§s^  of  ibif» . , 
cdui[t  ,wa^  tq^sMma^^tbe  lan^s  of  tbe,dis;iiQlved  .mouas^ic;^ , 
vested  J  n,th^crpwp,.  repeiye,  tU^r  reyenu^e^,.  and^  s^JLth^- 
monastic  po^si^ss^pns  for  .the.J^ipoj's  service,;  a^  it  wa^^sO: 
called  frbni  the  increase,  w^'icb  the. rQyaL,reveai^^ 
c^iy«4''   Tb.e,.trea^irsr's  oi35>c^'  w^a  a.p9&tjo(  coj^^eraWc 
prpfit,  and  ^  of  cpnsiderahie  digoityy:  as  the  pe^sPjU  bpjji^i^g  ^ 
it  ranted  with  th^  principal  officers  of,st^,.and  vvas  prir.  , 
vifege^d  to,  rqtaia  in  hi?  bpuseja  chaplain^  ii^,yii^g«bf|i)ebce.,, 
with  cqre  of  souls, r  who  should  not  bf  conapellc^ytb  r^-r 
de^nc^...   Wh^t,  the, emoluments,  of. this  pffice.,wer^,,  is,po|:.; 
so^,  clear,  but. they  were  greater  than  the  allowaujci^  of  sir  ,. 
Jphn  Williams,  treasurer  in  Edward  Vlth's  reiffn,.  who  .bad  ; 
320f.  yearly  :  and  it  may  be  supposed  the.offic^e  g%v^  tbpse^., , 
advantages  in.  the  purchase,  of  the  dissQlvqd.  possfssio9a,.j 
which  probably  formed  the  foundation  of  £i^  Thpipaajf.  ?aft^.^ 

He  held  th^$  pffige  for  five  years,  aad  during  thskt^jlini^;, , 
was  appointed  master,  or  treasurer,  of ,  the^ewe|pbo4)3e».Vi'  ., 
the  Tower.     In  1^46.  the  court  of  auKmentatipnSi  was  dis^t,. 

ved,  and  a  new  establishment  on  a  more  confined  plan 
substituted.  In  this  sir  Thomas  Pppe  was  nominated  mas- 
ter of  the  woods  of  the  court  on  this  side  the  rirer  Trent^    ' 

I*  OPE.  1S» 

in tergst^  ^^^  tl%  jibing  thaft  .^ejp^?  ,tbe  pr^«^r^ipQ  .ftf  |bd) 

^ii)i?^W8,l>efn|^p^  pf  ti^e  v4?|jor^  ei^Bl9yftd,in  ^^e  general, 
dissi^utipip, '4t  is  cerm^j  fj^  bis.jipHpensjR  |c)i;tMpe.4ro«ei 
f^optt;\*jhat  .gi^^^  hjii^^  aft^  dlwrte4  bi^i 

t^o^ughts  frofl}  ^p,regulj^y  ,jpjr95^3ippj  of,  tb^  J^w, ..  Befei^J 

1^556,  he^^ppifar?  t?  Mv^^lv^SR  ^fuall35fl<W8eps^d)9Jf  WPi^e^. 
tbigih  tbfrt^  WiW?rs  i^/te,,9pup4^,pf.P*fofid,  *,QJlouc^$t§f^., 

other  considerable  ^(;^^^p(}i'^T#'^t^,^4^^^*¥^'    (Sof^pjTi 
thesp  ,]pp^s^f^opi^w%^,mp^Mif^  l>yJUenfy  XJHc  but  the 
greyest  pi^rt  w^^p(j44;i^«  I^|>j^r9b9?p  ,?(|iiteiLh9^  Wi^-i 
n^cte^  ^^i^9<^li^  ,S^uf  ^  ^  ^i^l^i^^T^^tioDS,  and  many  of  bis 
•states >y^je^ug|^f, of giiee^^M^^^^       .„     l»,,ui;rf  ^.;/.   ^u 

ewployed|^in.  .yario^  p^m^e^,  j^^4,att^<Jp9eB^,  a):^t  cQurt,  i 
buiijn  tfOfi^pf^^of^  affefijin^  imfi;9$tif:^fan^wh«n  I|f$ulvaftjL 
se'nt^  by  th^l^ipg  t0|i5;fofi9..^is,^fl\4,^i^d,^^^^^ 
Thoina^.|k(^ore,  9f,,t^^.^hoj|^..^Boi9Jte4  ,f<>r  hisrfXi^ipiJ^^ 
(^^  MpK^fi  ..Qp  tbj;  ac9^^i9p  c^  ?4i«W»  VJt^,^  b#i«W 
not  of,  tfi^  rj9t9Bfijie4jrgpgioa,  sijr  '?!|wMpws  J^ppct^jre^^ed 
no  f?Jvour  oj^  x^qe,;jl^vt^ij?jiep,a^^ 


a  ppinini^siQnj  fpf  tt^ci-mpr^^pffep^Hal  ^upprej^pnojf^^etios^'  [ 
in  concert  witb  B99n^f  and.9t|iersi,  bpt  Jji^  Rgiid^^ 
the  princess  (^fterwafdjp  q^een).  Cliff be^^wa^  pl^e4:ttAd^j 
bis  care  in  ^555^  wasiar  qppr^  tq  his  ,9fe4ifc  *.4f^r  hf^^^gli 
beeii  ionprisbpea, iQ  ^l^e  '^Q^fir  ^ud  ^^  WQpd^ackf^tshe.waiS. « 
permitted  ^y,ter.j(?filous  sister  tp  retire  ^wit]^^sir^T,bpf«aa./ 
Popp  to  katj^ercfrhou^ie^  ii^  P^lrtfpr^sh^re,  l^^n  afroy*l|M|r.;i 

lacq,  whejje^ejye^  ber  everyjnarjk  pfre^pcpt  fbaj  i^ajL  t 
cqnsi$ten^  w^tb  tbe-  pati^r^f/d^bls  qliargey  .^pd  niqrj^  thsm 
could  bave  been  expected  fropi-pne  of  .bis;  rigid  ^(Jber^ice.  > 
to  tlje  reigninjg  politics^     After  a  residence  bef^pf  foUti| 
years,  sbe  was  raisexit  to  tbe  tbrone  on  tbe  death  of  her 

184  POPE. 

.    .  .        •  • 

sister  .Marjr,  Nor.  17,  1558,  aiid  on  this  occasion  sir  Tb^ 
mas  does  not  appear  to  have  been  contiriued  in  the  privy* 
council,  nor  bad  be  afterwards  any  concetn  in  political 
transactions.     He  did  not,  indeed,  survive  the  accession, 
of  Elizabeth  above  a  year,  as  he  died  Jan.  29, 1559,  at  bis 
house  in  Cierkenwell,  which  was  part  of  the  dissolved  mo««,. 
nastery  there.     No  circunistances  of  his  illness  or  death 
have -been  discovered.     Mr.  Warton  is  inclined  to  think  1 
that  he  was  carried  off  by  a  pestilential  fever,  which  raged 
with  uncommon  violence  in  the  autumn  of  15 53.     He  wa* 
interred,  in  great  state,  in  the  parish  church. of  St.  Ste* 
pben*s,Walbropk,  where  his  second  wife,Margaret;  had  been   , 
before  buried,  and  his  daughtier  Alice.   *'But  in  1567  ttieir^. 
bodies  were  rednoved  to  the  chapel  of  Trinity  college,  and 
again  interred  on  the  north  side  of  the  altar  under  a  tomb 
of  gothic  workmanship,  on  which  are  the  recumbent  Bgures  . 
of  sir  Thomas  tn   complete  armour,  and  his. third  wiifQ   , 
Elizabeth,  large  as  the  life,  in  alabaster. 
^  Sir  Thomas  Pope  was  tb rice  married.    His  first  wife  was 
Elizabeth  Guhston,  from 'whom  be  was  divorced  July  1 1„ 
L536i     His  second  was  Margaret  Dodtner,.  wido^^  to  whom   , 
he  was  married  July  17,  1536^.     Her  maiden  name  was 
Townsend,  a  native' of  Stamford  in  Lincoloshire,  and  the    . 
relict  of  Ralph  Dodmer,  knight,  sberifF  and  lord-mayor  of  . 
London.    By  sir  Thomas  Pope  she  had  only  one  daughter^ 
Alice^'  who  .died  very  young,  but  she  bad  two  sons  by  heir  . 
former  husband,  whom  sir  TbonGias  treated  as  his  own.  ,She  . 
died  in  153a,  after  which,  in  1540,  he  ;married  Elizabeth 
the  daughter  of  Walter  Blount,  esq.  .of  Blount's  Hall,  in 
StaiFordshire.  .  She  was  at  that  time  the  widow  of  Anthony  *  . 
Basford,  or  Beresford,  esq  of  Bently,  in  Derbyshire,  by 
whom  she  had  one  son,  but  no  childrien  by  sir  Thomas 
Pope.     After  Sir  Thomas's  death  she  married  sir  Hugh 
Powlett,  of  Hinton  St.  George,  in  Somersetshire,  the  son 
of  sir  Amiais  Powlett,  who  was  confined  iti  the  Temple  by 
the  order  of  cardinal  Wolsey.     Sir  Hugh  joined  heT  cor- 
dially in  her  regard  and  attentions  to  the  college,  of  which  , 
she  was  now  styled  the  foundress:     She  died  at  an  ad- 
vanced age,  Oct  27,  1593,  at  Tyttenhanger,  in  Hertford- 
shire, the  favourite  seat  of  sir  Thomas  Pope,  and  was  in-^ 
terred,  in  solemn  pomp,  in  the  chapel  of  Trinity  college. 

Mr.  Warton's  character  of  sir  Thomas  Pope  must  not  be 
omitted,  as  it  is  the  result  of  a  careful  examination  of  hi^    ^ 
public  and  private  conduct.    He  appears  to  have  been  a   * 

.   V 

POPE.'  1«5' 

ni|Hi  eminently  qtialified  for  business;  and  althougli  not 
^ployed  in  the  very  principal  departments  of  state,  be 
possessed  peculiar  talents  and  address  for  tbe  management . 
and  execution  of  public  affairs.     His  natural  abilities  were 
strong,  bis  knowledge  of  the  world  deep  and  extensive,  bit , 
judgment  solid  and  discerning.     His  circumspection  and 
prudence  in  the  conduct  of  negociations  entrusted  to  bis  . 
cbarge,  were  equalled  by  bis  fidelity  and   perseverance*. 
IJe  is  a  conspicuous  instance  of  one,  not  bred  to  the  church, . 
wl^o,  without  the  advantages  of  birth  and  patrimony,  by  the 
force   of  understanding  and  industry,  raised  himself  to  > 
opulence  and  honourable  employments.     He  lived  in  an , 
a^e  when  the  peculiar  circumstances  of  the  times  afforded 
oqvious  temptations  to  the  most  abject  desertion  of  prin- 
ciple ;  and  few  periods  of  our  history  can  be  found  which  . 
exhibit  more  numerous  examples  of  occasional  compliance  . 
with  frequent. changes.     Yet  he  remained  unbiassed  and 
uncorrupted  amid  the  general  depravity.     Under  Henry 
VIII.  when  on  the  dissolution  of  the  monasteries  he  was  . 
enabled  by  the  opportunities  of  his  situation  to  enrich  him- 
self with  their  revenues  by  fraudulent  or  oppressive  prac- 
tices, he  behaved  with  disinterested   integrity ;  nor  does  . 
a.  single  instance  occur  upon   record   which  impeaches 
bis  honour.   ^  In  the  succeeding  reign  of  Edward  VI.  a  sud-  , 
den  check  was  given  to  bis  career  of  popularity  and  pros- 
perity ;  he  retained  his  original  attachment  to  the  catholic 
religion  ;.and  on  that  account  lost  those  marks  of  favour 
or  distinction  which  were  so   liberally  dispensed  to  the 
sycophants  of  Somerset,  and  which  he  might  have  easily 
secured  by  a  temporary  submission  to  the  reigning  system. 
At  the  accession  of  Mary  be  was  restored  to  favour ;  yet 
he  was  never  instrumental  or  active  in  the  tyrannies  of  that 
qvieen  which  disgrace  our  annals.     He  was  armed  with  dis- 
cretionary powers  for  the  suppression  of  heretical  innova- 
tions ;  yet  he  forbore  to  gratify  the  arbitrary  demands  of 
his  bigoted  mistress  to  their  utmost  extent,  nor  would  he 
participate  in  forwarding  the  barbarities  of  her  bloody  per- 
secutions.    In  the  guardianship  of  the  princess  Elizabeth, 
tbe  unhappy  victim  of  united  superstition,  jealousy,  re- 
venge^ and  cruelty,  his  humanity  prevailed  over  his  interest, 
arid  be  less  regarded  the  displeasure  of  the  vigilant  and  un- 
forgiving queen,  than  the  claims  of  injured  innocence.     If 
it  be  his  crime  to  have  accumulated  riches,  let  it  be  re- 
meogibered,  that  he  consecrated  a  part  of  thpse  riches,  ncrt 

9lMA  ^  the  terrors  of  a'd^tfa-bed/  irbr*  in  tSe*drfea^ilt>Y  oHP 
a^e,  but  inf'  the  prime  of  life,  and  the'  yigoiit o^uMi^iJ* 
standing;  to  t&e^  pubKc  service  of  bid  country^;*  thfath^ 
gkie  them  to  future'  generations  for  the  perlietuafsA^'^^l^t^ 
of  literature  and  relijgion. 

•  Str  TTibmas  Pope^is  certainly  in  the  prirte  of  Hf^'WEeA' ^ 
lafb  determined  to  found  a  college,  the  nebesii^tj^  of  wlii'<ih^ 
was  to  him' apparent,  fromr-tbe  actual  state^of 'the' uhiver-* 
sity,  and'the'  increasing  zeal' for  literatui'e,  wbiiih ^ hatl  i A^ 
less  than  half  a*' ccnttriry  produced  three  new  c6llegferf  in'^ 
Oxford,  and  four  in- Cambridge.  Like  soth'e  of  the  oiB^t^ 
Idafnfed 'of  his'  predecessors  in  these  mtihiftc^l?' acts;  he** 
siw  the  necessity  of  providing  far  classical  itterature,'  'afid^ 
his  teacher  of  humanity,  is  specially  enjoined  to  inspire  bi^^ 
scholars  with  a  just  taste  for  the  graces;  of  th^'Lattn'  lan*"^ 
gfaage,  and  to'explain  critically  the  works  of  Cicero;  Qdih^  * 
titian,  Aulus  Gellius,  Plautus^  Terence,  Virgil,  Horace, ' 
tivy,  and  Ludan/  From  these  and  otHer  iftjutictidns  re- ' 
specting  the  same  subject,  it  may  be -infemd^  that'af- 
though  Mr.  Warton  has  not  made  it  a  promineht  feature  iti^^ 
hts  character^  the  founder's  'acquaintance^  with  clasdd^f  * 
learning  was  not  inferior  to  his  other  accompltshnfients. 

"The  site  chosen  for  his  new foundatibriVai' a^ this  time^ 
occupied'  by  Durham  'college,  which  Edwttrd  VI.  granted ^^ 
td  George  Owen,  of  Godstowe,  the  king^  physictaby  a^ 
man  of  great  learning  and  eminence,  and  William''Mariy/i,*'> 
gentleman,  in  1552;  and  sir  Thomas*  ptfrchised.  tb^'pFe- * 
mises  of  these  genilemeri  by"  indenture  dated  Feb.  20, 1 554.*' 
<Jn  March  8,  arid  March  28,  he  obtained  from*  *Phi%  * 
and  Mafy  a  royal  licence  and  charter  to  create  and  erect  a  ^ 
college  within  the  university  of  Oxford,  under  the  title  of'^ 


sitate  Oxon.  ex  fundatione  THOMiE  Pope  miutis.  '  The  ' 
sdciety  was  to  consist  6f  a  president,  a  priest,  twelVe  fel-  * 
lows,  four  of  whom  shotiid'be  priests,  and 'eight^sdbolkr^^  ^ 
(afterwards  increased  to  twelve)  and  the  whole  to  be  Hberatly  ' 
aifd  amply  endowed  with  certain  manors,  lands,  and'  re^  • 
venues.  They  were  to  be  elected  out  of  thediocbiie  ai^d '^ 
pbcW  where  the  college'  hsts" benefices,'  mftnors,  or  W-  ' 
venues,  mbre  particularly  in  Oxfordshire,  Gioubfestelrsttrei  ' 
tVarwickshire,  Derbyshire,  Bedfordshire,  Hertfordstere,^  *^ 
aifd  Kent  The  same  charter  empowered  him  to  foiind  "^ 
aifdeiidbw  a  school  at'Hokenorton,  in  Oxfordirfaire;  to*  )»e  ' 
called  Jesus iSchciekouse:  un&  to\grve  statdtes  both  to  th^e^*' 

^<lil9ge«  ttad  to^  tlM» » first !  aod .  steand  nnwVtnr)  of  iiie'dtiii>' 
9c^mi,    ApcLby  <Waid^  daled  MliAcb  ^^ftj  t  i  d  Si^  hes^fadhndd 
his.  nctval  er^dioiit  aiMk  e6taWii|fa«leiit  of^tfae  l  saidvcdlfege^' 
aQdtt^t^;8Wiffdftjriddivtered'^)MM*sm   hcforeia^^itt^tcmiw 
€ojurs«  of  wiuie$509^  ta  Um^^  preaideoii  f  ftUo«i«)^nd  seb6kiM« 
Ii|^41aj^'foU«wiag( Jb«r«i&ppii(dil^>  bisr  colleg^^witW  Mces9a;riet( 
at>di  i|Dpj<wi»Bte  of  every  kiiifd«::badka|tfurnhure' for  thef^ 
chf^p^y.oC-  tb^  iBO^  co»tty  kind$,aind'*nett  yeatrhct.triiiitB;«' 
mU^ed- arbody  olsuuatea^o^tbeisoci^tjrv  diM;ed»Mey}l^li5iMi'i 
Tiiqse  st^Miie^  he  ba«i'8id>niHed<>tOjtberei^i9ioti  of  caffdinalV' 
Pple» .  from^  i  wJiom  >  his  received  /  soittevaluftble  -  bin  ts.:?    Oofi 
tli4^8tb  of  (he^aoiecinontb;  .Mayi  sbd  gavethem  one^fauti**^' 
dijed  ppmids  asra^stQck  for*  immediate'povposea ;  .aoditbe^ 
eodo^'^^^i^i^Vby  thirty -five  maoons^  thirteen  advoirsoatE','  be^  - 
sid^siippropriations  aqd  p^miobs^iwasi  coinpIetedt<bifore,:^ 
oriu|>pn,-,tbe^  feasit  of  Aniiaoeiationy  ini  thesame-y^ar ;  alid*  * 
tbe  first  president,  felfows  add^sebolars,  nouiinatedfby  hinx** 
sed^.  w^rehforiually  (admitted  witbin  <the"chapd{^  A&y  Sd, 
on  tbe  eve :  of  Trinity  >Sunday^    Duriog'  his"  Itfe^tiaie;*  the*'' 
£^qder  n<munated.tbe  f^UowsaodaeboUrs^^andafter^avds^ 
dotegaled;  thei  power  to  biat  widotv^Mdame .'  EKaabelb^  of^ 
nQQiinatiogvtbe  scholars^  >aad  presentingito  .the  radvd^soif^ 
af)d  tbis.«be  cQtHinued  to  exoreise  during  .her  long  life^  .bdt  ^ 
wit^  sofiie  inlerruptiOcis^  aad  isome^  opppsii;ioii.:    O^i^onft' 
OQcasioo'tbe  college  rejjected  ber  nominatioo  to  a  «cbplar-i 
shig^Mtad  .cboiaa>  another  candidate^  but  ontan  itappcfeil  id  ' 
tbf^ yis^itdr^  Jbe  decided  tin  iber;  fa^oon     She  som^imes  nko  ^ 
nqminai^d.  the  fellows,  ,and  onoe  a  f>resstdeqt;     Bot-  both 
sbi&aQd  bqr  btiisliaady  sir  HugblPowlett;  were  solib^htfrrd  - 
pQMotual  in  falfillifig  therfoufides^s  indentions,  andin  con-- 
trU>iHi»g -to ttbe  prosperity  of  the'college,^  that  «be  wtts-in^ 
goi^esral  obeyied  with  respect  and  gratitude;^ 

OnSt*  jSmtbin'4  day,' July  15^  1^56,  tbe  foaitdei^  visited  ' 
hia  coUeg^^.  ^aecaoapahied  iby  the  bishops  of '^Winchester- 
and  Elyj;  Wbyte and  Thirlbj^  and  other  etDioeiit  personages] 
wto'.wese'eiHertainedsaaiptitoti^  in.  tbe  >haM;  thewbolia^' 
eiq^oaes  o£  whicb  wenet^tidsby  him  to;  the  b^jrsar  on  the  ^ 
saine  day#  <    Nor.  wsia  tim  -a  stngultamact  of  litx^rality^'  for  it  - 
appears  :thiil>  daring  liiarTbie^idae  he  paid  alt  the  university 
e3qpeaoaB<i>(;.degieie9$.  regencies, .and  determinatiionsv  -for 
the  fellows  and  scholars.'  He: also  continued  to  se>ndiva^> 
TioMfr.Klicdeasof  rieb  farokore  Anr  the  ctiapebaod  hati^  and 
a  great  quantity  of  valua.ble  plate,  and  made  considerable 
additiotts  tor- the'-perimrnt^  errddmnent,  by  new  fevetiues 

1»8.  F  O  P  E. 

far.  five  obits  or  dirges,  yectrlj?  to  be  sung  ahd  celebHited  ^ 
as  festivals  in  bis  college.  About  the  same  time  he  founded'  * 
four  additional  scholarships,  from  the  endowment  of  the  ' 
school  intended  to  have  been  Established  at  Hokenorton,  ^ 
but  which  intention  he  now  abandoned,  thinking  it  more  '\ 
beneficial  to  the  public  to  increase  the  number  of  scholars  - 
.in  the  university.     In  December  1557,  he  announced  his  * 
intention  of  building  a  house  at  Garsington,  near  Oxford,  ' 
to  which  the  society  might  retire  in  time  of  the  plague. 
This  was  built  after  his  death,  pursuant  to  his  wiH,  in  a 
quadrangular  form ;  and  it  appears  from  the  college  books  '^ 
li»at  they  took  refuge  herein  1570-1,  and  again  in  1577. 
Oo  the  former  occasion  they  were  visited  by  sir  Hugh  -' 
Powlett.     At  this  bouse  they  performed  the  same  exer<>  -^ 
cises,  both  of  learning  and  devotion,  as  when  in  college. 
In.  1563,  before  this  house  was  completed,  they  retired,  '- 
during  a  plague,  to  Woodstock.^  - 

.POPE  (Walter),  a  man  of  wit  and  learning  irt  the  se*^  * 
venteenth  century,  was  born  at  Fawsley  in  Northampton-^ 
shire,  in  what  year  is  not  mentioned.     He  was  half  brother  - 
to  Dr.  John  Wilkins,  bishop  of  Chester,  by  the  mother^s   ' 
«ide.     He  was  admitted  of  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,-  iii  - - 
1 645,  but  is  supposed  for  some  reason  to  have  left  that  soon*;  * 
for  Wadham  college,  Oxford,  where  he  obtained  a  scho- 
Jarship,  and  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  July  6,  1649.     In'/ 
July  165r  the  parliamentary  visitors  admitted  him  probti*--  ' 
tioner  fellow,  although  he  does  not  appear  to  have  been;  of  ' 
their  principles,  and  in  the  same  month  he  commenced- 
master  of .  arts.     In  1658,  while  he  served  the  office  of ' - 
junior  proctor,  a  controversy  took  place  respecting  the ' . 
wearing  of  caps  and  hoods^  which  the  reigning  party  con«   ' 
sidered  as  reliquesof  popery,  and  therefore  wished  to  abo^'  . 
lish  the  statute  which  enjoined  them.     This  he  contrived 
to  oppose  with  so  much  success  that  all  the  power  of  the' 
republicans  was  not  sufficient  to  carry  the  point,  and  these    • 
articles  of  dress  continued  to  be  worn  until  the  restoration.    - 
Of  this  affair,  which  he  calls  ''  the  most  glorious  action  of-  * 
his  life,'*  he  has  given  a  full  account  in   his  Life  of  Dn   ' 
Ward,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  expresses  his  displeasure    * 
that  Antony  Wood  should,  in  his  "  Annals,"  have  passed^  * 
over  an  event  so  honourable  tohim. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  above  year,  1658^  and  before  "*  « 

at  •  •  •  •  • 

1  W«rtoo'0  Life  of  »r  Thomaa  Pope.— Cluilmer«*s  flitt;  of  Offorjd,  ^.  ^ .  _ 

;p  o  p  E.  IS* 

•Utt-^proctorsbip  expired,  he  obtaiaed  leave'  to  travel,  but 
reiurned  probably  before  1660,  as  we  then  find  him  dean 
pfWadbam. college ;  and  when,  in  the  same  year  Mr.  (after* 
wards,  sir) :  Christopher  Wren  resigned  the  professorship 
of  astronomy  in  Gresham  college,  Mr.  Pope  was  chosen  :iii 
Ilia  room,,  atid  Sept«,  12  of  that  year  was  created  doctor  of 
physic  ;  but  the  statutes  not  permitting  him  to  hold  both^ 
he  was  obliged  on  this  occasion  to  resign  his  fellowship  in 
JlVadbam.  In  May  1663  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  first 
fellows  of  the  Royal  Society  along  with  the  other  eminent 
men*  whom  .the  nation  then  yielded,  and  soon  after,  had 
licence  to  travel  for  two  years,  during  which  he  made  the 
tour  of  Italy,  and  remitted  to  the  Royal  Society  various 
observations  collected  on  his  journey.  In  1667  he  was 
chosen  into  the  council  of  the  Royal  Society,  and  in  the 
following  year,  his  half-brother  Dn  Wilkins,  being  pro- 
moted to  the  bishopric  of  Chester,  made  hkn  registrar  of 
that  diocese.  In  16'86  he  was  recovered  of  an  inflamma- 
tion in  his  eyes,  whicb  endangered  the  loss  of  sight,  by 
Dr.  Turbervile^  an  eminent  oculist,  as  he  gratefully  ac-* 
knowledged  in  an  epitaph  which  he  wrote  upon  him  after 
his  death.  ^  In  the  following  year  be  resigned  his  Gresham. 

.  Dr.  Pope  was  a  man  of  humour  and  a  satirist,  and  in 
both  characters  had  published  in  1670  the  ^*  Memoirs  of 
Mons.-Du  Vail^ :  with  his  last  speech  and  epitaph."  Du 
Yall  was  a  notorious  highwayman^  who  was  hanged  in  1669 
at  Tyburn,  and'  having  been  much  admired  and  bewailed 
by  the  ladies,  our  author  by  this  piece  of  biography  en* 
deavoured  to  cure  them  of  such  weakness  or  aflPectation, 
and  ^o'  direct  their  esteem  to  more  worthy  objects.  In 
1693, ,  he  published  his  well-known  song  called  *^  The 
Wish,",  or:**  The  Old  Man's  Wish,"  which  may  be  seen  in* 
Mr.  Niobols's  collection  of  Miscellany  Poems,  and  perhaps. 
in '^very  collection  of  English  songs.  Vincent  Bourne 
wrote  a  beautiful  imitation  of  it  in  Latin.  This  wish  seems, 
to  have  been  in  some  -  measure  accomplished  -  in-  bis  own 
.ca#e,  for  in  his  life  of  bishop  Ward,  published  in  1697,  he 
teys,  **  I  thank  God,  I  am  arrived  to  a  good  old  age  without 
gdut,  orstoiie,  with  my  external  senses  but  little  decayed ; 
and  my  intellectuals,  tho'  none  of  the  best,  yet  as  good  as 
ever  :tbeyf  were/'  .  In  the  following  year  he  was  involved  in 
a  tedious  law-suit,  which  gave  him  much  uneasiness,  but 
what  the  subject  was,  his  biogjrapher  has  not  discovered. 

<9D  t*  D  T  IE, 

Jo  J699^f](l^ilMraw  ham  the  iRoijnal  '8ociet^^^«8t|gfDiii||r 
wwBy  \BrohMy  toivetive  into  tbe  country^  Arid  iecijo^rffainMehP 
io  ^ociie  neapeetsmgreedbJy  ,to  bia  ^  Widi.**    >^cocdlrngljf 
bfiiSfifint  smicb  df  his  time -aftervrards  at  Epsotn,  'InitAt  iasa 
tetded  in  Eunbill  fiekk,  .^eti  a«abui?b  ioT  London,  urbeti^ 
lie  diedy'in  aTerj;advianced  age,  in:  June  l*714,.fand'W8^ 
)>ttried  iacihcicbuvcfa  of 'St.^Giies's  Crippleg^e. 
.    lie  fliaiataiaed  an  intinate  feiendsbip  vmhtvo^teiyvnri^' 
Bent  and  bearned  men,  Mr.  Roake  and  Br^  Batrow;  ^tit»hi^ 
greatest  friend  and  pa^on,  next  to  his  brother  bishop'  WSk 
kioB,  WM  Dr.  Seth  Ward,  bishop  of  ^liaboiy,  fwfabBe  tUte 
be  MTote,  and  from  whom  he  bad  a  p«mion  of  iO(tf.  %  year^ 
His  intimaoy  with  ibis  e!xceilent  prelate  seems  to  cbdtntdict 
the  character  Anthony  Wood  givevoFbin,  ^athe  led  ^an 
*^  Epacurean  aodibeatbenish  tife,^  but  cbece  wafe  eene  eaose 
of  qq^rrel ^between  Wood  and  Dr.  Pop^,  and  the  foraier,.w^ 
know,  w^  too  apt  to  put  bis  resentments  in 'wmiDg;  JPope 
was  a  man  of  wit  as  well  as  learning,  bbt  ceriMniy  ttidt  tt 
eorreet  or  elegant  wrtter«    He  was  a  ^^ood  .French  a»d  ha-s 
lian  scholar,  aad  well  aoqaaiiMMxl  also  with  the  Spanisb 
language.     In  tbe  Philosophical  Transactions  (April  IM5)^ 
is  by  him  f^  Extract  of  a  letter  from  Vjenioe  ita  Dr.  Wrifcins; 
concerning  the  mines  of  mercury  in  Friaii,  &a"  and  '^Ob^^ 
servatioQS  oaade  at  London  upon  an  edipse  of  the-i^an, 
June  82,  ]:€66/'     His  Other  woAb  are,  ^f  The'  Memoirs  o# 
Mons.  Dtt  YalV  menticnicd  abore^  Lond.  l&IOf  4to;  -^T^' 
the  Memory  of  die  most  renowned  Du  V«aU,  a^  Piadari^ 
Ode,''  ibid.  t671»  4to^  said  in  tbe  title  to  be  written  by^ 
Butler,  and  since  printed  among  bis  ^^  Remmis,"  and  ki- 
bis  '<  Works."*  Dr.  Pope  wrote  aUo  ^Tbe  Caoholit:  Baikrd,'*> 
and  other  verses,  which  are  inserted  in  Mr.  Nicho)s*0  Col*^* 
fection  ;  **  Select  Novels,^'  161^4,'  from  the  Spanisb  of  C^f^-^ 
vantes  and  tbe  Italtan  of  Petrareb ;  ^'  lUoeal  and  Politteaf 
Fables,  ancient  and  modern,*'  ibid.  |j6M,  8va     But  hia 
most  use&l  publication  is  ^<The  Life  of  the  Right  Hevr 
Setfa,  Lord  Bishop  of  Salisbopy,'*  a  small  volume  printed' 
at  London  in'  1497,  wfaieh  contains:  ma»y  aneodotes  of  thaft' 
prelate's  contemporaries^  Wilkins^   Barraw,  Rooke^  Tavw 
betvdlle^  tpo;     Dr.  Thos.  Wood^  a  aivilian,  and  t^Mtitu  '<^ 
Ant.  Wood,  pnbliflbed  some  severe  aniflffiSihreMions  onthia 
lifie  In  what  he  entitled:^  Air  Appeffdii&>4o  the  UA^i  &e.  tiv 
ai  Letter  re  the  Authov,^a.t'  i€br7,  ifsaib,  but*^s  isiniial^ 
moiie  aeane' than  the  otberl*'.* 

.  •....,»t.  r\  .'■ 

1  Ward's  Gretham  Prafanori.'— ^b.  Ox.  t«L  ^•-^Hiokn^'g  PoeiM. 

P  O  P  H  A  ]\f,  :  Ipl 

,P^OPfHAM  (^iji  Jop^)^  ^n  E;nglwh  la«y^r.of  ep^injwi^p, 

was  the.eui^st.son  qf  E^Wjard  Pophaai,  lesq.  of  ^up^w^nh 

iniSbmers^etsbirp^^  pnd  .bom  in  1>3.1.     lle.was^ome  time^a 

.■student  at  B^aliol  coU^ge , in  Oxford,^eji,  fts  Wpoid 

My^9  ^jgiYcp  aj  ,l^ij5ui:,e  hpur^s  to  manly  sports  apd  €xercUes« 

^w  ben  lie  removed  to  tbe  Middle  Temple,  he  .is  wd  at  &^t 

to  have  ^ed^^^dii^pated  Jifc,  Nbut  emptying  .dilijgently  /ifter- 

'^wards  totbesitijay  ox  tbe  law,  Jbe  i^Qse  to  9ome  of  hs  highest 

onpu^s..    He  ws^s  qiade  secjeaqt  ^t  law  about  157Q,  «oU-> 

citor-gepiprj^  in,lf>79,  .a^d  attorney  •general  in  168l,;wbe>v 

he  also  bqr$  tb^  officp  of  treiisjurer  of  tb^  Middle  Tenopl^. 

"tfi  1^92,  h^  was  p/pmoted  to  tbe  rank  of  chief  j|39ltiic^..<;if 

^thecouiritqf  king'srt^^nch ;  not  of  the  common  j)leaf^,a|]i, 

fi^o^i  sqmp  expressions  of  his  own,  has  been  erroneoii^sly 

^Supposed,  and  at  tbe  it^me  time  he  was  ^Digbted.     |o  .l60fL 

tie  was  one  of  the  J^v^y^s  d^tain^d  by  tbe  linfortqnate  ^fl 

of  jE^ssex,  iwh^n  )ie  formed  tbe  absurd  prcgect  of  4^Q4i4^^ 

himself  in  l;iis  tiQu^e  ^  and  oio  the  earPs  yr\^  gave  ,^v^dei|c^ 

lagain^t  Hipii  r^^atixe  ^tQ  Uieir  d^ent^cyi:     fie  dif  d  in  i6iyj^ 

it  tbe  age  of  s^y^ejpty-si'x,  and  lyas  buried  at  WelHipg-toi?  ifi 

ijis  ns^tiye  poqntr^,  wher^  be  bad  f  Ip^^ys  raided  a^  ipMfs^  . 

as  his  iyocatiopb  yvoi^Id  pejrmit.     He  wf^s  e^^en(ied  ^  s^v^er^ 

Judge  in  th^  (jase  of  I'obhters ;  but  b^s  severity  was  w^JIt 

tim^d,  asitV^di^c^d  the  jnumber  .of  highwaymen,  wl^.b/^? 

iifte  ^adi^  greatly  Jnfesjted  the  cou^.try.     If  Aubrey  na^y  Ije 

credited,  his  general  character  ^•as  lial^le  to  naaoy  $eripu» 

i^xceptions.    llis  wor^^  are,  !•  ^^  R^pprts  and  Cases,  a^d^^* 

judged  m  the  time  of  queen  Elizabeth,"  London,  16^6,  fol« 

^.  ^'Resolutions  and  Ju()gements  upon  Cases  and  Mattery 

agitated  in  all  tl)e  Cdiijrts  ^t  Wejstmiouster  in  tk^  Is^tter  end 

of  queen  Elizabeth,"  London,  4to.     Both  lord  Holt  an4 

chief  justice  Hy4^  considered  the  Reports  aef  of  po  autho- 

"  PpRCApCHI  (Thomas),  a  learned  Italian  ojf  the  six- 
teenth 'century,  was  bor,n  at  Castiglione  A^^Uno.  While 
^ident^at  Venice  in  15.59,  be  assisted  in  makine  a  coUec-^ 
fion  of  all  th^  Oreek  histpriaos,  or  annalists,  from  whose 


tYate  the  greater.     Porcacchi  was  likewise  editor  or  tran$^ 

'  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— I^loyd's  State  Worthies. — Letters  hy  pqnmeot  Venot^p 
with  tbe  Aubrey  MSS.  181 3>  ^  vols.  dVa.-^Fuller^s  Worthies:— BV%eEp»Q> 

Mgal  Bibliog#«iWiy;  ''  '^  ^ 

\^2  P  O  R  C  A  C  C  H  I- 

lalor  of  Pompoiiius  Mela,  Quintus  Cuttius,  and  ti.riou« 
other  authors,  and  published  some  original  works  iii  poetry, 
history,  antiquities,  and  geography.  The  most  valued  of 
these  is  his  *^  Funerali  antichi  di  divert!  popttli,  &c.^* 
Venice,  1574,  4to,  the  plates  of  which  are  very  fine.  He 
died  in  1585.^ 

PORCELLUS,  or  PORCELLIO  (Peter),  a  Neapo- 
litan of  the  fifteenth  century,  is  said  to  have  been  a  swine- 
herd in  bis  youth,  fro6i  which  circumstance  he  had  the 
'Dame  of  Porcellus.  He  was  born  about  1400,  and  there* 
fbre  could  not  haVe  lived  in  the  time  of  Petrarch,  as  Vos- 
sius  and  Bailtet  have  asserted.  How  be  emerged  from  ofat- 
scurity  is  not  known,  but  it  is  certain  that  he  calls  himself 
secretary  to  the  king  of  Naples,  and  was  much  esteemed  bjr 
Frederic,  duke  of  Urbino,  a  celebrated  general,  who  died 
•1482.  He  was  also  in  the  Venetian  army  in  1452,  which 
gave  him  occasion  to  write  the  history  of  count  James  Pici- 
nini,  who  fought  for  the  Venetians  at  his  own  expehce,  and 
not  only  honoured  Porcellus  with  his  esteem,  but  lodged 
*bim  in  bis  house,  and  admitted  him  ddly  to  his  table.  Mu« 
ratori  published  this  fragment  of  history,'  1?3I,  in  vol.  XX 
of  his  historical  collections.  He  had  written  a  supplement 
to  it  which  remains  in  MS.  and  some  Epigrams,  in  a  simple 
and  natural  style,  which  were  printed  with  other  Italian 
poems,  Paris,  1539,  8vo.     He  died  some  time  after  1452.f 

PORC HERON  (David  PLAcmE),  a  learned  Benedictine^ 
was  born  in  1652,  at  Cbateauroux  in  Berry.  He  was  well 
acquainted  with  languages,  history,  geography,  heraldry,  and 
medals ;  and  had  the  office  of  librarian  in  the  abbey  of  St* 
Germain-des-Prez,  where  he  died,  February  14,  1695^ 
aged  42.  He  published  an  edition  of  the  '^  Maxims  for  the 
Education  of  a  young  Nobleman,"  1690,  after  having,  cor* 
rected  the  language,  and  added  a  translation  of  the  empe- 
ror Basilius  the  Macedonian's  instruction  to  his  son  Leo, 
with  the  lives  of  those  two  princes.  An  edition  of  the. 
^  Geography  of  the  Anonymous  Author  of  Ravenna,*'  was 
tilso  published  by  him  at  Paris,  1688,  8vo.  with  curious  and 
learned  notes ;  a  work  very  useful  for  the  geography  of 
the  middle  ages,  as  this  anonymous  author  lived  in  the, 
7th  century.  He  also  assisted  in  the  new  edition  of  St.. 

1  Niceron,  toI.XXXTV.— Moreri«— >Tir«ib9fehi. 

*  Jioferi.^B«iUet.--Dict.  HbU  >  Moreri.— Diet  l|»t.  ^ 

P  O  R  D  E  N  O  N  E.  IVM 

PORDENONE  (John  Antony  Licinius),  kDown  by  the 
formlr  name,  from  the  village  of  Pordenone,  about  twenty* 
five  miles  from  Uctino,  in  which  he  was  born  in  1484,  had  a/ 
^strong  talent  for  historical  painting,  which  he  carried  to  a 
higti  degree  of  perfection,  without  any  other  aid  than  the 
'careful  study  of  the  works  of  Giorgione.  He  painted  at 
first  in  fresco,  but  afterwards  in  oil,  and  was  particularly 
distinguished  by  his  skill  in  foreshortening  his  figures.  His 
invention  was  fertile,  his  taste  good,  his  colouring  not 
unlike  that  of  Titian,  and  his  designs  had  the  merit  of 
uniting  force  aad  ease.  A  strong  emulation  subsisted  be- 
tween him  and  Titian ;  and  it  is  certainly  no  small  merit  thfit 
lie  was  able  to  sustain  any  competition  with  such  a  master. 
It  is  said,  however,  that  they  who  endeavoured  to  suppbct 
liim  in  this  rivalship,  were  actuated  by  malignity  aiTd  envy^ 
towards  Titian.  It  is  related  also,  that  when  he  worked  in  the 
^ame  town  with  Titian,  he  was  so  afraid  of  the  effects  of  his 
jealousy,  that  he  never  walked  out  without  arms  offensive 
and  defensive.  Pordenone  painted  at  Genoa  f6r  prince 
Doria,  but  did  not  there  give  entire  satisfaction ;  he  then 
returned  to  Venice,  and  was  afterwards  invited  to  Ferrara 
by  the  duke  of  that  state,  from  whom  he  received  many 
signal  marks  of  favour  and  esteem.  He  died  in  1540,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-six,  and  his  death  has  been  by  some  anthers 
attributed  to  poison  given  by  some  painters  at  Ferrara,  jea- 
lous of  the  distinctions  he  received  at  court  The  most 
considerable  picture  which  Rome  possesses  of  him,  is  that 
with  the  portraits  of  his  family,  in  the  palace  Borghese. 
But  perhaps  his  most  splendid  work  in  oil  is  the  altar-piece, 
at  S.  Maria  dell'  Orto,  at  Venice,  which  represents  a  S. 
Lorenzo  Giustiniani,  surrounded  by  other  saints,  among 
whom  a  9t.  John  Baptist  surprises  no  less  by  correctness  of 
forms,  than  a  St.  Augustin  by  a  boldness  of  foreshortening 
which  makes  his  arm  start  from  the  canvas. 

The  frescoes  of  Pordenone  are  spread  over  the  towns  and 
eastles  of  Friuli ;  some  are  found  at  Mantua,  Genoa,  Ve-^ 
nice,  but  the  best-preserved  ones  are  at  Piacenza  and  Cre-* 
mona.  In  these  he  is  not  always  equal,  but  all  bear  marks 
of  innate  vigour  and  bold  conception  ;  of  a  mind,  as  eager 
fo  form  as  to  resolve  difficulties  in  variety  of  .expression^ 
singularity  of  perspective,  novelty  of  fore-shortening,  aQ4 
magic  resources  of  chiaroscuro.  He  had  an  iniitatoT 
in  Bernardino  Licinio,  who  from  the  surname  may  be  sup* 
posed  to  have  been  related  to  him :  and  Sandrart  mentions^  in 

Vol.  XXV.  O 

194  P  O  R  D  E  N  O  N  E. 

a  bigh  strain  qf  praise,  Giulio  Licinio  de  Pordenonei .  as 
his  nephew  and  scholar;  who,  according  to  that  author,' 
quitted  Venice,  and  left  frescoes  of  extraordinary  beantjr* 
at  Augsburg.^ 

FORE'E  (Charles),  a  zealous  and  learned  Jesuit,  was^ 
born  in  1675,  at  Vendees,  near  Caen,  and  after  pu/siiing: 
his  theological  studies  at  Paris,  in  1708,  he  was  nominated^ 
to  the  chair  of  rhetoric  in  the  college  of  Louis  le  Grand^ 
which  he  filled  with  great  diligeuce,  success,  and  reputa- 
tion, for  thirty-three  years,  and  formed  many  pupils  that 
did  honour  to  the  instructions  of  their  master.  He  died  iu 
1741,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six*  His  writings  are  nuknerous, 
chiefly  in  the  Latin  language :  there  are  two  ''  Collections 
of  Harangues,^'  published  in  1735  and  1747.;  also  six  Latin 
tragedies  and  five  Latin,  comedies.  He  was  also  author  of 
several  fugitive  pieces  in  prose  and  verse.  He  had. a  bro^ 
ther,  Charles  Gabriel,  who  died  in  1770,  at  the  age  of  S5,- 
a  considerable  writer,  but  known  principally  for  a  work  en-> 
titled  "  Nouvelles  Literaires  de  Caen,**  in  3.  vols«  8.vo^ 
being  a  collection  of  pieces  in  prose  and  verse,  written  by 
the  academicians  of  that  city,  and  also  for  *^  Forty-foqv 
Dissertations  on  different  subjects,**  read  before  thb  aca-* 
demy  of  Caen,  of  which  he  was  a  member  more  than  thirty, 

PORPHYRIUS,  a  philosopher  of  great  name  among,  the 
ancients,  was  born  A.D.  233,  in  the  reign  of  Alexander 
Severus.  He  was  of  Tyre,  and  had  the  name  of  Malchus^ 
in  common  with  his  father,  who  was  a  Syrophoeniciani  St^ 
Jerome  and  St.  Augustin  have  called  him  Bataneotes; 
whence  Fabricius  suspects,  that  the  real  place  of  his  nati-t 
yity  was  Batanea,  a  town  of  Syria ;  and  that  he  was  carried 
thence  wit^l  a  colony  to  Tyre..  His  father  very  early,  in^ 
troduced  him  to  the  study  of  literature  and  philosophy  un-* 
det  the  Christian  preceptor  Origen,  probably  while  be  was 
teaching  at  Caesarea  in  Palestine.  He  then  went  to  Athens, 
where  he  had  the  famdus  Longinus  for  his  master  in  the* 
toric,  'who  changed  his  Syrian  name  Malchds,  as  not  very 
pleafttng  to  Grecian  ears,,  into  that  of  -  Porphyrias,  which 
ansiyers  to  it  in  Greek.^  It  is  in  a  great  measure^owing  to 
this  able  teacher^  that  we  find  so  many  proofs. of  eruditioo^ 
and  so  much  elegance  of  style,  in  the  writings  of  Porphy<t 
ritts^'*  From  this^time^  we  have  little  information  ooncerim 

J  Pilkingtoi— D'irgenvUle,  rol  1.  .^  Moreri.— Diet,  Hist. 



ilig  him  ontil  his  proceeded  to  Rome,  where,  at  thirty  yean 
oF  age,  he  heard  Plotinus,  whose  life  he  has  written,  and 
inserted  in.  it  many  particulars  concerning  himself*.     Five 
years  after,  he  went  to  reside  at  Lilybseum  in  Sicily,  on 
which  account  he  is  sometimes  called  Siculus  :  and  here> 
as  Ettsebius  and  Jerome  relate,  he  composed  those  famous 
books  against  the  Christians,  which,  for  the  name  and  aui 
thority  of  the  man,  and  for  the  acuteness  and  learning  wittL 
which  they  were  written,  were  afterwards  thought  so  con- 
siderable, as  to  be  suppressed  by  particular  edicts,  under 
the  reigns  of  Constantine  and  Theodosius.     Some  have 
surmised,  that  these  books  are  still  extant,  and  secretly  pre** 
served  in  the  Duke  of  Tuscany's  library  ;  but  there  is  little 
doubt  that  they  were  destroyed  by  the  mistaken  zeal  of  the 
Christians,     The  circumstances  of  Porphyrius's  life,  after 
his  arrival  in  Sicily,  are  little  known  ;  except  that  he  died 
at  Rome,  towards  the  end  of  Dioclesian's  reign,  abont  the 
year  304.      Some    have  imagined  that  he    was    in  the 
early  part  of  bis  life  a  Christian,  but  afterwards,  through 
flpme  disgust  or  other,  deserted  that  profession,  and  became 
its  decided  enemy  ;  while^  others  have  hinted,  that  he  em- 
braced Christianity  when  he  was  old,  and  after  he  had  writ*- 
ten  with  great  acrimony  against  it ;  but  for  neither  of  these 
opinions  is  there  any  good  authority. 

Porphyrins  wrote  a  great  number  of  books,  the  far  greater 
part  of  which  have  perished.  Some  have  wished  that  his 
books  against  the  Christians  bad  come  down  to  us,  because 
they  are  firmly  persuaded  that,  among  innumerable  blas^ 
phemies  against  Christ  and  his  religion,  which  might  easily 
have  been  confuted,  many  admirable  things  would  have 
been  found.      We   doubt,    however,  whether  the  world 

*  **  porphyrins  was  six  years  a  diligent 
studeot  of  the  Eclectic  system;  and 
became  so  entirely  attached  to  his  mas- 
ter, and  so  perfectly  acquainted  with 
hit  doctrine,  that  Plotinus  esteemed 
him  one  of  the  greatest  ornaments  of 
his  school,  and  fi^neiitly  Muplnyed 
him  in  refuting  the  objections  of  hit 
opponents,  and  in  explaining  to  his 
yonnger  p«ipils  the  more  difficiilt  parts 
of  hit  writings  :  he  even  intrusted  him 
with  ^he  charge  of  methodising  and 
cofrectinfp  his  works.  The  fanatical 
spirit  of  the  philosophy,  to  which  Por- 
phyrias addiotedhimselffConcurred  with 
^  nataral  propensity  towards  oeltn- 

choly  to  produce  a  resohition.  which  hte 
formed  about  the  thirty-sixth  year  of 
his  age,  of  putting  an  end  to  his  life  ; 
purposing  hereby,     according  to  thfe 
Platonic  doctrine,  to  release  hia   soul 
from  her  wretchjpd^  prison,  the  body. 
From  this  mad  design  he  was,  howcTet, 
dissuaded  by  his  roaster,  who  advisea 
him  to  divert  his  melancholy  by  takin^p 
a  journey  to  Sicily,  to  risU  his  friend 
Probus,  an  acconiplUbed  and  excellent 
man,  who  lived  near  LilybsBum.     Poiw 
phyrius  followed  the  advice  of  Plotmus, 
and  recovered  the  tigour  and  tmquiU 
lity  of  his  mind."     Bruckei^ 


196  P  O  R  P  H  Y  R  I  U  S. 

would  have  reaped  any  great  benefit  from  these,  since  nei- 
ther his  judgment  nor  his  integrity  was  equal  to  his  learn « 
ing ;  and  neither  the  splendour  of  his  diction,  nor  the  va-> 
riety  of  his  reading,  can  atone  for  the  credulity  or  the  dis- 
Jionesty,  which  fill  the  narrative  parts  of  his  works  with  so 
many  extravagant  tales ;  or  interest  the  judicious  reader 
in  the  abstruse^ubtleties,  and  mystical  flights  of  bis  philoso-* 
phical  writings.  Of  his  works  which  remain,  the  four  follow- 
ing, ^^  De  abstinentia  ab  esu  animalium  ;''  "  De  vita  Pytha^ 
gorae  ;"  "  Seotentiae  ad  intelligibilia  tlucentes  ;'*  "  De 
Antro  Nymphorum  ;"  with  a  fragment  "  De.  Styge,'*  pre- 
served by  StobsBus,  were  printed  at  Cambridge  in  1655, 
8vo,  with  a  Latin  version,  and  the  Life  of  Porphyry  sub- 
joined, by  Lucas  Holstenius.  The  **  Life  of  Pythagoras," 
which,  however,  is  but  a  fragment,  has  since  been  published 
by  Kusterus,  at  Amsterdam,  1707,  in  4to,  in  conjunction 
with  that  written  by  Jamblichus,  who  was  a  disciple  of  this 
philosopher.  It  should  have  been  observed,  that  the  above 
pieces  of  Pythagoras,  '.printed  at  Cambridge,  were  pub- 
lished jointly  with  Epictetus  and  Arrian^s  Commentary, 
and  the  Tabula  Cebetis.  His  treatise  '*  De  Antro  Nympho- 
rum'' was  reprinted  in  Greek  and  Latin,  with  notes,  by 
R.  M.Van  Goens,  at  Utrecht  in  1765,  4to ;  and  Jac.  de 
Rhoer  published  a  new  edition  of  the  treatise  <*  De  Absti- 
nentia'^ at  the  same  place  in  1767.^ 

PORSON  (Richard),  a  late  eminent  Greek  scholar  and 
most  accomplished  critic,  was  born  at  East  Ruston,  in  Nor- 
folk, Dec.  25 f  1759,  and  was  first  initiated  in  knowledge  bj 
bis  father,  Mr.  Huggin  Porson,  the  parish-clerk  of  East' 
Ruston,  who,  though  in  humble  life,  and  without  the  ad- 
vantages himself  of  early  education,  laid  the  basis  of  his 
son's  unparalleled  acquirements.  From  the  earliest  dawn 
of  intellect,  Mr.  Porson  began  the  task  of  fixing  the  atten-- 
tion  of  his  children,  three  sons  and  a  daughter;  and  he 
had  taught  Richard,  his  eldest  son,  all  the  common  rules 
of  arithmetic,  without  the  use  of  a  book  or  slate,  pen  or 
pencil,  up  to  the  cube  root,  before  he  was  nine  years  of 
age.  The  memory  was  thus  incessantly  exercised  ;  and  by 
this  early  habit  of  solving  a  question  in  arithmetic,  he  ac- 
quired such  a  talent  of  close  and  intense  thinking,  and  such 
a  power  of  arranging  every  operation  that  occupied  his 
thought,  as  inrprocess  of  time  to  render  the  most  difficult 

1  Brocker. — Caye,— Lardaer's  Work8,-?»SaxiJ  Ooomast. 



P  O  R  S  O  N.  197 

problems,  which  to  other  men  required  the  assistance  of 
written  iigureS|  easy  to  the  retentive  faculties  of  his  me- 
mory. He  was  initiated  in  letters  by  a  process  equally  ef- 
ficacious, and  which  somewhat  resembled  Dr.  BelFs  admi- 
rable plan.  His  father  taught  him  to  read  and  write  at  one 
and  the  same  time.  He  drew  the  form  of  the  letter  either 
with  chalk  on  a  board,  or  with  the  finger  in  sand ;  and 
Richard  was  made  at  once  to  understand  and  imitate  the 
impression.  As  soon  as  he  could  speak  he  could  trace  the 
letters ;  and  this  exercise  delighting  his  fancy,  an  ardour 
of  imitating  whatever  was  put  before  him  was  excited  to 
such  a  degree  that  the  walls  of  the  house  were  covered 
with  characters  delineated  with  great  neatness  and  fidelity. 
At  nine  years  of  age,  he  and  his  youngest  brother,  Tho- 
mas, were  sent  to  the  village  school,  kept  by  a  Mr.  Sum- 
mers, a  plain  but  intelligent  man,  who  having  bad  the 
misfortune  in  infancy  to  cripple  his  left  hand,  was  educated 
for  the  purpose  of  teaching,  and  he  discharged  his  duties 
with  the  most  exemplary  attention.  He  professed  nothing. 
beyond  English,  writing,  and  arithmetic ;  but  he  was  a 
good  accountant,  and  an  excellent  writing-master.  He 
perfected  Mr.  Richard  Porson  in  that  delightful  talent 
of  writing,  in  which  he  so  peculiarly  excelled  ;  but  which 
we  are  doubtful  whether  to  consider  as  an  advantage,  or 
a  detriment  to  him,  in  his  progress  through  life.  It  cer- 
tainly had  a  considerable  influence  on  his  habits,  and  made 
him  devote  many  precious  moments  in  copying,  which 
might  have  been  better  employed  in  composition.  It  has 
been  the  means,  however,  of  enriching  his  library  with  an- 
notations, in  a  text  the  most  beautiful,  and  with  such  per- 
fect imitation  of  the  original  manuscript  or  printing,  as  to 
embellish  every  work. which  his  erudition  enabled  him  to 
elucidate.  He  continued  under  Mr.  Summers  for  three 
years ;  and  every  evening  during  that  time  he  had  to  repeat 
by  heart  to  his  father  the  lessons  and  the  tasks  of  the  day ; 
and  this  not  in  a  loose  or  desultory  manner,  but  in  the  ri- 
gorous order  in  which  they  bad  been  taught;  and  thu3 
again  the  process  of  recollection  was  cherished  and 
strengthened^  so>  as  to  become  a  quality  of  his  mind.  It 
was  impossible  that  such  a  youth  should  remain  unnoticed, 
feven  in  a  place  so  thinly  peopled,  and  so  obscure,  as  the 
parish  of  East  Ruston.  The  reverend  Mr.  Hewitt,  vicar  of 
the  parish,  heard  of  his  extraordinary  propensities  to  study, 
bis  gift  of  attention  to  whatever  was  taught  him,  and  the 


P  O  R  S  O  N. 

wonderful  fidelity  with  which  he  retained  whatever  he  bad 
acquired.     He  took  him  and  his  brother  Thomas  under  hi« 
care^  and  instructed  them  in  the  classics.     The  progress 
of  both  was  great,  but  that  of  Richard  was  most  extraordi- 
nary, and  when  he  had  reached  his  fourteenth  year,  had 
engaged  the  notice  of  all  the  gentlemen  in  the  vicinity* 
Among  others,  he.  was  mentioned  as  a  prodigy  to  an  opu- 
lent and  liberal  man,  the  late  Mr.  Norris,  of  Grosvenor- 
place,  who,  after  having  put  him  under  an  examination  of 
the  severest  kind,  from  which  an  ordinary  boy  would  have 
s^hrunk  dismayed,  sentliim  to  Eton  in  August  1774,  whea 
he  was  in  his  ISth  year.    In  that  great  seminary,  he  almost^ 
from  the  commencement  of  his  career,  displayed  such  a  su- 
periority of  intellect,  such  facility  of  acquirement,  such, 
quickness  of  perception,  and  such  a  talent  of  bringing^ 
forward  to  his  purpose  all  that  he  had  ever  read,  that  the 
upper  boys  took  him  into  their  society,  and  promoted  the 
cultivation  of  his  mind  by  their  lessons,  as  well,  probably^ 
as  by  imposing  upon  him  the  performance  of  their  own  ex- 
ercises*.    He  was  courted  by  them  as  the  never-failingr 
resource  in  every  diiSculty  ;  and  in  all  the  playful  excur- 
sions of  the  imagination,  in  their  frolics,  as  well  as  in  their 
serious  tasks,  Porson  was  the  constant  adviser  and  support. 
He  used  to  dwell  on  this  lively  part  of  his  youth  with  pe- 
culiar complacency,  and  used  to  repeat  a  drama  which  he 
wrote  for  exhibition  in  their  long  chamber,  and  other  com- 
positions, both  of  seriousness  and  drollery,  with  a  zest  that 
the  recollection  of  his  enjoyment  at  the  time  never  failed  to 
tevive  in  him.     A  very  learned  scholar,  to  whom  the  public 
was  indebted  for  "  A  short  accouut  of  Mr.  Porson,"  pub* 
lished  soon  after  his  death,  has  the  following  remarks  on  his 
progress  at  Eton :  *'  By  his  own  confession  he  learnt  no- 
thing, or  added  little  to  his  stock,  at  school:  and  per- 
haps for  a  good  teason,  since  he  had  every  thing  that  was 
given  him  to  read,  where  he  was  first  placed,  by  heart ; 

*  "  When  be  entered  Eton,  be  was 
wholly  ignoraot  (»f  quantity,  and  after 
he  had  toiled  up  the  arduous  path  to 
literary  emioence,  be  was  often  twitted 
by  his  quonda,m  schoolfellows  with  tliose 
violations  of  quantity  which  are  com- 
mon in  first  attempts  at  Latin  verse. 
Our  Gre«k  professor  always  felt  sore 
upon  this  point.  One  of  his  best  friends 
and  greatest  admirers  has  preserved  a 
copy  of  ve^rses,  which,  indeed,  evince 
tbe  rapid  progress  of  his  mind,  but 

would  not  do  honour. to  his  memory.'* 
Kidd's  Imperfect  Outline  of  the  Life  of 
R.  P.  p.  xi.  From  the  same  we  learn* 
that  **  the  Rev.  Dr.  Davies,  late  provost 
of  Eton,  when  head-mastef,  presegteil 
R,  P.  with  a  copy  of  Toup's  lionginus, 
as  a  mark  of  his  regard  for  b,  good  ex- 
ercise. This  book  B,  P.  was  wont  to 
say,  first  biassed  his  mind  to  critical  re- 
searches, and  Bentley  and  Dawes  che- 
rished  aad  confirmed  that'  stroQf  pto- 
pensity:  the  rest  he  gave  himself.*^  Ibid.- 

P  O  R  S  O  N.  199 

Aat  is,  he  could  repeat  all  the  Horace,  and  all  the  Vii^l, 
eommoDly  read  at  Eton,  and  the  Iliad,  and  extracts  from 
the  Odyssey,  Cicero,  and  Livy,  with  the  Ambubaiarum  of 
Horace,  the  Eclogues  and  Georgics,^  and  the  Culex,  CiriD, 
and  Catalecta,  which  they  do  not  read.  But  still,  tbough 
he  would  not  own  it,  he  was  much  obliged  to  the  coir 
lisfon  of  a  public  school  for  the  rapidity  with  wliich  h^ 
increased  his  knowledge,  and  the  correction  of  himself  by 
the  mistakes  of  others.'* 

The  death  of  Mr.  Norris  was  the  source  of  severe  mor- 
tification to  him ;  though,  by  the  kindness  of  some  eminent 
and  liberal  persons,  particularly  sir  George  Baker,  he  was 
Continued  at  Eton,  and  afterwards  placed  at  the  university. 
To  sir  George  Baker,  his  second  protector,  he  inscribed 
one  of  his  Greek  plays,  "  Britanniarum  APXIATPXM."  It  is 
to  the  fostering  hand  of  this  second  patron,  says  Mr.  Wes- 
ton, ^'  that  we  are  indebted  for  the  noblest  plant  that  ever 
grew  in  any  garden  with  such  spreading  branches,  so  high 
a  head,  and  so  deep  a  root." 

-  He  was  entered  of  Trinity  college  towards  the  end  of 
4777,  and,  his  character  having  preceded  him,  he  was  from 
the  first  regarded  as  a  youth  whose  extraordinary  endow*- 
ments  would  do. honour  to  that  society.  Nor  did  he  dis- 
appoint the  hopes  that  had  been  formed  of  him.  In  every 
branch  of  study  to  which  he  applied  himself,  his  course 
was^c/  rapid  as  to  astonish  every  competent  observer.  By 
circumstances  common  at  Cambridge,  be  was  drawn  first 
to  Yead  in  mathematics,  in  which,  from  his  early  exercises, 
he  was  eminently  calculated  to  shine,  but  from  which  he 
drew  no  benefit ;  and  then,  having  the  prospect  of  a  scho- 
larship, he  sat  down  to  the  classics^  in  which  he  soon  ac- 
.quired  undisputed  pre-eminence.  He  got  the  medal  of 
Course,  and  was  elected  a  fellow  in  1781.  In  1785  he 
took  his  degree  of  master  of  arts ;  but  long  before  the  pe- 
riod had  elapsed  when  he  must  either  enter  into  holy  orders 
Or  surrender  his  fellowship,  he  felt  such  powerful  scruples 
in  his  mind  with  regard  to  subscription,  to  the  articles  of 
the  church,  that  he  determined  to  decline  it;  and,  so  early 
as  1788,  he  had  made  up  his  mind  to  surrender  his  fellow- 
ship, though  with  an  enfeebled  constitution  he  had  nothing 
to  depend  upon  but  acquirements  that  are  very  unprofitable 
to  their  owner.  Accordingly,  in  179 1  his  fellowship  ceased^ 

«  <(  On  ibis  oceasion  he  used  to  ob-  iras  a  gentleman  living  in  London  with* 
tenre,'Witb  i^s  aaual  good-humour  (for  out  a  sixpence  in  bis  pocket"  Kic^d, 
k'otliiD^  could  depress  blin),   that  be     p.  xiv. 

200  P  O  R  S  O  N. 

but  SOOT)  after  some  private  friends  stept  iOi  and  in  1793  be 
was  elected  Greek  professor  of  Cambridge,  by  as  uoanina^ous 
Tote  of  the  seven  electors. .  The  distinction  of  this  appoisiti*^ 
-ment  was  grateful  to  him.  The  salary  is  but  40/.  a-yean 
It  Was  bis  earnest  wish^  however,  to  have  made  it  an  active 
and  efficient  office,  and  it  was  his  determination  to  give  an 
annual  course  of  lectures,  in  the  college,  if  rooms  had  b^eD 
assigned  him  for  the  purpose.  The  importance  of  suck 
lectures  as  he  could  have  given  ha^  been  often  revolved  in 
the  minds  of  some  of  his  friends,  while  others  have  doubted 
whether  bis  studies,  which  had  been  throughout  life  desul- 
tory, could  have  been  concentrated  to  one  point,  and  that 
point  requiring  unremitting  assiduity,  and  a  periodical 
regularity.  No  opportunity,  liowever,  was  afforded  for 
the  trial. 

'  From  this  time,  instead  of  lectures,  it  is  said  be  turned 
bis  thoughts  to  publication ;  but  before  this,  he  had  been 
a  contributor  to  some  of  the  literary  journals,  of  articles 
which  displayed  his  critical  acumen.  In  the  3d  vol.  of 
Maty^s  Review,  he  published  a  criticism  on  Schutz's  M&- 
cbylus,  dated  from  Trinity  college.  May  29,  1783.  .  His 
other  criticisms  in  that  Review  are,  Brunck' s  Arbtophanes^ 
vol.  IV. ;  Hermesianax,  by  Weston,  vol.  V. ;  Hunting- 
ford's  .Apology  for  his  Monostrophics,  vol.  VI.  He  ^Iso 
furnished  Mr.  Maty  with  a. transcript  of  the  letters  of 
Bentley  and  Le  Clerc,  vol.  IX.  p.  253.  He  was  an^  occa- 
sional contributor  to  the  Monthly  Review,  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine,  and,  it  is  believed,  to  other  publications.  Tbe 
account  of  Robertson's  Parian  Chronicle,  in  the  Monthly 
Review,  was  written  by  him ;  and  the  review  of  Knight's 
\Essay  on  the  Greek  Alphabet,  January  1794,  has,  from 
internal  evidence,  been  giyen  to  him.  Of  the  ironical  de* 
fence  of  Sir  John  Hawkins's  Life  of  Jobnson  he  wa$ 
unquestionably  the  writer:  this  was  comprised  in  three 
humourous  letters  inserted  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine 
for  1787,  under  the  signature  of  Sundry  Whereof,  Some 
letters  upon  the  contested  verse,  1  John,  v.  7,  appeared 
subsequently  in  the  same  work;  which  at  lengtn  caused 
the  publication  of  his  letters  to  Archdeacon  Travis,  in 
which  be  is  thought  by  many  to  have  completely  invali- 
dated the  authority  of  that  much*disputed  text*. 

*  Tt  is  unnecessary  to  notice  all  recently  published,-  by  the  Rer.  Tbo^ 

tbe  occasioDai  compositions  which  fell  mas   Kicid,  of  Trinity  college*  Cam* 

from  Mr.  Forson's  pen,  as  the  whole,  bridge,    under  the  title   of    "  Tracts 

or  at  least  all  that  are  certainly  known  and   Miscellaneous   Criticisms,"   Sto, 

f  be  biSy  bare  been  callected,  and  1815. 

P  O  R  S  O  N.  301 

Not  long  after  he  bad  taken  bis  first  degree,  it  was  ill. 
tbe  contemplation  of  the  syndics  of  the  university  press  at, 
Cambridge  to  publish  j£schylus,  with  Stanley's  coaii|nen« 
tariesy  in  MS.  in  the  public  library  of  that  university.  Mr. 
Porson  offered  to  undertake  the  work3  if  allowed  to  conduct 
it  according  to  bis  own  ideas  of  the  duty  of  an  editor;  but 
this  offer  was  rejected,  and  in  a  manner  so  discouraging, 
that  we  are  told  it  in  a  great  measure;  operated,  for  a  short 
period,  to  extinguish  in  him  that  ardent  love  of  fame  which. 
is,  generally  speaking,  the  concomitant  of  learning  and  the 
emanation  of  genius*  We  shall  find,  hereafter  how  much 
be  bad  at  heart  the  elucidation  of  this  very  difficult  author, 
and  in  the  mean  time  he  was  not  reluctant  to  employ  his 
pen  in  similar  undertakings.  In  1785,  ^wben  Nicholson* 
the  bookseller  of  Cambridge,  was  preparing  a  new  edition 
of  Xenophon's  **  Anabasis,''  he  prevailed  upon  Mr.  Porson 
to  furnish  him  with  some  assistance,  which  be  accordingly 
did  to  the  extent  of  twenty-eight  pages  of  addenda,  which, 
although  avowedly  written  in  haste,  attest  the  hand  of  a 
master.  In  the  year  1787,  he  communicated  to  tbedele^ 
gate$^  of  the  Clarendon  press  some  notes  upon  Toup's 
jEmendations  on  Suidas,  which  appeared  with  that  import*- 
ant  work  in  1790.  These  notes  were  probably  composed 
by  him  at  the  request  of  bis  friend  Mr.  Tyrwhitt;  a  gen* 
tteman  of  whose  learning  and  genius  he  had  the  highest 
opinion,  and  not  only  used  to  mention  the  talents  and 
acuteness  of  Mr.  T.  with  approbation,  but  with  reverence. 
'  However  mortified  Mr.  Porson  was  by  the  rejection  of 
his  proposals  respecting  iEschylus  at  Cambridge,  be  did 
Hot  wholly  forego  the  idea  of  publishing  that  author,  and 
twice  announced  in  Maty's  Review,  (vol.  III.  p.  168,  and 
Tol.  IV.  p.  233,)  an  intention  to  publish  a  new  edition  of 
Stanley's  ^schylus,  in  3  vols,  and  solicited  the  aid  of 
English  or  foreign  scholars.  '  His  first  regular  publica?- 
tidn,  however,  was  a  play  of  Euripides.  In  1797,  he 
published  tbe^  ^^  Hecuba,"  which  he  intended  as  the  pre* 
cursor  of  all  the  dramas  of  that  author.  Accordingly,  the 
next  year  was  published  the  "Orestes  ;"  the  year  after  the 
5*PhcBniss«E;"  and,  in  1801,  the  "Medea"  issued  from 
the  press  at  Cambridge,  to  which  his  name  was  prefixed. 
In  1802  was  published  a  second  edition  of  the  "  Hecuba,'* 
with  a  supplement  to  the  preface,  and  a  very  copious  addi* 
tion  to  the  notes. 
•  ;  The  last  work  that  Professor  Porson  published  was  a  third 

202  P  O  R  S  O  N. 

dditioa  of  the  '*  Hecuba.'*  He  had  also,  it  u  said,  made  a 
considerable  progress  in  the  revision  of  the  three  other 
plajs  #hich  be  had  form^y  edited ;  but  it  has  been  la- 
ineuted,  that  he  spent  so  much  time  in  revising  what.he  had 
already  given  to  the  world,  instead  of  proceeding  to  €or<« 
rect  Ae  text  of  the  remaining  plays. 

The  other  literary  labours  of  Profisssor  Person  we  shall 
briefly  notice.  When  Heyne*s  Virgil  was  republished  in 
JLondoo,  he  was  engaged  to  superintend  the  press;  hot  to 
this  he  did  very  little.  The  Grenville  Homer  had  more  of 
bis  assistance,  as  be  collated  the  Odyssey  with  a  Harleian 
MS*  His  last  literary  labour  was  bis  <*  iEschylus."  The 
fate  of  this  work  was  somewhat  singular.  According  to  the 
author  of  the  "  Pursuits  of  Literature,'*  he  had  lent  his  MS 
corrections  and  conjectures  on  the  text  of  ^schylus  to  a 
friend  in  Scotland,  and  these  falling  into  the  hands,  of 
Foulis,  the  printer,  he  published  a  magnificent  edition  of 
the  text  without  the  notes.  This  appeared  in  1795,  folio^ 
but  the  edition  was  limited  to  the  small  number  of  52>of 
fhe  shiall  paper,  and  eleven  of  the  large.  The  professor's 
own  edition  was  printed,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  as  early  as  1194^ 
but  for  v^hat  reason  we  know  not,  was  not  published  until 
ie06,  and  then  without  the  notes.  It  still,  however,  is  to 
be  considered  as  a  permanent  advantage  to  Greek  literature^ 
ui  the  text  is,  in  almost  numberless  instances,  improved  by 
kis  sagacity. 

In  1795,  Mr.  Person  married  Mrs.  Lunan»  the  sister  of 
|Mr.  Perry,  the  proprietoi^  and  conductor  of  the  Morning 
Chronicle,  which  had  to  boast  of  many  of  his  fugitive  pieces. 
This  lady  died,  in  consequence  of  a  decline,  in  April  1797* 
He  had  long  before  enjoyed  the  friendship  of  her  brother^ 
who  for  many  years  contributed  more  to  the  comfort  of  Mr. 
Person's  life  than  any  one  man  we  are  able  to  mention. 
Person  had  a  proud  and  independent  spirit ;  it  was  difficulty 
therefore,  to  confer  an  obligation  on  him,  although  hit 
situation  rendered  many  such  necessary ;  but  Mr.  Perry^ 
by  a  thousand  acts  of  kindness,  had  completely  engaged  lus 
con6dence,  and  had  the  art  of  conferring  his  favours  in  a 
inanner  which  removed  the.  painful  sense  of  obligalion. 
Person  knew  that  Mr.  Perry  was  perfectly  disinterested,  and 
accepted  from  him  what  he  would  have  rejected  with  in* 
dignation  if  offered  by  one  who  assumed  the  airs  of  the  pa^ 
tron  J  and  Mr.  Perry,  by  carefully  studying  his  temper^ 
was  enabled  to  anticipate  his  wishes,  and  on  varioua  occar 

p  o  R  s  ON*  aos 

sions  coutrived  to  exercise  a  salutary  controul  over  hit 
^iliogs,  which  his  delicacy  and  judgment  nendeved  im^ 
perceptible.  - 

Mr.  Person  was  in  his  latter  days  often  af&icted  with  m 
spasmodic  asthma^  which  interrupted  bis  studies,  and  con* 
^quently,  in  a  great  degree,  repressed  his  literary  ardour* 
Whether  this  disease  was  a  revival  of  a  complaint  which 
had  afflicted  his  early  youth,  or  was  engendered  by  the' 
severe  and  laborious  study  which  had  marked  his  middle 
age,  is  uncertain.  It  was  probably  increased  by  the  latter^ 
aod  certainty  so  by  his  irregularities,  and  neglect  of  the 
i^ommon  means  of  health.  There  were  times,  however^ 
when  few  men  could  display  such  patient  and  continued 
toil.  An  instance  of  this  is  mentioned  which  strongly 
marks  his  character.  He  had '  undertaken  to  make  out 
and  copy  the  almost  obliterated  manuscript  of  the  inva* 
kiable  Lexicon  of  Photius,  which  he  had  borrowed  from 
the  library  of  Trinity  college.  And  this  he  had  with  un- 
paralleled difficulty  jusrt  completed,  when  the  beautiful  copy, 
which  had  cost  him  ten  months  of  incessant  toil,  was  burned 
along  with  the  house  of  Mr.  Perry,  at  Merton.  The  origi- 
nal,  being  an  unique  entrusted  to  him  by  the  college,  he 
carried  with  him  wheresoever  he  went,  and  he  was  fortu- 
iiately  absent  from  Merton  on  the  morning  of  the  fire.  Un- 
ruffled by  the  loss,  he  sat  down  without  a  murmur,  and 
made  a  second  copy  as  beautiful  as  the  first,  which  is  xuy0 
lA  Trinity-college  library. 

-  When  the  London  Institution  was  established,  professor 
Person  was  selected  to  fill  the  situation  of  principal  libra* 
mn.  This  office,  which  was  rewarded  with  a  salary  of 
200/.  a  year,  and  a  suite  of  rooms,  provided  very  amply 
for  a  man  in  whose  eyes  money  had  little  value,  unless 
as  it  enabled  him  to  pursue  his  studies;  but  it  was  rather 
convenient  in  that  view,  than  gratifying  with  respect  to  its 
duties.  The  number  of  those  who  in  his  time  availed 
themselves  of  the  fine  library  of  the  Institution  wa»  toe 
small  to  require  the  assistance  of  such  a  manasPor&on; 
yet  in  the  few  instances  which  occurred  of  young  men  at« 
liending  there  for  the  serious  purposes  of  study,  he  de« 
lighted  to  be  their  instructor;  and,  as  one  of  his  biogra* 
phers  has  observed,  '<  his  mode  of  communication,  liberal 
in  the  extreme,  was  truly  amiable,  as  he  told  you  all  you 
#fimted  to  know  in  a  plain  and  direct  manner, « without 
any  attempt  \o  dispkjt  his  own  superiority,  bat  merely.  S0 

204  P  O  R  S  O  N. 

inform  you/'  We  have  often  been  surprized  that  the 
business  of  tuition  was  never  recommended  to  him ;  bur 
perhaps  in  this,  as  in  other  instances,  the  irregularity  of 
his  habits  would  have  been  a  great  obstruction. 

In  the  year  180S,  his  asthmatic  complaint  became  so 
frequent  as  to  interrupt  his  usual  pursuits,  and  so  painful 
that  during  the  agony  he  never  went  to  bed,  and  was  forced 
to  abstain  from  all  sustenance.  This  greatly  debilitated 
fcis  body ;  and  about  a  month  before  his  death  he  was  also 
afflicted  with  an  intermittent  fever.  He  had  an  unfortu- 
nate objection  to  medical  advice,  and  therefore  resorted  to 
bis  usual  remedy  of  abstinence  :  but  on  Monday,  the  19tb 
of  September,  1808,  he  suffered  an  apoplectic  stroke,  from 
which  he  recovered  only  to  endure  another  the  next  day. 
He  languished  in  consequence  until  the  Sunday  night,  and 
then  expired  without  a  struggle,  at  his  rooms  in  the  Lon« 
don  Institution.  His  remains  were  removed  for  interment 
in  the  ante-chapel  of  Trinity-college,  Cambridge,  and  were 
deposited  in  a  grave  close  to  the  statue  of  sir  Isaac  New- 
ton, and  near  the  ashes  of  Bentley.  The  funeral  was  at- 
tended by  the  society  of  the  college,  and  the  service  read 
by  the  master,  the  bishop  of  Bristol.  The  college  after- 
wards purchased  such  of  his  books  as  contained  his  MS 
notes,,  which  were  very  numerous,  and  from  which  two 
publications  have  since  been  made,  one  of  his  '^Adversa- 
ria,'' and  the  other  already  mentioned,  by  Mr.  Kidd. 

*'  The  principal  qualities,"  says  one  of  his  biographers^ 
*^  in  this  great  man's  mind,  were  his  extraordinary  acute- 
ness  of  discernment,  and  solidity  of  judgment;  and  these, 
added  to  his  intense  application  and  stupendous  memory', 
made  him  what  the  world,  perhaps,  never  saw  before,  a 
complete  critic,  in  the  most  honourable  and  extended  sense 
of  that  appellation.  His  reading  was  immense  :  he  was  an 
excellent  French  scholar ;  but  in  his  native  language,  in 
the  Latin,  and  in  the  Greek,  he  was  most  familiarly  and 
profoundly  versed.  He  had,  indeed,  applied  the  know- 
ledge which  he  had  gained  of  the  origin  and  structure  of 
language  in  general,  to  all  these  dialects,  if  we  may  so 
express  ourselves,  of  the  universal  language ;  and  had  not 
bis  enainence  in  classical. literature,  by  its  uncommon  lustre, 
obscured  other  attainments,  he  would  doubtless  have  beeu 
considered  as  one  of  the  first  English  scholars.  In  Greek, 
however,  we  have  no  hesitation  in  pronouncing  him  the 
very  first,  not  merely  of  his  own  age,  but  of  every  other* 

P  O  R  S  O  N.  20Jf 

In  him  were  conspicuous  boundless  extent  of  reading,  a 
most  exact  and  welUordered  memory ;  unwearied  patience 
in  unravelling  the  sense  of  an  author,  and  exploring  the 
perplexities  of  a  manuscript;  perspicacity  in  discovering 
the  corruptions  of  a  text,  and  acuteness  almost  intuitive, 
in  restoring  the  true  reading.  All  this  was  tempered  with 
a  judgment' which  preserved  him  invariably  from  the  rocka 
against  which  even  the  greatest  of  his  critical  predecessors 
have  at  some  time  or  other  split ;  we  mean  precipitation  in 
determining  that  to  be  unsound,  which  after  all  had  no  de« 
feet ;  and  rashness  in  applying  remedies  which  only  served 
to  increase  the  disease.^'  On  the  failings  of  this  eminent 
man  we  have  but  gently  touched  :  there  is  reason  to  think 
they  have  been  exaggerated  by  vulgar  report.  Whatever 
they  were,  it  is  to  his  credit,  that  they  who  knew  him  most 
intimately,  were  most  disposed  to  forget  them  in  the  splen* 
dour  of  his  uncommon  talents. 

Mr.  Porson  left  a  sister,  a  .most  amiable  and  accom« 
plished  woman,  the  wife  of  Siday  Hawes,  esq.  of  Coltis- 
ball,  Norfolk.  Henry,  his  second  brother,  was  settled  in 
a  farm  in  Essex,  and  died  young,  leaving  three  children: 
His  brother  Thomas,  the  companion  of  his  juvenile  i^tudies, 
was  an  excellent  scholar ;  he  kept  a  boarding-school  at 
FiEikenham,  and  died  in  1792  without  issu^. — His  father, 
Mr.  Huggin  Poi'son,  died  in  1S05,  in  his  seventy-fourth 
year.    His  mother  died  in  1784,  aged  fifty-seven.* 

PORTA  (Baccio  Della),  an  eminent  Florentine  artist, 
whose  surname  is  not  known,  was  called  Baccio  della  Porta, 
from  a  study  which  he  kept  when  a  youth,  near  a  gate  of 
the  city;  and  this  name  was  afterwards  changed  to  the 
more  celebrated  one  of  Fril  Bartolommeo  di  S.  Marco, 
when  he  entered  the  order  of  that  Dominican  convent. 
Sometimes  he  is  only  called  "  il  Frate.'*  He  was  born  in 
r469,  and  studied  .under  Cosimo  Roselli ;  but  soon  grew 
enamoured  of  the  grand  chiaro-scuro  of  Lionardo  da  Vinci, 
and  strove  to  emulate  it.  His  progress  was  rapid,  and  he 
became  the  instructor  of  Raphael  in  colour,  who  gave  him 
lessons  in  perspective,  and  taught  him  to  unite  graceful^ 
ness  with  grandeur  of  form.  The  composition  of  his  sa- 
cred subjects,  and  he  painted  little  else,  is  that  which  ad* 
hered  to  Raphael  himself,  and  was  not  dismissed  by  the 

^  Morning  Chronicle  for  OcL  6,  1S03. — Atbenxum,  vol.  IV.  p.  496.  5SK 
vol.  V.  p.35.— Savage's  Librarian,  vol.  I.  p.  274.— Gent.  Mag.  vol.  I4X}(V1II» 
Dibdia's  CUssics. 

«06  PORTA. 

Floretfttne  School  before  tbe  epoch  of  Poiitormo ;  but  be 
disguised  its  fonnality  by  tbe  introduction  of  architecture 
and  majestic  steciery.  To  repel  tbe  invidious  charge  of 
incapacity  for  large  proportions,  he  produced  the  sublime 
iigufe  of  St.  Marc,  which  alone  fills  an  aniple  pannel,  and 
is,  or  was  lately,  among  tbe  spoils  of  the  Louvre.  His  St. 
Sebastian^  for  skill  in  the  nsiked,  and  energy  of  colour,  ob« 
lained  every  suffrage  of  artists  and  of  critics,  but  being 
comidered  as  indecent,  the  monks  thought  proper  to  sell 
aud  send  it  to  France.  In  drapery  he  may  be  considered 
as  an  inventor ;  no  artist  of  his  school  formed  it  with  equal 
breadth  or  dignity,  or  so  natural  and  expressive  of  the 
limits  ;  and  if  he  were  the  instructor,  he  was  certainly  not 
the  slave,  of  the  layman.  One  work  of  his,  of  prodigious 
grandeur  and  beauty,  is  unnoticed  by  Mr.  Fuseli^  whose 
account  we  have  nearly  followed  hitherto,  viz.  the  Ak^ 
sumption  of  the  Virgin,  at  Lucca.  Its  situation  being  re- 
tired, this  picture  is  little  known  to  travellers,  though  it  is 
one  of  tbe  most  sublime  productions  of  the  pencil.  Mn 
West,  the  president  of  tbe  Royal  Acaden>y,  has  in  his  pos- 
session a  considerable  part  of  the  Studies  mentioned  by 
Vasari  as  having  been  left  to  his  scholar,  <a  nun  of  St.  Ca- 
tharine at  Florence ;  and  among  them  several  drawings  for 
this  picture  and  its  various  parts.  They  are  accompanied 
by  about  two  hundred  drawings  of  figures,  draperies,  and 
limbs,  studied  from  nature  with  great,  care  and  taste ;  and 
exhibit  tbe  industry  and  uncommon  zeal  with  which  he 
laid  tbe  basis  of  his  justly  •acquired  fame.  He  died  in 

PORTA  (John  Baphsta),  a  Neapolitan  gentleman,  whp 
made  himself  famous  by  his  application  to  letters  and  to 
science,  particularly  mathematics,  medicine,  and  natural 
history,  was  born  in  1445,  and  becoming  eminent  for  his 
knowledge,  held  a  kind  of  literary  assembly  at  his  house, 
in  which,  according  to  the  notions  of  those  times,  they 
treated  occasionally  on  tbe  secrets  of  magic  The  court 
of  Rome  on  this  account  forbad  these  meetings ;  but  his 
Ifpuse  was  always  tbe  resort  of  literary  men,  foreign  as 
wellas  Neapolitan.  He  not  only  established  private  schools 
for  {iarttcttlar  sciences,  but  to  the  utmost  of  his  power 
promoted  ptrblic  academies.  He  bad  no  small  share  in 
establishing  the  academy  at  Gli  Ozioni,  at  Naples;  and  that 

^  Pilk'mston  by  Fuseli. — Rees's  Cyclopsedia. 

PORTA.  9Qt 

in  bis  own  house,  called  de  Secrett,  was  accessible  ootjr 
to  9uch  as  bad  made  some  new  discoveries  in  nature.  H^ 
composed  dramas,  both  tragic  and  comic,  which  bad  som^  the  time,  but  are  not  now  extant  He  Aed  ii| 
1515.  The  chief  of  his  works  now  extant  are,  K  ''P# 
Magia  natural!,'*  Amsterdam,  1664,  12mo ;  a  work  in  wbicll 
he  teaches  how  to  produce  wonderful  effects  bj  naton4  . 
causes;  but  in  which  are  some  extravagances.  2.  ^^  De 
Physiognomia,*'  printed  at  Leyden  in  quarto,  1645.  He 
judges  of  the  physiognomy  of  men  chieHy  by  comparing 
them  to  different  animals ;  find  with  his  other  fancies  mixes 
those  of  judicial  astrology.  S.  <*  De  occultis  literarum  no*? 
tis ;''  in  which  be  treats  of  the  modes  of  writing  in  cypher  i 
which  he  does  with  great  copiousness  and  diligence.  4^ 
^^  Phy  tognomica,*'  a  pretended  method  of  knowing*  the  iu^ 
ward  .virtues  of  things  by  inspection,  Naples,  1583,  folio. 
5.  "De  Distillationibus/'  Rome,  quarto.  To  him  isattribute4 
the  invention  of  the  Camera  Obscura,  which  was  perfected 
by  s'Gravesande.  He  is  said  to  have  formed  the  plan  of 
an  Encyclopedia.  ^ 

PORTES  (Philip  des).    See  DES  PORTKS. 

PORTEUS  (Beilby),  a  late  eminent  English  prelate 
was  born  at  York  May  8,  1731.  He  was  the  youngest  but 
one  of  piueteen  children.  His  father  and  mother  were  na- 
tives of  Virginia,  but  retired  to  this  country,  much  to  the 
injury  of  their  private  fortune,  solely  for  the  honourable  pur* 
pose  of  giving  every  possible  advantage  of  education  to 
their  children.  Dr.  Porteus  received  the  first  rudiments  of 
his  education  at  York  and  at  Ripon,  whence  at  a  very 
early  age  be  became  a  member  pf  Christ's  college,  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  was  admitted  a  sizar.  Humble  as  lhi$ 
station  was,  his  private  merits  and  studious  accomptt$hr 
ments  advanced  hiiid,  as  might  naturally  be  expected,  to  |i 
fellowship  of  his  college,  and  the  active  exertions  of  his 
friends  soon  afterwards  procured  him  the  situation  of  squire 
beadle,  an  office  of  the  university,  both  advantageoos  and 
honourable,  but  not  precisely  adapted  to  the  character  of 
his  mind,  or  habits  of  his  life.  He  did  not  therefore  lw|^ 
retain  it,  but  wholly  occupied  himself  with  th^  oure  of 
private  pupils,  among  whom  was  the  late  Iprd  Gmit^n% 
who  distinguished  himself  oo(  only  as  seoveiar]^  pf  MM^ 

V  ButUrt*s  AcadejDW  des  Sciences.— 4ftctla't.Bi^.  PhUa^«^Tic^QjWii>  f 
%uui  Ononast, 

i09  P  O  R  T  E  U  S. 

bttt  a^  ambassador  of  Spain.  Whilst  employed  in  tbid  me* 
ritorious  office,  he  had  some  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  cu- 
racy, and  bas  been  heard  to  say,  with  good  humour,  that 
at  this  time,  so  h'mited  was  his  ambition,  be  thought 
it  ah  extraordinary  piece  of  good  fortune,  to  receive  an 
invitation  to  go  over  every  Sunday  to  the  house  of  sir  John 
Maynard,  at  Easton,  a  distance  of  sixteen  miles  from 
Cambridge,  to  read  prayers  to  the  family.  In  1757  he 
was  ordaitied  deacon,  and  soon  afterwards  prii&st.  His  first 
claim  to  notice  as  an  author  was  his  becoming  a  successful 
candidate  for  Seaton's  prize  for  the  best  English  poem  on 
a  sacred  subject.  His  subject  was  '*  Death,**  on  which  be 
produced  an  admirable  poem,  characterized  by  extraor- 
dinary vigour,  warm  sensibility,  genuine  piety,  and  ac- 
curate taste. 

•  So  much  talent  was  not  doomed  long  to  remain  unno- 
ticed. In  1762  he  became  chaplain  to  archbishop  Seeker^ 
and  in  1765  married  miss  Hodgson,  the  eldest  daughter  of 
Brian  Hodgson,  esq.  of  Ashbourne  in  Derbyshire.  Hb 
first  church  preferments  were  two  small  livings  in  Kent, 
which  he  soon  exchanged  for  Hunton,  in  the  same  county, 
and  a  priebend  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Peterborough, 
ah  option  of  the  archbishop ;  and  not  long  afterwards  he 
was  promoted  to  the  rectory  of  Lambeth«  In  the  same  year, 
4767,  he  \:bok  his  doctor's  degree  at  Cambridge,  and  on 
this  occasion  preached  the  commencement  sermon.  From 
this  i^eriod  he  became  more  and  more  an  object  of  public 
esteem  and  attention.  He  divided  his  time  between  Hun- 
ton,' which  place  he  always  visited  with  delight  and  left 
virith  regret,  and  Lambeth ;  and  in  1 769  be  was  made  chap- 
lain to  his  majesty,  and  master  of  the  hospital  of  St.  Cross, 
near  Winchester. 

'  In  1773  a  circumstance  occurred,  which  then  excited 
considerable  interest,  and  in  which  the  part  that  Dr.  Por- 
teus  took  has  been  much  misinterpreted  and  misunderstood. 
The  following  statement  in  his  own  words,  will  place  the 
f^ictin  its  true  point  of  view.  **  At  the  close  of  the  year 
1772,  and  the  beginning  of  the  next,  an  attempt  was  made 
by 'mjr'telf  and  a' few  other  clergymen,  among  whom  were 
JMr.«FVancis  'Wdllaston,  Dr.  Percy,  now  bishop  of  Dra- 
Aore,  and  Dr.  Yorke,  now  bishop  of  Ely,  to  induce  the 
bishops' to  promote  a  review  of  the  liturgy  and  articles,  in 
'vritr  to  amend  in  both,  but  particularly  in  the  lattec^ 
those  parts  which  all  reasonable  persons  agreed  ttood  ioi 

P  O  R  T  E  U  S.  209 

tieed  of  amendment  This  plan  was  not  in  the  smaliett 
degree  connected  with  the  petitioners  at  the  Feathers  ta^ 
Tern,  but,  on  the  contrary,  was  meant  to  counteract  that 
and  all  similar  extravagant  projects;  to  strengthen  and 
confirm  oUr  ecclesiastical  establishment ;  to  repel  the  at« 
tacks  which  were  at  that  time  continually  made  upon  it  by 
its  avowed  enemies  ;  to  render  the  17^  article  on  predes- 
tination and  election  more  clear  and  perspicuous,  and  less 
liable  to  be  wrested  by  our  adversaries  to  a  Calvinistic 
sense,  which  has  been  so  unjustly  affixed  to  it;  to  improve 
true  Christian  piety  amongst  those  of  our  own  communion^ 
and  to  diminish  schism  and  separation  by  bringing  over  to 
the  national  church  all  the  moderate  and  well-disposed  of 
other  persuasions.  On  these  grounds,  we  applied  in  a 
private  and  respectful  manner  to  archbishop  Comwallis^ 
requesting  him  to  'signify  our  wishes  (which  we  conceived, 
to  be  the  wishes  of  a  very  large  proportion  both  of  the 
clergy  and  the  laity)  to  the  rest  of  the  bishops,  that  every 
thing  might  be  done,  which  could  be  prudently  and  safely 
done,  to  promote  these  important  and  salutary  purposes. 

^^  The  answer  given  by  the  archbishop,  February  11  ^ 
1773,  was  in  these  words :  ^  I  have  consulted  severally  my 
brethren  the  bishops,  and  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  bench  in 
general,  that  nothing  can  in  prudence  be  done  in  tjie 
inatter  that  has  beeu  submitted  to  our  consideration.' '' 

There  can  be  no  question  that  this  decision,  viewed  in  all 
its  bearings,  was  right ;  and  Dr.  Porteus,  and  those  wijth 
whom  be  acted,  entirely  acquiesced  in  it.  They  had  done 
their  duty  in  submitting  to  the  bench  such  alterations  as  ap- 
peared to  them  to  be  conducive  to  the  credit  and  the  in- 
terest of  the  church  of  England,  and  of  religion  in  general; 
and  their  manner^of  doing  it  was  most  temperate  and  respect- 
ful. At  the  same  time,  it  appeared  to  the  majority  then^ 
as  it  does  still,  that  the  proposal  was  rejected  on  very  satis- 
factory and  sufficient  grounds. 

In  1776,  Dr.  Porteus  was  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of 
Chester,  where  he  distinguished  himself  by  a  faithful  dis*- 
charge  of  the  duties  of  his  high  station  ;  and  in  the  interval 
between  this  period  and  his  promotion  to  the  see  of  Lon- 
don, the  bishop  evinced  his  zeal  and  ardour  for  the  proi* 
fliotion '  of  piety,  benevolence,  and  the  public  good^  by 
the  part  which  he  took  in  various  matters  which  were  ob^- 
gects  of  popular  disctission.  The  principal  among  these 
were  the  .Protestant  association  against  Popery.;  that  abo^ 

Vol.  XXV.  P 

tl§  >  O  R  T  B  u  a 

niinable  nuisaiice,  the  Sunday  debating  sooietj ;  the  civW 
lisation  of  the  negroesy  and  the  cstablisbment  of  S^ndey 
aebooh.  In  the  first  of  these,  at:  the  tsune  time  that  the 
bishop  demonstrated. bis  untreiwl  ebarity  and  candour,  hm 
was  not  negligent  in.  guarding  thoae  eommitted  to  hia  oare 
agamst  the  dangerous  and  delusive  teoeta  of  pt^ery*  la 
the  second,^  his  exertions  effectually  put  a  atop  lo  a  very 
alarming  evil,  to  meetings  whscb  were  calculated  to  de«- 
•troy  every. morii  sentiment,  and  extinguish  every  reli« 
gious  principle.  With  respect  to  the  eivilisttion  and  coor 
version  of  the  negroes,  he  indulged,  the  feeling  nearest  to 
bis  heart;  but,  although  he  had  the  bappiuesa  to  see  the 
final  accomplishment  of  his  wiabes,  his  first  endeavoura 
were  not  effectual.  The  plan  of  Sunday  schools  was  first 
introduced  by  Mr.  Richard  Baikes,  of  Gloueesters  and 
when  the  bishop  wasi  convinced  by  time  and  experience  of 
their  real  utility  and  importance,  be  promoted  them  in  his 
diocese,  and  by  an  admirable  letter  which  he  addressed  to 
bis  clergy,  he  explained  tbetr  advantages,  and  recom^ 
mended  their  universal  adoption  J 

,  In  1787,  on  the  deadi  orbiahop  Lowtb,  Mr.  Pitt  re* 
eommended  Dr.  Porteua  to  bis  majesty  aa  a  fit  person  to 
aucceed  to  the  diocese  of  London^  and  hia  jotajesty  having 
giyen  his  entire  approbation,  he  was  accordingly;  iuatalled^ 
The  first  object  which  engaged  his  attention  on  bis  promor 
tion  to  this  imjiortant  see,  was  the  king's  proolamation 
against  immorality  and  profanenesst;  and  the  good  eiFeets 
of  his  exertions  on  this  subject  were  immediate  and  import 
iant;  but  his  pastoral  zeal  was  displayed  to  most  advantage 
a  few  years  after,  when  all  moral  and  religtous  priueiple 
became,  endangered  by  the  pernicious  influence  of  the 
,  French  revolution.  The  object  of  the  authors  of  that  cocit 
vulsion  was  to  degrade  and  vilify  the  truths  of  revelation^ 
and  to  propagate  in  its  place  a  blaapbemous  and  infidel 
philosophy.  The  attempt  succeeded  but  too.  effectually 
in  their  own  country,  and  the  contagion  ao6n  spread  to 
this.  No  efforts  were  spared,  which  could  tend  to  con- 
taminate the  public  mind,  and  obliterate  from  it  all  reve*^ 
rence  for  our  civil  and  religious  establishnoents ;  and  had  it 
not  been  for  the  vigorous  measures  of  that  great  miniater^ 
who  was  then  at  the  head  of  the  administration,  and  to 
whom,  under  providence,  we  owe  our  preservation,  we 
laigbt  have  witnessed  here  the  same  frightful  scenes^  wbicit 
convulsed  aod  desolated  a  uei^bofyriog  kiogdom.  . 

P  O  H  T  E  U  &  Sll 

At  a  crisis  such  as  tkis^  in  which  iJI  that  is  dear  to  ns 
bong  suspended  on  the  issue^  it  was  plainly  every  man^s 
boundeu  duty  to  exeit  himself  to  the  utmost  for  the  ptrblia 
weifere :  aod,  in  a  situation  so  responsible  as  the  see  of 
LondoOt  comprehending  a  vast  metropolis^  where  the 
emissaries  of  infidelity  were  most  actively  occupied  in  their 
ivork  of  mischief,  the  hishop  felt  himself  called  upon  to 
counteract,  as  far  as  in  him  lay,  the  licentious  principles 
which  vrere  then  afioat,  and  to  check,  if  possible,  the 
progress  they  had  too  evidently  made  in  the  various  ranks 
of  society.  The  best  mode,  as  he  conceived,  of  doing 
this,  was  to  rouse  the  attention  of  the  clergy  to  what  was 
passing  around  them ;  and  nothing  surely  was  ever  better 
ealeulated  to  produce  that  effect,  than  the  charge  which 
be  addressed  to  them  in  1794.  We  know  not  where,  in  a 
short  compass,  the  character  of  the  French  philosophy  is 
more  ably  drawn,  or  its  baneful  influence  moce  strikingly 
developed.  He  had  marked  its  course  with  an  observing 
eye.  '  He  had  read  ail  that  its  advocates  could  allege  in  its 
favour.  He  bad  traced  the  motives  which  gave  it  birth, 
thfe  features  by  which  it  was  marked,  and  the  reed  objects 
which  it  was  designed  to  accomplish.  It  was  not  therefore 
without  much  deliberatioo  and  a  full  knowledge  of  his  sub* 
ject,  that  he  drew  up  for  his  second  visitation  that  eloquent 
and  most  impressive  address,  in  which  be  gave  such  a  pic- 
ture of  the  infidel  school  of  that  day,  and  of  the  industry 
which  was  then  employed  to  disseminate  its  principles  in 
ibis  country,  as  at  once  carried  conviction  to  the  mind, 
and  most  powerfully  awakened  the  attention  of  every  seri'- 
ous  and  thinking  man.  But  it  was  on  the  clergy,  in  an 
especial  manner,  that  he  was  anxious  to  leave  a  strong  and 
fixed  persuasion  of  the  necessity  of  increased  assiduity  and 
vigilance  in  the  discbarge  of  their  religious  functions. 
Christianity,  attacked  as  it  was  on  every  side,  required 
more  than  common  efforts,  and  more  than  ordinary  zeal  on 
the  part  of  its  natural  defenders  ;  and  he  therefore  called 
upon  them  to  repel  with  vigour  and*effect  all  those  charges 
of  fraud,  falsehood,  and  fanaticism,  which  bad  been  so 
liberally  thrown  upon  it;  at  such  a  perilous  crisis  to  con- 
tend whh  peculiar  earnestness  for  **  the  faith  once  delivered 
to  the  saints;"  and  to  shew  that  it  is  not,  as  our  enemies 
affirm,  ^  a  cunniDgly  devised  fable,*'  but  *^  a  real  re  vela* 
iion  from  heaven.*' 

.   lo  particiiliir  he  recommended  it  to  them^  >vith  the  rM&w 

P  3 

21$  P  O  R  T  E  U  S. 

of  fltemming  more  effectually  the  oTerwlielming  torrent  of 
infidel  opinions^  *^  to  draw  out  from  the  whole  body  of  the 
Christian  evidences  the  principal  and  most  striking  argu- 
ments^ and  to  bring  them  down  to  the  understandings  of  the 
common  people."  **  If  ihis,"  says  he,  **  or  any  thing  oi 
a  similar  nature,  were  thrown  into  a  regular  course  of  ser- 
mons or  lectures,  and  delivered  in  an  easy,  intelligible,  fa- 
miliar language  to  your  respective  congregations,  I  know 
nothing  that  would,  in  these  philosophic  times,  render  a 
more  essential  service  to  religion.''  And  to  demonstrate 
that  he  was  willing  himself  to  take  bis  full  share  of  the 
burthen  which  he  imposed  upon  others,  he,  in  1794,  un- 
dertook to  prepare  and  deliver  at  St.  James's  church,  his 
justly-celebrated  Lent  lectures,  which  were  received  by  the 
public  with  enthusiastic  gratitude,  both  from  the  pulpit, 
in  which  they  were  repeated  for  some  succeeding  years, 
and  from  the  press,  where  they  passed  through  several 
editions.      i  ' 

This  excellent  prelate  continued  to  ; exert  all  the  in- 
fluence of  his  high  office,  and  to  display  all  the  energies 
of  his  character  in  whatever  comprehended  the  extensiock 
and  benefit  of  religion,  morality,  and  literature.  His  ad^ 
dress,  in  particular,  to  those  who  came  to  him  for  confir- 
mation when  he  visited  his  diocese  for  the  fourth  time  ia 
1 802,  is  an  admirable  piece  of  eloquence.  His  charge  on 
his  last  visitation,  is  more  particularly  deserving  of  atten- 
tion, as  it  answered  the  objections  of  those  who  repre- 
sented bis  lordship  as  friendly  to  sectaries.  The  part  he 
took  on  the  subject  of  the  Curates'  Bill,  and  residence  of 
the  clergy,  evinces  his  tenacious  zeal  in  whatever  seemed 
in  his  opinion  to  be  connected  with  his  duty. 

In  1805,  he  opposed  the  application  for  what  was  galled 
Catholic  Emancipation,  as  not  being  an  application  for 
liberty  of  conscience,  but  for  political  power.  Among  the 
last  acts  of  his  life  were,  his  support  of  the  English  and  Fo- 
reign Bible  Society  ;  his  triumph  on  the  successful  termi- 
nation of  the  question  on  the  Slave  trade ;  and  his  liberality 
in  building  and  endowing  a  chapel  at  Sundridge,  whick 
was  his  favourite  place  of  summer  residence. 

Tois  worthy  prelate  had  for  some  years  been  subject  to 
ill  health,  which  at  length  brought  on  a  general  debility, 
and  on  the  i  4th  of  May,  1808,  he  sunk  under  the  pres- 
sure of  accumulated  disease,  being  in  the  78th  year  of  his 
age«     He  left  bet»nd  him  a  justly  ^acquired  reputatiQn  -for 

PORTE  us.  8JS 

propriety  of  tondace,  ben)3voler>ce  to  the  clergy,  and  a 
strict  attention  to  episcopal  duties.  As  a  preacher,  he 
pbtained  the  character  of  an  accomplished  orator ;  bis  lan- 
guage was  chaste,  his  manner  always  serious,  animated^ 
and  impressive,  and  his  eloquence  captivating.  He  seem^ed 
to  ^peak  from  conviction,  and  being  fully  persuaded  him- 
self of  the  truth  of  those  doctrines  which  he  inculcated,  he 
the  more  readily  persuaded  others.  In  private  life  be  was 
mild,  affable,  easy  of  access,  irreproachable  in  his  morals, 
of  a  cheerful  disposition,  and  ever  ready  to  listen  to  and 
relieve  the  distresses  of  his  fellow-creatures.  In  his  be- 
haviour towards  dissenters  from  the  established  church,  he 
discovered  great  moderation  and  candour.  While  he.  was 
a  sincere  believer  in  the  leading  doctrines  contained  in  the 
thirty-nine  articles,  he  could  make  allowance  for  those  who 
did  not  exactly  come  up  to  the  same  standard.  .  Toward 
the  latter  part  of  his  life,  he  was  accused  of  becoming  the 
persecutor  of  the  rev.  Francis  Stone,  a  clergyman  of.  his 
own  diocese,  against  whom  he  formally  pronounced  a  sen- 
tence of  deprivation  for  preaching  and  publishing  a  sermon 
in  direct  hostility  to  the  doctrines  of  the  church  to  which 
he  belonged.  Mr.  Stone  had  for  many  years  avowed  hia 
disbelief  of  the  articles  of  faith  which  he  had  engaged  to 
defend,  and  for  the  support  of  which  he  had  long  received 
a  handsome  income,  but  no  notice  whatever  was  t^ken  of 
the  unsoundness  of  his  creed.  He  preached  the  offensive 
sermon  before  many  of  his  brethren  of  different  ranks  in 
the  church;  yet  perhaps  even  this  attack,  which. could 
scarcely  be  deemed  prudent  or  even  decent,  would  have 
been  unnoticed,  had  he  contented  himself  with  promul- 
gating his  opinions  from  the  pulpit  only ;  but,  when  he 
made  the  press  the  vehicle  of  disseminating- opinions,  con- 
trary to  the  articles  of  his  church,  the  prelate  tool^  the 
part  which  was  highly  becoming  the  high  office  which  ho 

The  benefactions  of  the  bishop  of  London  were  i^ume« 
reus,  public  as  well  as  private.  While  he  was  living,  he 
transferred  nearly  seven  thousand  pounds  in  three p<T.r^;»^ 
to  the  archdeacons  of  the  diocese  of  London,  ^  a  perinar 
pent  fund  for  the  relief  of  the  poorer  clergy  of  bis  dioce&e* 
He  also  transferred  stock  to  Christ's  college,  Cambridge, 
directing  the  interest  arising  from  it  to  be  appropriated  to 
the  purchase  of  three  gold  medals,  to- be  annually  con- 
tended iat  by  the  students  of  that  college ':  one  medal, 

f  11  p  o  R  r  E  u  s. 

Taltie  fifteen  guineas,  for  the  best  Latin  dissertation  oH 
any  of  the  chief  evidences  of  Cbrifttianity;  another  of  the 
same  value  for  the  best  English  composition  on  some  mot al 
precept  in  the  gospel ;  and  one  of  ten  guineas,  to  th^  b^<st 
tezder  in  and  most  constant  attendant  at  chapel  He  be«* 
queathed  his  library  for  the  use  of  his  successors  in  the  see 
of  London,  together  with  a  liberal  sum  towards  the  expence 
of  erecting  a  building  for  its  reception  at  ^  the  episcopal 
palace  at  Fulfaam.  At  Hyde-hiil,  near  Sundridge,  in 
Kent,  where  the  bishop  had  a  favourite  rural  retreat,  he 
built  a  chapel,  under  which  be  directed  his  remains  to  be 
deposited,  and  he  endowed  it  with  an  income  of  250/.  a^ 

As  his  works  are  now  printed  in  a  eollected  form,  it  is 
unnecessary  to  give  their  titles  or  dates.  The  edition  was 
pfebeded  by  an  excellent  life  of  him,  written  by  his  ne- 
phew, the  rev.'  Robert  Hodgson,  rector  of  St.  George's 
Hanover-square.  To  this  we  refer  for  many  particulars  of 
Dr.  Porteus,  which  could  not  be  included  in  the  present 

PORTUS  (Francis),  a  learned  writer  of  the  sixteenth 
eeotUry,  was  a  native  of  Candid,  where  he  was  born  in 
1511,  but  was  brought  up  at  the  court  of  Ren^e  of  France, 
daughter  of  Louis  XII.  and  consort  of  Hercules  II.  duke  of 
Ferrara,  and  afterwards  taught  Greek  in  thcLt  city.  There 
also  an  acquaintance  with  Calvin  induced  him  to  embrace 
the  reformed  religion,  for  the  quiet  enjoyment  of  which 
he  went  to  Geneva  in  1561,  and  was  appointed  Greek  pro^ 
fessor,  an  office  which  he  i^ppears  to  have  held  until  his 
deatbin  1581.  He  published  commentaries  and  annota-* 
tion^  upon  Pindar,  Sophocles,  some  of  the  works  of  Xeno* 
phon,  Thucydides,  Aristotle's  Rhetoric,  Longinus,  and  some 
other  writers,  a  Latin  version  of  the  Psalms,  and  the 
Hymns  of  Synesius,  an  improved  edition  of  Constantine's 
Greek  Lexicon,  a  reply  to  Peter  Charpentier's  defence  of 
the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew,  and  other  pieces.  * 

PORTUS  (iEMinus),  son  of  the  preceding,  was  bom  in 
i5>5],  and  like  his  father  became  an  accomplished  Greek 
scholar  and  critic.  He  taught  Greek  at  Lausanne,  and, 
as  some  say,  in  the  university  of  Heidelberg.  He  died  in 
1610.     Among  his  useful  labours  we  may  enumerate,  I. 

. ,  1  I,ire  tn  ft^ove.r*8rt^.Crit,  ft>r  lSU.-^F9rbe&*ft  Uie  of  BeaUk  i   •tj^Ioilex^ 
'^  Morerit--^a)ui  Oaoiaagt. 

P  O  R  T  U  S.  "QU 

Aii  ecikion  of  <' EiirifiideB)'^  printcil  at  0«Mm  In  160t, 

4tx>^  with  kifl  own.  notes  and  chote  of  Ciroter,  Brodteus,  ^ 

.  and  Stibiliott^     This  in  a  rare  edition^     2.  **  Artstbphanos,*^ 

Geneva,  I60t,  fol.  Gr.  &  Lat     3.  ^<  Prodi  Diadochi  com- 

4nemaria  in  Platooia  ibeolo^am/'  Gr.  fc  Lat.  Hamburgh, 

16  IS,  fol.    4.  <<  OMsandri   Strategtous/'  Geneva,  I  GOO, 

4(o.     6.  '^  SuldflB  Lexicon^  Gr.   &   LsLtJ^  Colon.  AUobr. 

1619,  (or  as  some  copieiB  have,  Geneva,  1630,)  2  vol«.  fol. 

but  this  16  die  same  eduion.     6.  <<  Amtotelis  Ars  Rbeto- 

•rica,"  Gr.  &  Let  the  translation  by  jEmilias  Portus,  and 

itlie  coniQientary  by  his  father,  Spire,  ld96,  8vo.     7.  *^Ptn^ 

-dar,"  1 598.     Besides  these  he  contributed  notes  lo  Leun^ 

clavius's  edition  of  **  Xenopbon,^*  translated   into  Latin 

Dioaysius  of  Halicaroa^ius,  and  published  a  ^^  Diotioniiw 

rium  Ooricum  GrsBCO'Latinum,*'   1603,  8vo,  a  *^  Diet,  lo- 

aiioum,^'  Gr.  &Xat  ^vo,  lately  reprinted  at  Oxford,  and 

«  ^  Lexicon  Pindaricani/'  &c.  &c.  ^ 

PORY  (John),  a  learned  traveHer  and  geographer,  was 
born  probably  about  li70,  and  entered  of  Gonvil  and  Caius 
college,  Cambridge^  in  1.587,  where  betook  the  degrees 
in  arts«  The  time  of  his .  le^iving  the  oniversity  does  not 
appear;  but  in  1600,  we  find  him  oiensioned  by  Hacklay^ 
with  great  respect,  in  the  dedioation  to  secretary  Cecil, 
-of.  the  third  volume  of  his  voyages.  He  appears  to  have 
'been  in  some  Measure  a  pupil  of  Haokioyt's,  or  at  least 
-caught  from  him  a  love  for  oostnograpby  itnd  foreign  bis*. 
tory,  and  published  iu  the  same  year,  1600,  what  he  calls 
ihe  i^  blossoms  of  bis  labours,"  namely,  ^^  A  Geograpbieal 
History  of  Arrica^'*  translated  fixna  Leo  Africanus,  Lond. 
4to.  The  reputation  of  bis  learning,  and  his  skill  in  the 
modern  languages,  not  very  nsaal  among  ^le  soholars  of 
that  age,  soon  brought  bim  acquainted  with  bis  learned 
contemporaries,  and  in  a  visit  to  Oxford  in  1610,  he  was 
inoerporated  M*  A.  About  the  same  time  Jie  appears  to 
have  been  a  member  of  parliament.  In  Feb«  1612,  he  was 
at  Paris,  where  he.delivered  to  Thuanus,  teti  books  of  the 
MS  commentaries  of  the  reign  of  queen  £ii£abetb,  sent 
over  by  sir  Robert  Cotton  for  the  use  of  that  historian. 
From  bis  correspondence  it  appears  that  be  was  at  various 
parts  of  the  Continent  before  16 19,  when  he  was  appointed 
secretary  to  the  colony  of  Virginia,  in  which^office  he  re^^ 
mained  until  Nov.  1621,  when  be  returned  to  England. 

1  Moreri. — Saxii  Oaomast. 

216  .      P  O  R  Y.  i 

,'fieing  however  appointed,  Oct.  24,  1623/.by  the'  {>rivy-t 
council  o£  England,  one  of  the  cominiasionecs  to  inquife 
into  the  state  of  Virginia,  he  went  thither «  again  in  that 
character,  but  came  back  to  bi«  own  country  in  the  year  f(d« 
.lowing.     From  that  time  he  appears  from  his  letters,  to  have 
resided  chiefly  at  London,  foe  the  rest  of  his  life,  the  pe* 
.riod  of  which  cannot  be  exactly  ascertained,  but  must  be 
Antecedent  to  the  month  of  Oct.  1635,  as  he  is  mentioned 
.as  deceased  in  a  letter  of  Mr..George  Gerrards,  of  the  third 
.of  that  month.     His  letters,  in  the  British  Museum,  ad* 
.dressed  to  Mr.  Joseph  Mead,  sir  Thomas  Puckering,  and 
.others,  will  perhaps  be  thought  inferior  to  none  in  the  hifr* 
itorical  series,  for  the  variety  and  extent  of  the  informa- 
tion contained'  in  them,  respecting  the  affairs  of  Great 

PPSSEVIN  (Antony),  a  learned  Jesuit,  was  born  at 
Mantua  in  1534,  of  a  good  but  decayed  family.  He  wag 
.educated  principally  at  Rome,  and  made  such  progress  in 
Jearning,  that  the  cardinal  Hercules  de  Gonzaga  made 
him  his  secretary,  and  intrusted  him  with  the  education  of 
.Francis  and  Scipio  de  Gonzaga,  his  nephews.  After  stu- 
dying divinity  at  Padua,  he  was  admitted  into  the  society 
pf  Jesuits  in  1559.  As  a  preacher,  he  had  distinguished 
success,  both  in  Italy  and. France;  and  having  a  very  un« 
common  talent  both  for  languages  and  for  negociation,  he 
jwas  employed  by  pope  Gregory  JKHI.  in  important  embas- 
sies to  Poland,  Sweden,  Germany,  and  other  parts  of 
Europe.  When  he  returned  to  Rome,  he  laboured  to 
^effect  a  reconciliation  between  Henry  IV,  of  France  and 
the  court  of  Rojne.  This,  however,  displeased  the  Spanish 
court,  by  whom  he  was  compelled  to  l^ave  that  city.  He 
died  at  Ferrara,  Feb.  26,  161.1,  being  then  sevejtity-eight 
years  old.  Possevin,  though  so  deeply  skilled  in  politics 
and  knowledge  of  mankind,  was  a  man  of  profound  erudi- 
tion and  exemplary  piety.  The  most  important  of  his 
works  are,  1.  '^  Bibliotheca  selecta,  de  ratioue  stuc|iorum,'' 
published  at  Rome  in  1593,  folio,  and  reprinted  at  Venice 
in  1607,  in  2  vols,  folio,  with  many  augmentations.  This 
work  was  intended  as  a  general  introduction  to  knowledge ; 
at  once  to  facilitate  the  approach  to  it,  and  to  serve  as  a 
substitute  for  many  books,  the  perusal  of  which  the  author 

1  Life  by  Dr.  Birch ;  lee  A^icouj^h'i  Catal«gae,  and  Maty's  Review,  to).  T. 
f.  118. 


P  O  S  S  E  V  r  N.  217 

considered  as  dangerous  for  young  minds.  It  treats  dis- 
tiDctly  of  every  science,  with  great  extent  of  learning,  but 
sot  always  witb  sufficient  correctness.  2.  *' Apparatus 
sacer,"  Cologne,  1607,  2  vols,  folio.  The  intention  of 
this  book  was  to  give  a  general  knowledge  of  the  comtnen- 
tators  on  the  Scriptures,  and  other  theological  writers. 
'Though  the  catalogues  it  contains  were  from  the  first  im« 
perfect  and  ill-digested,  it  was  much  circulated,  as  the 
best  book  of  the  time,  and  it  contains  notices  of  above  six 
thousand  authors.  It  is  now  become  almost  entirely  use- 
less. 3.  '^  Moscovia,**  1587,  folio;  a  description  of  Rus- 
sia the  fruit  of  some  of  his  travels.  4.  Some  controversial 
and  other  theological  books.  5.  Some  smaller  works, 
.  written  and  published  in  Italian.  Possevin^s  Life  was  pub- 
lished by  father  Dorigny  at  Paris,  1712,   12mo.^ 

POSTEL  (William),  a  very  ingenious  but  visionary 
man,  was  by  birth  a   Norman,  of  a  small  hamlet  called 
Dolerie;  where  he  was  born  in  1510.     Never  did  genius 
struggle  with   more  vigour  against  the  extremes   of  indi- 
gence.    At  eight  years  old,  he  was  deprived  of  both  his 
parents  by  the  plague:   when  only  fourteen,  unable  to 
subsist  in  his  native  place,  he  removed  to  another  near 
Fontoise,  and  undertook  to  keep  a  school.     Having  thus 
obtained  a  little  money,  be  went  to  Paris,  to  continue  his 
studies  ;  but  there  was  plundered  ;  and  suffered  so  much 
from  cold,  that  he  languished  for  two  years,  in  an  hospital. 
When  be  recovered,  he  a^ain  collected  a  little  money  by^ 
gleaning  in  the  country,  and  returned  to  Paris,  where  be 
subsisted  by  waiting  on  some  of  the  students  in  the  college 
of  St.  Barbe ;  but  made,  at  the  same  time,  so  rapid  a  pro- 
gress iu  knowledge,  that  he  became  almost  an  universal 
scholar.     His  acquirements   were   so   extraordinary,   that 
they  became  known  to  the  king,  Francis  I.  who,  touched 
with  so  much  merit,  under  such  singular  disadvantages, 
sent  him  to  the  East  l;o  collect  manuscripts.     This  commis- 
sion be  executed  so  well,  that  on  his  return,  he  was  ap- 
pointed  royal   professor  of  mathematics ,  and  languages, 
with  a  considerable  salary.     Thus   he  might  appear  to  be 
settled  for  life ;  but  this  was  not  his  destiny.     He  was,  un- 
fortunately for  himself,  attached  to  the  chancellor  Poyet, 
who  fell  under  the  displeasuae  of  the  queen   of  Navarre ; 

'  Life  by  Dorigny.— Dttpm.—Niccrpn,  vol.  XX H. — BIounlN  Cen«ura. — Saxii 

218  P  O  S  T  E  L. 

and  Postel,  for  no  other  fault,  was  deprived  of  li»  sp- 
..pointmentSy  and  obliged  to  quit  France.     He  now  became 
»  wanderer,  and  a  visionary.     From  Vienna,  from  Rook, 
from  the  order  of  Jesuits,  into  wbich  he  had  entered,  be 
was^successively  banished  for  strange  and  singular  opinions; 
for  which  also  he  was  imprisoned  at  Rome  and  at  Venice. 
Being  released,  as  a  madman^  be  returned  to  Paris,  whence 
the  same  causes  sixain  drove  him  into  Germany.     At  Vienna 
he  was  once  more  received;  and  obtained  a  professorship ; 
•  but,  having  made  his  peace  at  home,  was  again  recalled 
ta  Paris,  and  re-established  in  bis  places.     He  bad  previ- 
.otisly  recanted  his  errors,  but  relapsing  into  diem,  was 
.banished  to  a  monastery,  where  he  performed  acts  of  peni- 
tence, and  died  Sept.  6,  1581,  at  the  age  of  seventy^one. 
Postel  pretended  to  be  much  older  than  he  was,  and 
maintained  that  be  had  died  and  risen  again  y  which  farce 
he  supported   by  mtiny  tricks,  such  as  colouring  his  beard 
aud  hair,  and  even  painting  bis  face.     For  the  sftme  reason, 
in  most  of  his  works,  he  styles  himself,  **  Postellus  resti- 
tutus.*'     Notwithstanding  his   strange  extravagances,    be 
was  one  of  the  greatest  geniuses  of  his  lime ;  had  a^sor* 
prising  quickness  and  memory,  with  so  extensive  a  know- 
ledge of  languages,  that  he  boasted  he  could  travel  round 
the  world  without  an  interpreter.     Francis  I.  regarded  bim 
as  the  wonder  of  his  age ;  Charles  IX.  called  him  bis  phi« 
losopher;  and  inhen  he  lectured  at  Paris,  the  crowd  of 
auditors  was  sometimes  so  great,  that  they  could  only  assem- 
ble in  the  open  court  of  the  college,  while  he  taught  diem 
from  a  window.     But  by  applying  himself  very  earnestly 
to  the  study  of  the  Rabbins,  and  of  the  stars,  be  turned 
bis  bead,  and  gave  way  to  the  most  extravagant  chimeras. 
Among  these,  were  the  notions  that  women  at  a  certaiii 
period  are  to  have  universal  dominion  over  men ;  that  all 
the  mysteries  of  Christianity  are  demonstrable  by  reason  ^ 
that  the  soul  of  Adam  had  entered  into  \i\s  body  ;  that  the 
angel  Raziel  bad  revealed  to  him  the  secrets  of  heaven ; 
and  that  his  writings  were  dictated  by  Jesus  Christ  himsejf* 
(lis  notion   of  the  universal  dominion   of  women^  arose 
from  his  attachment  to  an  old  maid  at  Venice,  in  conse- 
iquence  of  which  he  published  a  strange  and  now  very  rare 
and   high-priced   book,  entided  ^^  Les  tres^marveiUeusei 
victoires  des  Femmes  du  Nouveau  Monde,  et  comme  elles 
doivent  par  raison  a  tout  le  monde  commander,  et  mSme  i 
ceux  qui  auront  la  monarchic  du  Monde  viel,'^  Paris,  1553, 

P  O  S  T  E  L.  «lf 


l^iiio.  At  the  nktne  time,  he  maintained,  that  the  extra- 
ordinary age  to  which  be  pretended  to  have  liTed,  was 
-occasioned  by  his  total  abstinence  from  ell  commeroe  with 
that  sex.  His  works  are  as  numerous  as  they  are  stra;nge; 
and  sotne  of  them  are  very  scarce,  bat  very  little  deserve 
to  be  collected.  One  of  the  most  important  is  entitled 
**De  orbis  concordia,**  Bale,  1544,  folio.  In  this  the  au- 
thor endearours  to  bring  all  the  world  to  the  ChrisiiaA 
faith  Under' two  masters,  the  pope,  in  spiritual  affairs,  and 
the  king  of  France  in  temporal.  It  is  divided  into  four 
books ;  in  the  first  of  which  he  gives  the  proofs  of  Christ 
tianity;  the  second  contains  a  refutation  of  the  Koran; 
the  third  treats  of  the  origin  of  idolatry,  and  alf  false  reli^ 
gtons ;  and  the  fourth,  on  the  mode  of  converting  Pagans, 
J^ws,  and  Mahometans.  Of  bis  other  works,  amounting 
to  twenty-six  articles,  which  are  enumerated  in  the  **  Dic- 
tionnaire  Historique,*'  and  most  of  them  by  Bmnet  as  ra- 
rities with  the  French  coileccoi*s,  many  display  in  their 
Very  titles  the  extravagance  of  their  contents;  such  as, 
'*  Clavis  absconditorum  h  constitutione  mundi,''  Paris,  1 547, 
16mo;  "  De  Ultimo  judicio;'*  "  Proto-evangelium,*'  &c, 
fiome  are  on  subjects  of  more  real  utility.  But  the  fullest 
account  of  the  whole  may  be  found  in  a  book  published 
at  Liege  in  1773,  entitled  "  Nouveaux  eclaircissemens  sur 
la  Vie  et  les  ouvra«jes  de  Guillaume  Postel,"  by  father  des 
Billons.  The  infamous  book,  *'  De  tribus  impostoribus,** 
has  been  very  unjustly  attributed  to  Postel,  for,  notwitk* 
standing  all  his  wildness,  he  was  a  believer.  *^ 

POSTLETHWAYT  (Malachi),  a  writer  of  reputation 
on  subjects  of  trade  and  commerce,  was  slightly  mentioned 
in  our  last  edition,  but  without  any  particulars  of  his  Hfe ; 
nor  have  we  yet  many  to  communicate.  He  was  born 
about  the  year  1707  ;  but  where,  of  what  parents,  or  hovi^ 
educated,'  we  have  not  discovered.  In  the  introductory 
discourse  to  his  work  entitled  "  Great  Britain^s  true 
Hystem,''  he  informs  us,  that  nature  having  given  him  si 
very  tender  and  weak  constitution,  he  studiously  declined 
and  avoided,  as  much  as  he  could,  every  degree  of  public 
life,  as  being  inconsistent  with,  and  indeed  destructive  of, 
that  sn^all  share  of  health  which  he  had  several  years 
enjoyed,  and  which  his  studies  had  not  mended ;  ^nd  yet 

'  Chaofppie.— Nicftron,    vol.  VITI  — Buliarl'd    Academie    des     Sciences.— 
Blount's  CcQsura. — SzjW  OnomBftUoon.  -  '• 

«20  POSTLETH  W  A  Y  T. 

he  preferred  the  studious  life,  as  being  more  independent. 
Jle  complains,  however,  of  want  of  encouragement;  and 
'^humbly  hopes  that  some  people  will  be  candid  and  in- 
genuous enough  to  think  that  he  has  a  right  to  be  treated 
upon  a  Noting  something  different  from  that  of  an  upstart 
idle  schemist  or  projector,  who  has  never  given  proof  of 
Any  talents  that  mighty  deserve  the  public  regard  and  at« 
tention.'*  Whether  this  complaint  was  redressed,  we  know 
not.  He  died  Sept.  17,  1767,  and  probably  not  in  very 
opulent  circumstances,  as  he  was  buried  in  Old-street 
jchurch-yard.  The  coffin,  at  his  own  request,  was  filled 
with  unslacked  lime.  His  death  was  sudden,  as  be  always 
wished  it  might  be. 

His  most  valuable  publications  were,  the  '^  Universal 
Dictionary  of  Trade  and  Commerce,''  2  vols,  folio,  of 
which  a  second  edition  was  published  in  1757  ;  and  **  Great 
Britain's  true  System ;''  one  part  of  which  is  to  recom- 
mend, during  war,  to  raise  the  supplies  within  the  year. 
His  other  publications,  with  the  merits  of  which  we  are 
less  acquainted,  were,  ^^  1.  '*  The  Merchant's  public 
Counting  House,"  4to.  2.  **  State  of  the  French  Trade 
and  Navigation,"  8vo.  3.  *^  Britain's  Commercial  Interest 
explained  and  improved,"  2  vols.  8vo.  4.  *^  The  Import- 
ance of  the  African  Expedition  considered,"  &c.  In  the 
papers  of  1763,  we  find  mention  of  a  James  Postlethwayt, 
F.  R.  S.  who  wrote  ^*  The  History  of  the  public  Reyenuej" 
folio,  but  whether  related  to  Malachi  is  uncertain.  Mala- 
cbi  was  chosen  F.  S.  A.  March  21,   1734.  * 

POTENGER,  or  POTTINGER  (John),  an  English 
gentleman  of  talents,  was  the  son  of  John  Potenger,  D.  D. 
who  was  appointed  master  of  Winchester  School  Aug.  1, 
1642,  which  he  was  obliged  to  resign,  in  order  to  pre- 
serve his  loyalty  and  principles,  and  died  in  Dec.  1659. 
He  was  born  in  St.  Switfain's  parish,  Winchester,  July  21, 
1647,  admitted  on  the  foundation  of  the  college  in  1658, 
and  thence  removed  to  a  scholarship  of  Corpus  Christi 
college,  Oxon,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  and 
afterwards  entered  of  the  Temple,  and  was  regularly  called 
to  the  bar.  The  office  of  comptroller  of  the  pipe,  which 
he  held  to  the  day  of  his  death,  he  purchased,  in  1676,  of  . 
sir  John  Ernie,  then  chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  whose 
daughter  he  married.     Speaking  of  his  father,  in  one  of 

>  Gens*  Lit.  vol.  I« — Month,  and  Crit  Reviews. 

P  O  T  E  N  G  E  R.  221 


his  writings,  he  expresses  himself  thus  : — "  About  the  thirf 
teenth  year  of  my  age,  the  Christmas  before  the  return  of 
king  Charles  the  Second,  I  lost  a  loving  father ;  I  was  not 
so  young  but  I  was  deeply  sensible  of  the  misfortune, 
knowing  at  what  an  unseasonable  time  I  was  deprived  of 
him,  when  he  should  have  received  a  reward  for  his  loyal 
sufferings.  He  would  often  discourse  with  me,  though 
young,  about  the  unhappy  times,  and  lament  the  church's 
and  the  king's  misfortunes,  which  made  a  great  impression 
on  me ;  and  laid  the  foundation,  I  hope,  of  my  being  a 
true  sou  of  the  church  of  England,  and  an  obedient  subject 
to  my  lawful  prince.*'  In  1692  his  wife  died,  leaving  him 
only  one  daughter,  who,  in  1695,  was  married  to  Richard 
Bingham,  esq.  of  Melcombe  Bingham,  in  the  county  of 
Dorset.  Thither  he  retired  many  years  before  his  death, 
which  happened  on  Dec.  18,  1733,  in  the  87th  year  of  his 
age.  He  was  buried  by  his  wife  in  Blunsden  church,  in 
the  parish  of  Highworth,  Wilts.  Mr.  Potenger  also  pub- 
lished "  A  Pastoral  Reflection  on  Death,"  a  poem,  in  1691 ; 
and  "  The  Life  of  Agricola,"  from  Tacitus,  and  perhaps 
other  select  pieces  ;  but  the  far  greater  part  of  his  works, 
consisting  of  ^^  Poems,  Epistles,  Translations,  and  Dis- 
courses," both  in  prose  and  verse,  was  reserved  only  for 
the  entertainment  of  his  private  friends,  who  often  impor- 
tuned him  to  make  them  public.  Two  original  letters  to 
him  from  Dr.  South,  are  printed  in  Nichols's  Select  Col- 
lection of  Poems.  * 

POTHIER  (Robert  Joseph)  son  of  a  counsellor  to  the 
presidial  of  Orleans,  was  born  in  that  city  January  9,  1699^ 
and  was  appointed  counsellor  to  the  same  presidial  himself 
at  the  age  of  twenty-one.  A  particular  taste  induced  him 
to  study  the  Roman  law ;  and  the  public  are  indebted  to 
bis  labours  on  that  subject  for  an  edition  of  Justinian's  Pan- 
dects, very  exactly  arranged,  which  he  published  1-748, 
3  vols,  folio.  This  work  made  M.  Pothier  known  to  the 
chancellor  D' A guesseau,  who  appointed  him,  unsolicited, 
to  the  professorship  of  French  law,  vacant  at  Orleans  in 
1749  ;  after  which,  he  applied  particularly  to  that  branch. 
He  died,  unmarried,  at  Orleans,  May  2,  1772.  Though 
constantly  employed  in  the  service  of  his  fellow  citizens, 
and  of  all  those  who  consulted  him,  he  found  opportunity, 
by  bis  indefatigable  diligence,   to  publish  the  followiiig 

t  NicboU's  PoemF,  vol.  VIII. -^Lloyd's  Memoirt;  folio,  p.  616. 

£22  P  O  T  H  I  E  a. 

works:  \.  "  Coutume  d'Orleans,"  1740,  1760,  t  t6b; 
12mo,  and  1773,  4to.  2.  ^^  Coutuoies  du  Ducb^,  &Cf 
d'Oxleans,"  2  vols.  12ino,  and  1760  and  1772,  4ta  The 
introductions  to  this  work  are  reckoned  masterly.  3.  ^<  Tr. 
•  ^es  Obligations,*'  1764,  2  vols.  12mo,  which  has  {>een  foU 
lowed  bj,  4.  *^  Le  Contrat  de  Vente;  de  Constitution;  d# 
Louage;  de  Soci^ti6  et  ^  Chepiels;  de  Bieafaisaoce ;  de 
D£p6t,  et  Nantissement':"  these  form  five  volumes,  which 
^re  sold  separately.  '*  Trait^  des  Coutrats  aleatoires,** 
3  vols. ;  "de  Mariage,'*  2  vols.;  "  Trait6  du  Douaire,*! 
1  vol. ;  "  Tr.  du  Droit  d'Habitation  ;"  "  Don  mutuel,"  &a 

1  vol. ;  "  Trait^  du  Domaine,  de  Propriit^  de  Possession,^' 

2  vols.  All  these  works  were  reprinted,  1774,  4  vols* 
4to.  A  Treatise  on  Fiefs  has  since  appeared,  Orleans,  1 776, 
2  vols.  foHo.  He  left  many  other  manuscript  works^  which 
have  not  been  printed  ^ 

POTT  (PEaciVAL),  an  English  sargeon  of  the  highest 
eminence,  was  born  in  Threadneedle-street^i  Londbn,  in 
December  1713.  His  father  dying  before  he  was  quit^ 
four  years  old,  he  was  left,  in  some  degree,  to  the  protec* 
tion  and  patronage  of  Wilcox,  bishop  of  Rochester^  who 
was  a  distant  relation  of  his  mother.  The  profession  of 
surgery  was  bis  own  decided  choice,  though  the  coniiectiofi 
above  mentioned  might  naturally  have  led  him  to  the 
church;  and,  in  1729,  he  was  bound  apprentice  to  Mr. 
Nourse,  one  of  the  surgeons  of  St.  Bartholomew's  hospital, 
under  whpm  he  was  profoundly  instructed*  in  what,  at  tb^t 
time,  was  taught  only  by  a  few,  the  science  of  anatomy. 
His  situation  brought  with  it  an  abundance  of  practical 
knowledge,  to  which  bis  own  industry  led  him  to  add  all 
that  can  be  gained  from  a  sagacious  and  careful  perusfkl  of 
the  early  writers  on  surgery.  Thus  qualified,  he  was  admi*^ 
rably  calculated  to  reform  the  superfluous  and  awkward 
modes  of  practice  which  had  hitherto  disgraced  the  art. 
In  1736,  having  finished  his  apprenticeship,  he  took  a 
house  in  Fenchurch-street,  and  quickly  was  distinguished 
AS  a  yonng  man  of  tbe  most  brilliant  and  promising  talents^ 
In  1745,  he  was  elected  an  assistant  surgeon  ;  and,  in 
,1749,  one  of  the  principal  surgeons  of  St.  Bartholomew^! 
hospital.  It  was  one  of  the  honours  of  Mr.  Pott's  life,  that 
he  divested  surgery  of  its  principal  horrors,  by  substituting 
a  mild  and  rational  mode  of  practice  (notwithstanding  the 

1  Diet.  Uist-^Necrolosie  des  Hoaiimss  .celebres^  pour  ans^e  VVIZ* 

POTT.  ^33 

iqiipoeition  of  Ibe  old^r  surgeons),  instead  of  the  actual 
j09kut^ry^  wd  otb^r  barbarous  expedients  which  had  hitherto 
beea  employed ;  and  he  Uved  to  enjoy  the  satisfaction  of 
feeing  bis  improved  plan  universally  adopted.  Though  he 
possessed  the  most  diatinguisbed  talents  for  communicating 
bis  thoughts  in  writing,  it  seems  to  have  been  by  accident 
that  be  ways  led  to  become  an  author.  Immersed  in  prac* 
tice^  lit  doea  not  appear  that  hitherto  he  had  written  any 
Ibiogy  except  a  paper  **  on  tumours  attended  with  a  soften- 
ing of  the  bonea,''  in  the  forty-first  volume  of  the  Philo- 
sopbical  Transactions ;  but,  in  1756,  a  compound  fracture 
of  the  leg,  occasioned  by  a  fall  of  his  horse  in  the  streets, 
gave  him  leisure  to  plan,  and  in  part  to  write,  bis  Treatise 
on  Ruptures.  The  flattering  reception  of  his  publications 
attached  him  afterwards  to  this  mode  of  employing  his  ta- 
lents, so  that  be  was  seldom  long  without  being  engaged 
in  a^me  work.  His  leg  was  with  difficulty  preserved,  and 
be  returned  to  the  labours  of  his  profession.  In  1764,  he 
had  the  hqnour  of  being  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal 
^Society ;  and  in  the  ensuing  year  he  began  to  give  lectures 
at  his  bouse,  which  was  then  in  Watting- street ;  but  find- 
ing it  necessary,  from  the  increase  of  his  business,  to 
eboose  a  paore  central  situation,  he  removed,  in  1769,  ta 
Lincoln Vtnn-fields,  and  in  1777  to  Hanover-square.  Hia 
reputation  had  now.nsen  nearly  to  the  greatest  height,  by 
means  of  bis  various  publications,  and  the  great  success  of 
his  practice.  lie  was  universally  consulted,  and  employed 
by  persons  of  the  first  rank  and  situation ;  and  received 
honorary  tributes  to  his  merit  from  the  royal  college  of 
surgeons  at  Edinburgh  and  in  Ireland.  In  17^7,  he  re- 
signed the  office  of  surgeon  to  St.  Bartholomew's  hospital, 
'^  after  having  served  it,'*  as  he  expressed  himself,  *^  man 
and  boy,  for  half  a  century  ;"  and  in  December. 1788,  in 
ccKisequence  of  a  cold  caught  by  going  out  of  town  to  a 
patient;  in  very  severe  weather,  be  died»  at  the  age  of 
«eventy*>five,  He  was  buried  near  his  mother,  in  the  church 
of  St*  Blary  Aldermary,  Bow*lane„wbere  a  tablet  was  affixed 
to  bia  memory,  insc^ribed  by  his  son,  the  rev.  J.  H*  Pott,  the 
present  Archdeacon  of  London,  and  vicar  of  St.  Martin' s- 

The  genius  of  Mr.  Pott  was  certainly  of  the  first  order. 
As  an  author,  .hi«  language  is  correct,  strong,  and  ani- 
mated. There  ace  few  instances,  if  any,  of  such  classical 
lakigattce  united  with  .so  much  practical  knowledge  and 

224  POTT. 

acoieness.  His  reading  was  by  no  means  confined  to  pro^ 
fessional  works,  but  was  various  and  extensive;  and  bis 
memory  suffered  nothing  to  escape.  As  a  teacher  he  ac- 
quired the  faculty  of  speaking  readily,  with  great  point 
and  energy,  and  with  a  most  barmouious  and  expressive 
elocution.  As  a  practitioner  in  surgery,  he  bad  all  the  es- 
aebtial  qualifications ;  sound  judgment,  cool  determina* 
tion,  and  great  manual  dexterity.  The  following  is  a  list 
of  his  works  :  1.  *'  An  Account  of  Tumours  which  soften 
the  Bones,"  Philos.  Trans.  1741,  No.  459.  2.  ««  A  Trea- 
tise on  Ruptures,"  1756,  8vo,' second  edition,  1763.  3. 
**  An  Account  of  a  particular  kind  of  Rupture,  frequently 
attendant  upon  new-born  Children,  and  sometimes  met 
with  in  Adults,"  1756,  Svo.  4.  *^  Observations  on  that 
Disorder  of  the  corner  of  the  Ej^e  commonly  called  Fistula 
Lachrymalis,"  1758,  Svo.  5.  ^'Observations  on  the  Nature 
and  Consequences  of  Wounds  and  Contusions  of  the  Head» 
Fractures  of  the  Skull,  Concussions  of  the  Brain,"  &c. 
1760, '  Svo. '  6.  **  Practical  Remarks  on  the  Hydrocele,  or 
Watery  Rupture,  and  some  other  Diseases  of  the  Testicle, 
its  Coats  and  Vessels.  Being  a  Supplement  to  the  Treatise 
oh  Ruptures,  1762,"  Svo.  7.  "An  Account  of  an  Hernia  of 
the  Urinary  Bladder  including  a  Stone,"  Philos.  Transact, 
vol.  LIV.  1764.  S.  ^*  Remarks  on  the  Disease  commonly 
caled  a  Fistula  in  Ano,"  1765,  Svo.  9.  "  Observations  ou 
the  Nature  and  Consequences  of  those  Injuries  to  which 
the  Head  is  liable  from  external  Violence.  To  which  are 
added,  some  few  general  Remarks  on  Fractures  and  Dislo- 
cations," Svo,  1768.,  This  is  properly  a  second  edition  of 
No.  5.  10,  *'An  Account  of  the  Method  of  obtaining  a 
perfect  or  radical  Cure  of  the  Hydrocele,  or  Watry  Rup- 
ture, by  means  of  a  seton,"  1772,  Svo.  11.  "  Chirur- 
gical  Observations  relative  to  the  Cataract,  the  Polypus  of 
the  Nose,  the  Cancer  of  the  Scrotum,  the  different  kinds 
of  Ruptures,  and  the  Mortification  of  the  Toes  and  Feet,'* 
1775,  Svo.  12.  ^'  Remarks  on  that  kind  of  Palay  of  the 
lower  Limbs,  which  is  frequently  found  to  accompany  a 
Curvature  of- the  Spine,  and  is  supposed  to  be  caused  by 
it;  together  with  its  Method  of  Cure,"  1779,  Svo.  13. 
<'  Further  Remarks  on  the  useless  State  of  the  lower  Liinbs 
in  consequence  of  a  Curvature  of  the  Spine ;"  being  a  sup* 
pleroent  to  the  former  treatise,  17S3,  Svo.  These  works 
were  published  collectively  by  himself,  in  quarto ;  and 
«iuce  bis  death,  in  3  vols,  Svo,  by  bis  son-iiwlaw^  Mr.  (pow 

POTT.  92$ 

sir  James, '  Earle^  witb  occasional  notes  and  observatiohsi 
and  the  last  corrections  of  the  author.  This  edition  was 
published  in  1790';  and  Mr.  Earle  has  prefiared  a  life  of 
Mr.  Pott^  from  which  the  present  account  is  taken. 

We  are  assured,  that  Mr.  J^ott  was  no  less  amiable  in 
private  life  than  eminent  in  his  profession.  While  his 
mother  lived,  he  dedlined  matrimonial  engagement ;  bnt^ 
in  1746,  soon  after  her  death,  he  married  the  daughter  of 
Revert  Cruttenden,  esq.  by  whom  he  had  four  sons  and  as 
many  daughters.  Diiigent  as  he  was  in  his  profession,  he 
never  suffered  his  attention  to  its  avocations  to  interfere 
With'  the  duties  of  a  husband  or  a  father ;  but  though  he 
was  pleasing  as  a  companion^  his  professional  manners  had 
much  of  the  roughness  of  the  old  school  of  surgery.  la  ' 
his  person  be  was  rather  lower  than  the  middle  sise,  wifh 
an  expressive  and  animated  countenance.  For  the  chief 
part  of  his  life  hjs  tabonrs  were  without  relaxation ;  but 
latterly  he  had  a  villa  at  Neasden,  and  usually  passed  about 
a  month  at  Bath,  or  near  the  sea. ' 

POTT£R  (Barnabas),  a  pious  .prelate  of  the  church  of 
England,  y(9s  bom  within  the  barony  of  Kendall,  in  the 
county  of  Westmoreland,  in  157 S  or  1579.  In  his  fifteenth 
year  he  entered  Queen's  college,  Oxford,'  as  a  poor  stu- 
dent, or  tabarder,  but  made  such  progress  in  iiis  studies^ 
that  he  took  his  degrees  with  gi*eat  reputation ;  and  wbea 
master  of  arts,  was  chosen  fellow  of  his  college.  During 
his  fellowship  he  became  tutor  to  the  sons  of  several  gen- 
tlemen of  rank  and  worth,  whotn  be  assiduously  trained  in 
learning  and  rel^ion.  After,  taking  orders,  he  was  for 
#ome  tidie  lectorer  at  Abington,  and  at  Totnes^  in  Devon- 
shire, where  he  was  highly  respected  as  an  affecting 
.preacher,  and  was,  according  to  Wood,  tnuch  followed  by 
>the  puritans.  In  1610  he  was  chosen  principal  of  Edmund 
JSali,  but  resigned,  and  was  never  admitted  into  that 
office.  In  16 15  he  completed  his  degrees  in  divinity;  and 
being  presented  the  following  year  to  a  pastoral  charge^ 
by  sir  Edward  Giles  of  Devonshire,  he  married  the  daugh- 
ter of  that  gentleman,  and  intended  to  settle  in  that  coun- 
try. Such,  however,  was  the  character  he  had  left  behind  him 
at  Oxford,  thst  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Airay,  the  same  year, 
he  was  unanimously  elected  provost  of  Queen's  college,  en- 
tirely without  his  knowledge*  This  station  he  retained 
^bout  ten  years;  and  being  then  one  of  the  king^s  chap- 

'  Life,  prefixed  to  hif  worki.    ' 

Vot.  XXV.  Q 

326  POTTER. 

lahisi,  resigned  the  provostsbip  in  favour-  of  his  nephew^ 
the  subject  of  our  next  article.  He  was  now  again  about 
to  settle  in  Devonshire';  when  king  Charlef^  passing  by,  as 
we  are  told^  many  solicitations  in  favour  of  others,  peremp- 
torily nominated  him  bfshqp  of  Carlisle  in  1628.  Wood 
adds,  that  in  this  promotion  be  had  the  interest  of  bishop 
t^aiid^  <*  although  a  thorough-paced  Calvinist.*'  He  conti^ 
lined,  however,  afnequentand  favourite  preacher;  and; says 
'Fuller,  ^<  was  commonly  called  the imritanicai  bishop;  and 
tbey  would  say  of  him,  in  the  time  of  king  James,  that 
organs  would  blow  him  out  of  the  church ;  which  I  do  not 
believe ;  the  rather,  because  he  was  loving  of  and  skilful 
in  vocal  music,  and  could  bear  bis  own  part  therein.'*. 
!  In.  the  beginning  of  the  long  parliament  he  preached  at 
Westpiinster,  and  inveighed  against  the  corruptions  and 
innovations  thsit  had  crept  into  the  churefa,  and  his  senti- 
ments were  generally  approved  of;  but,  in  the  confusion 
mnd  prejudices  which  ensued,  he  did  not  escape  without 
the  usual  crimes  imputed  to  men  of  rank  in  the  church,  and 
was  censured  as  popish,  merely  becausie  he  was  a  bishop. 
This  treatment,  and  a  foresight  of  the  calamities  about  to 
lall  on  his  church  and  nation,  are  said  to  have  hastened  hia 
•death,  which  happened  at  his  lodgings  in  Covent-garde», 
in  January  1 642.  He  was  intemd  in  the  church  of  St. 
iPaul,  Covent*garden.  He  died,  says  Fuller,  ^^  in  honour, 
being  the  last  bidiop  that  died  a  member  of  parliament'* 

Wood  mentions,  as  his  writings,  *'  Lectures  on  some 

.chiapters  of  Genesis,'^  'but  knows  not  whiether  printed ;  and 

several  sermons;    one,  **The  Baronet's  Burial,''  on  the 

-burial  of  Sir  Edmund  Seymour,  Oxon.   1613,  4 to;  and 

another,  on  E^ter  Tuesday,  one  of  the  Spital  sermons.' 

POTTER  (Christopher),  nephew  to  the  preceding, 
'.  was  born  also  within  the  barony  of  Kendal  in  Westmorland, 
about  1591,  and  becamecl^rkof  Queen's  college,  Oxford, 
.in  the  beginning  of  1606.     On  April  30,  1610;  he  took  the 
,  degree  of  B.  A.  and  July  8, 1 6 1 3,  that  of  M.  A. ;  and  the  same 
-  year  was  chosen  cbaplainof  the  college,  and  afterwards  fellow 
*ofit  He  was  then  a  great  admirer  of  Dr.  Henry  Airay,  pro- 
vost of  that  college,  some  of  whose  works  he  published,  and 
who  was  a  zealous  puritan,  and  a  lecturer  at  Abingdon  in 
Berks,  where  he  was  much  resorted  to  for  his  preaching. 
On  March  the  9th,  1620,  be  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of 
•  divinity,  and  February  17,  1626*7,'  that*  of  doctor,  having 

*  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  II. — Clark'g  Lives  of  Modern  Divines. — Fuller's  Worthiff,'^ 
Irloyil's  Meiaoirs,  folio,  where  it  tb«  falleit  a«CQVBt  of  Utcbaracler* 

POTTER-  ?27 

mrceeeded  bis  UQclef  Dr.  Bariiabas  Potter  in  tbeprpTos^ship 
<)f  bis  college  on  tbe  17tb  of  June,  1626.  "  Soon  after,'* 
ijays  ,Mr.  Wood,  <<  wben  Dr.  Land  became  a  rising  favou- 
ji^  at  court,  be,  after  a.great  deal  ofsejekiiig,  was  ma,de  bi9 
prealure,  and  therefore  by  the  precise  party  he  .was .es- 
teemed aq  Arminian."  On  March  the  15th,  16'^8,  he 
preacb^d  a  Sermon  on  John  xxi;  17.  at  the  consecration. of 
bis  uncle  to  the  bishopric  of  Carlisle  at  Ely  HouseunHol- 
J)orn  'y :  which  was  printed  at  London,  .1629,  in  8vo, .  and  iu- 
yolved  bim  in  a  short  controversy  with  Mr.  .Vicars,  a  friend 
pi  bis,  who  blanoed  him  for  a  leaning  towards  Arminianism. 
Jn  1633  .he  publisbed;bis  **  Answer  to  a  late  Popish  Pam* 
phlet,  :entitled.  Charity  mistaken.'*  The  cause  was  this  . 
A  J«|»uit  who  went  by  the  name  of  Edward  Knott,  but  whQse 
true  name  w^  Matthias  Wilson,  bad  publUhed  in  1630^,  a 
Jiittle  book  in ;  S vo,  called  '^  Charity  mistaken,  with  Jtbe 
.3¥s^nt  whereof  Catbolicks  are  unjustly  charged,  for  affirming, 
jas  they  dowith  grief,  that  Protestancy  unrepented  destrojies 
Solvation."  Dr.  Potter  publisbedan  answer  to  this  at  Ox- 
%d,  1633,  in  8vo,'  with  this  title:  "Want  of  Charitie 
justly  charged  on  all  such  Romanists  as  dare  (without  truth 
:  ,or  modesty)  affi^'me,  that  Protestancie  destroy etb  Salvation; 
or,  an  Answer  to  a  late  Popish  paippblet,. intituled,.  Cba* 
xity  mistaken,  ^c."  The  second  edition- revised  anjd/enr  ^ 
larged,  was  printed  at  London,  1634,  in  3vo.  Pryn^e;job- 
iSje.rvesr.that  bishop  Laud,  having  perused .  the  first  edition, 
.paused  some. things  to  be  omitted  in  the  second.  Itisdedi- 
c^ted  to  King  Charles  I.  and  in  the  dedication  Dr.  Potter 
observes,  tbs^t  it  was,"  undertaken  inobedience-to  his  vma^ 
jesty's  particular  commandment." 

..  In  ,1635  be  was  promoted*  to  the  deanery  of-  Worcester, 
paving  before  had  a  promise  of  a  canonry  of  Windsor, 
which  be  never  enjoyed.-  In  1640  he  was,  vice-chan- 
/cellor  of :  tbe^  university  of  Oxford,  in  the  execution  of 
\9Yhich  office  he  met  with  some  trouble  froni  the  members 
pf.tbe  long  .parliaments^  Upon  breaking  out  of  the  civil 
wars,  be  sent  all  bis  plate  to  the  king,  and  declared,  that 
be  Wi)uld  rather,;- like  Diogenes,  drink  in  tbe  hollow  of  s  his 
band,  than  that  bis  majesty  should  want ;  and  he  afterwards 
su0er€^d  much  for  the  royal  cause.  In  consideration  of 
this,  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Waiter  Balcanqual,  he  was 
npqainated-  to  the  deanery  of  Durham  in  January  1645-6; 
j)ut  was  prevei)ted  from  being  instaUed  by  bis  death,  wbicb 
happened  at  bis  college  March  the  3d  following.     He  was 

Q  2 


interred  about  the  middle  of  the  chcpel  there ;'  ttid  btet  IM 
grave  was  a  marble  monument  fastened  to  the  north  wall^ 
at  the  expence  of  his  widovr  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Dr. 
Charles  Soiiibanke,  some  time  canon  of  Windsor,  after- 
wards wife  of  Dr.  Gerard  Langbatne,  who  succeeded  Dr. 
Potter  in  the  provostship  of  Queen's  college.     He  w«f 
a  person  esteemed  by  all  that  knew  him  to  be  learhed  and 
religious ;  exemplary  in  his  behaviour  and  discourse,  cour- 
teous in  his  carriage,  and  of  a  sweet  and  obliging  nature^ 
and  comely  presence.    But  he  was  more  especially  rew 
markable  for  his  charity  to  the  poor ;  for  though  be  had  4 
wife  and  many  children,  and  expected  daily  to  be  seques- 
tered, yet  he  continued  his  usual  liberality  to  them,  havings 
on  bearing  Dr.  Hammond's  sermon  at  St.  PauPs,  been  per^ 
auaded  of  the  truth  of  that  diviners  assertion,  that  charity 
to  the  poor  was  the  way  to  gr6w  richi     He  translated  frond 
Italian  into  English,  **  Father  Paulas  History  of  the  Quar« 
rels  of  Pope  Paul  V.  with  the  State  of  Venice,**  London^ 
1626;  4to;  and  left  several  MSS.  prepared  for  the  pres% 
one  of  which,  entitled  **  A  Survey  of  the  Platform  of  Pre- 
destination,'* falling  into  the  hands  of  Dr*  William  Twiss^ 
of  Newbury,  was  answered  by  him.     This*subject  perhaps 
h  more  fully  discussed  in  his  controversy  with  Mr.  Vicars^ 
vrhich  was  republished  at  Cambridge  in  1719,  in  a  *<  Coi- 
lection  of  Tracts  concerning  Predestination  and  Providence.** 
The  reader  to  whom  this  **  Collection'*  may  not  be  acces- 
sible, will  6nd  an  interesting  extract,  from  Dr.Potter's  part, 
in  Dr.  Wordsworth's  "  Ecclesiastical  Biography,"  voL  V: 
p.  504,  &c.     Chillingworth  likewise  engaged  in  the  con-^ 
troversy  against  Knott. 

Dr.  Potter  had  a  son,  Charles,  who  was  bom  at  Ox- 
ford in  1633,  and  admitted  a  student  of  Christ  Church  in 
1647,  but  after  completing  bis  master's  degree,  he  left  tb^ 
university,  and  when  abroad  with  James  Croits,  afterward* 
created  duke  of  Monmouth,  he  embraced  the  Roman  Ca* 
^holic  religion.  He  was  afterwards  one  of  the  gentlemen 
pshers  to  his  great  uncle.  Dr.  Barnabas  Potter,  bishop  of 
Carlisle.  The  ^*  Theses  Quadragesi males  in  scholis  Oz<k 
piensibus  public^  pro  forma  discussal,"  Oxon,  1649,  12mo^ 
was  published  with  his  name,  bat  the  real  author  was  bis 
9oHege  tutor,  Mr.  Thomas  Severn.  * 

POTTER  (Francis),  a  learned  English  divine,  son  of^ 
Bflr.  Riqhard  Potter,  a  native  of  Oxfordshire^  and  vicar  ^f 

\  Aik.  Qx,  rol.  IL-^fien.  ];^i«t.^FqU«r'i  Woithic«. 

POTTER.  f  2f 

Heyre'ifiWiftabire^  msborntn  th^ricarage  house  there 
OQ.Triaity  Sonday  1594,  and  educated  in  gtemmar  learninc; 
in  tfaeking'il  school  at  Worcester  under  Mr.  Henry  Bright. 
He  became  a  comtnoner  of  Trinity  college,  in  Otfard,  on* 
<ier  bis  elder  brother  Hannibal  Potter,  id  the  latter  end  of 
«he  year  1609.  On  July  9,  1613,  he  took  the  degree  of 
B»  A. ;  .June26, 1615,  that  of  M.  A.  ;  and  July  8, 1625,  that 
of  B.  D.  He  continued  a  close  student  in  his  college  till  the 
death  of  his  father,  in  1 6S7  ;  and  then  succeeded  him  ia 
the  rectory  of  Kilmington,  left  the  university,  and  retired 
to  his  living,  where  he  Itred  in  a  very  retired  manner  till 
bis  deathl  In  1642  ha  published  at  Oxford  in  4to,  a  trea- 
tise entitled  **  An  Interpretation  of  the  number  666. 
Wherein  not  onely  the  manner  how  this  number  ought  to 
be  interpreted  is  clearly  proved  and  demonstrated ;  but  it 
is  also  shewed,  that  this  number  is  an  exquisite  and  perfect 
character,  truly,  exactly,  and  essentially  describing  that 
•tate  of  government,  to  which  all  other  notes  of  Antichrist 
do  agree.  With  all  knowne  objections  solidly  and  fuUy 
answered,  that  can  be  materially  made  against  it.''  Prefixed 
to  it  is  the  following  opinion  of  the  learned  Joseph  Mede  : 
^^  This  discourse  or  tract  of  the  number  of  the  beast  is.the 
happiest  that  ever  yet  came  into  the  world,  and  such  as 
cannot  be  read  (save  of  those  that  perhaps  will  not  beleeve 
it)  without  much  admiration.  The  gromid  hath  been  harped 
on  before,  namely,  that  that  number  was  to  be  explicated  by 
some  mttaroij^  to  the  number  of  the  Virgin-company  and 
new  Hierusalem,  which  type  the  true  and  Apostolical 
Churchy  whose  number  is  aJways  derived  from  XII.  -But 
never  did  any  worke  this  principal  to  such  a  wonderfull  dis- 
covery, as  tliis  author  hath  done,  namely,  to  make  this 
mimber  not  onely  to  shew  the  manner  and  property  of  that 
state,  whieh  was  to  be  that  beast,  but  to  designe  the  city 
therein  he  should  reigne;  the  figul^e  and  compasse  thereof ; 
the  number  of  gates,  cardinall  titles  or  churches,  St.  Pe* 
ter's  altar,  and  I  know  not  how  many  more  the  like,  t 
vead  the  book  at  first  with  as  much  prejudice  Against  the 
numerical  speculation  .as  might  be,  and  almost  against  my 
will,  having  met  with  so  much  vanitie  formerly  in  that 
kinde.  But  by  the  time  I  had  done,  it  left  me  possesi 
with  as  much  admiration,  as  I  came  to  it  with  prc^udice.^* 

This  treatise  was  afterwards  translated  into  French^ 
Dutch,  and  Latin.  The  Latin  version  was  made  by  several 
Jmftds.     One  edition  was  all  or  most  traoslated  by  Mi; 

fe3p  POTTER. 

Thdmas  Gilbert,  of  Edmund  Hall,  in  Oxford^  and  print^^^ 
at  Amsterdam -1677,  in  8vo;  part  of  the  Latin  translatioo 
18  inserted  in.  the  second  part  of  .the  fourth  volume  of  ^ 
Pool's  *^  Syfiopsis  Criticorum.'*  Our-  author's  treatise  was 
attacked  by  Mr.  Lambert  Morehouse,  minister  of  Prest*. 
woody  near  Kilmlngton,  who  asserts,  that  25  is  not  tbm 
true,  butipropinque  root  of  666.  Mr.  Patter  wrote  a.Reply 
to.  him.  Mr.  Morehouse. gave  a  manuscript  copy  of  this 
dispute  to  Dr.  Seth  Ward,  bishop  of  Sarum,  in  1668.  Our 
auUior,  while  he  was  very  young,  had  a  good  talent  at 
drawing  and  painting,  anA  the  founder's  picture  in  tlve  hall 
of  Tribity  .college  is  of  his  copying.  He  had  likewise  jan 
excellent  genius  for  mechanics,  and  made  several  inven- « 
tions  for  raising  of  water,  and  water*engines ;  which  bein^ 
co^omunicated  to  the  Royal  Society,  about  the  time  of  its 
fi^st  .establishment,  were  highly  approved  of,  and  he  was 
admitted  a  member  of  that  society.  ]Vfr.  Woo.d  likewise 
observes,  that  about.  16 40,  <^he  entertained  the  notioa 
of,  curing  dilseases  by  transfusion  of  blood  out  of  one 
man  into  another^  the  hint  whereof  came  into  his  head 
from  Ovid's  story  of  Medea  and  Jason;  which  matter  he 
communicating  to  the  Royal  Society  about  the  time  of  i|s 
first  c;^ection,  it. was  entered  into  their  books.  But  this 
way  of  transfusion  haying  (as  it  is  said)  been  mentioned 
long  before  by  Andr.  Liba^ius,  our  .author  Potter  (v^bo  I 
dare  say  never  saw  that  writer)  is  not  to  be  the  first  inveotor 
<>f  that  notion^  nor  Dr.  Richard  Lewen,  but  rather  an  adr 
vancer."  He  became  blind  before  his  deaths  and  died  at 
•  Kilpoin'gton  about  April  1678,  and  was  buried  in  the  .obafi^ 
eel  of.  the  ch.urch  there.  His  memory  was  preserved  i« 
Tdnity  college'until  1670  by  a  di^l,  which  he  constructed 
and  placed  on  the  north  side  of  the  old  quadrangle,  .but 
there  is, now  anotlier  in  its  room.  There  are  many  anec^ 
'  dotes  oi  him  in  the  Aubrey  MSS.  but  none*  perhaps  mor^ 
WQrth  transcribing  than  the  following.  ^'  The  last  time  .1  , 
saw  him^"  says  Aubrey,  ^^  I  asked  him  why  he  did  not  .get . 
some  cousin  or  kinsman  to  be  with  him,  and  look  to  hipst 
t)ow  in  his  great  age  i  He  answered  me,  that  he  had  tried 
that  way,  .and^  found  it  not  so  well ;  for  they  did.  begrudge 
what  he  spent,  that  it  was  top  mucb»  and  went  from  them, 
whetreas  his  servants  (strangers)  were  kind  to  him,  and  took 
care  .of  him."  Aubrey  adds,  that  in  the  **  troublespme 
times  it  was  his  happiness  .  never  to  be  sequestered.  He 
lNra9  once,  maliciously  informed  itgainst  to  th^  cpmmitte$^  at 

F  Q  T  T  TE  ft.        N  23  L 

Y^ol]s;(tfc  thing  T:ery  common,  in  those  times);  but  when  he 
came  before  them,  one  of  tbem  (I  have  forgot  his  name) 
ga?e  him  a  pint  of .  wine,  ai^d  gfve  him  great  praise, .  and 
biK)eh]j|ngo  home,  siod  fear  nothing/'  He. seems. to^faaiVp 
wanted  only  opportojiities  of  conversing  more  frequently 
with  hi».  hearned  contemporaries  to  have  made  a  distin* 
guished  figure  in  the  infancy  of  the  Royal  Society*  - 
"^  ijis  brother,  Dr.  Hannibal  Potter,  who  t^d  been  his 
tutor  at  college,  was,  upon  the  death  of  Dr.  Kettle,  elected 

'  pferideot  of  Trinity  college,  but  was  ejected  by  the  par-» 
liajnentary  chancellor,  lord  Pembroke  in  person,  attended 
by  the  parliamentary  visitors  and  a  guard  of  soldiers  His 
only  subsistence  afterwards  was  a  poor  curacy  ot^oL  a  vear^ 
from  which  he: was  also  ejected  for  using  some  part  of  th^ 
Littfrgy.  *  .  . 

POTTER  (John),  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  the 

'K0O  o& Thomas  Potter,  a  linen  draper  at  Wakefield^ia  XoHk» 
shire,,  ^ere .  he  was  bom  about  the  year  167f.  He  was 
educated  at  a  school  at  Wakefield,  and  it  is  said,  jpiade  aa 
ttnd0mmon  progress,  in^  a  sboirt  time,  especially  in  th# 
Greek  languague.  That  this,  however,  was  a  prioate  school 
se£^s  to  be  taken  for  granted  by  Dr.  Parr,  who,  after  meii-* 
tioning.  that  j»ur  author's  Latin  productions  are  not  free 
ft;ic>m  fauljts,  says  that  he  would  have  been  taught  to  avoid  • 
these  f^  in  our  best  public  seminaries.^'  At  the  age  of  four«^ 
teea,  Mr.  Potter  was  sent  to  Oxford,  and  entered  a  battler 
of  University  college  in  the  b|;ginning.  of  ,1663.;  There  is 
^yi^y  Tesuaem  to  think^hat  hi*  diligence  heifer  was  eixemplary 

>  and  successful ;  for,  after. Caking  his  bachelor's  degree,.  Ire 
w^  employed  by  the  roi^r  of  his  college,  the  learned  Dn  ' 
Charletty  to  compile  a  work  for  the  use  of  his  fellow  stu-» 
dents,  .entitled,  ^^  Variantes  leQtiones  et  notm  ad  Plutarchi 
librum  de '  andiendis  poetis,  item  Yariantes  lectiones, .  &c. 
ad  BasUii  Magni  orationen} Ad  juveaes,  quomodd  cum  fractu 
legere  possio)^  Grsecorum  libros,"  8vo..  This  was  printed  at 
the  Uiii;versity  press,  Jihen  in  the  Theatre,  in  1693,  at  the 
ei^|>ence:of  Df.  Cbarlett,  who  used  to  present  copies  of  it, 
a$ji  new^'ye^'s'gift,  t(v  the  young  .students  of  University 
college,  .tod  tp  others  of  his.  friends. 

In  16d4  he  was  chosen .  fellow  of  Lincoln  college,  and 
proceediog  M.  A.  iu  .October  of  the.  same  year,  he  took 
pupils  and  went  into  orders.     Still,  pursuing  bis  private 

^  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II.-^Aubrey  MSS.  in  Letteirf  of  EfiH4i|it?«rt9nf,  9  voli.  8v^ 
it|S.— flto.  Diet.— Walker^s  SuffjriDgt  of  th«  C]ef!gr» 

2S2  Pf  O  T  T  E  R. 

fltudiesy  he  produced,  in  1697,  bis  beaatifdl  edition  of  Lj^ 
Copbron^s  ^^  Alexandra,^'.  foL  tbe  secood  edition^  of  wbicb^ 
in  1702,  Dr.  Harwood  prpnounces  "an  everlasting  mOBu^ 
ipent  of  the  learning  of  tbe  illustrious  editor.'*  It  is  no 
inconsiderable  proof  of  bis  having  distinguished  himself  in 
tbe  republic  of  letters;  that  we  find  him  already  cor- 
n^ponding  with  many  eminent  scholars  on  the  contineD^ 
mild  among  Dr.  Mead's  letters  are  some  from  Mr.  Potter  to 
GrsBvius,  from  whom  be  received  tbe  Basil  edition  of  Ly* 
copbron,  1546,  collated  with  ancient  vallum  MSS.  and  by 
this  assistance^  he  was  enabled  to  cc^'rect  and  enlarge  thie 
commentaries  of  Tzetzes  in  no  less  than  two  hundred  places, 
and  throw  much  additional  light  on  this  very  obscure  poem. 
In  the  same  year  he  printed  the  first  volume  of  his  Arcbaeo- 
logia  Grseca,"  or  Antiquities  pf  Greece,  and  in  the  fol- 
lowing year,  1698,  the  second  volume.  Several  improve- 
ments were  introdi^;ed  by  him  in  the  subsequent  editions  of 
this  valuable  wbrk,  which  has  hit^rto  been  unrivalled,  and 
be  lived  to  see  at  least  five  editions  printed.  It  still  con- 
tinues a  standard  book  for  Geeek  students.  It  was  incorpo^ 
rated  in  Gronovius's  Thesaurus.  In  the  preface  to  the  fifth 
edition  he  speaks  of  a  Latin  edition  printed  in  Holland^,  the 
publisher  of  which  was  corrected  by  the  author ; 
but  be  assures  us  that  '^he  never  saw  it  till  it  was  all 
printed,  and  therefore  the  many  ervors  in  it  must  not  be 
imputed  to  him."  "     • 

In  July  1704  he  conunenced  bachelor  of  divinity,  and 
being  about  tbe  saiUe  time  apjpeinted  chaplain  t#«rcbbisbop 
Tenison,  be  removed  from  Oxford  to  reside  at  Lambeth 
palace.  He  proceeded  D.  D.  in  April  1 706,  and  soon  aftw 
bebame  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  queen  Anne.^  In  1707  ap- 
peared his  first  publicatioo  connected  with  his  profession, 
entitled  a  ^*  l!)iscourse  of  Church  Government,'*  S^vo.  In 
this  he  asserts  the  constitution,  rights,  and  government,  of 
the  Christian  church,  chiefly  as  described  by  the  fathers  <^ 
the  first  three  centuries  against  Eras|}||an  principles ;  his  de* 
sign  being  to  vindicate  tbe  ehuroh  of  En^and  from  4be 
charge  of  those  principles.  In  this  view,  among  other 
ecclesiastical  powers  distinct  from  the  state,  he  maintains 
the  doctrine  of  our  church,  concerning  the  distihctioD  of 
the  three  orders  of  bishops,  priests,  and  deacons,  particu* 
larly  with  regard  to  the  superiority  of  the  episcopal  ordof 
above  that  of  presbyters,  which  he  endeavours  to  prove 
was  settled  by  divine  institutioti :  that  this  distinction  w«$ 

P  O  T  T  E  R.  i$$ 

in  feet  constantly  kept  up  to  the  time  of  Constantine  :  and 
in  the  neict  age  after  that^  the  same  distinction^  he  observes, 
was  constantly  reckoned  to  be  of  divine  institution,  and 
derired  from  the  apostles  down  to  these  times.  ' 

'  In  the  beginning  of  1708,  he  succeeded  Dr.  Jane  as  re^ 
gius  professor  of  divinity,  and  canon'  of  Christ  Church, 
who  brought  him  back  to  Oxford.  This  promotion  he 
owed  to  the  interest  of  the  celebrated  duke  of  Marlborough, 
and  to  the  opinion  held  concerning  him  that  he  was  *a 
Whig ;  whereas  Dr.  Smalridge,  whom  the  other  party 
wished  to  succeed  in  the  professorship  and  canonry,  had 
distinguished  himself  by  opposition  to  the  whig-measures 
of  the  court.  In  point  of  qualification  these  divines  might 
be  equal, '  and  Dr.  Potter  certainly,  both  as  a  scholar  and 
divine,  was  liable  to  no  objection.  It  was  probably  to  the 
same  interest  that  he  owed  his  promotion,  in  April  1715,  to 
Ae  see  qf  Oxford.  Just  before  he  was  made  bishop  he 
published,  what  had  occupied  his  attention  a  very  consri^ 
derable  time,  his  splendid  and  elaborate  edition  of  the 
works  of  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  2  vols.  fol.  Gr.  and  Lac. 
an  edition,  says  Harwood,  **  worthy  of  the  celebrity  of  the 
place  where  it  was  published,  and  the  erudition  of  the  very 
learned  prelate,  who  has  so  happily  illustrated  this  miscef*^ 
lan^ous  writer."  In  this  he  has  given  an  entire  new  version 
of  the  **  Cohortations,"  and  intended  to  have  done  the 
same  for  the  *^  Stromata,''  but  was  prevented  by  the  duties 
6f  his  professorship.  In  his  preface  he  intreats  the  reader^s 
eiindour  as  to  some  typographical  errors,  he  being  afflicted 
during  part  of  the  printing  by  a  Complaint  in  his  eyes, 
which  obliged  him  to  trust  the  correction  of  the^  press  to 

«  For  some  time  after  his  being  made  bishop  of  Oxford,  he 
fetained  the  divinity  chair,  and  filled  both  the  dignities 
with  great  reputation,  rarely  failing  to  preside  in  person 
over  the  divinity  disputations  in  the  schools,  and  regularly 
lioiding  his  triennial  visitation  at  St.  Mary^s  church  ;  upon 
which  occasions  his  charges  to  the  clergy  were  suited  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  times.  In  1717,  Dr.  Hoadly,  then  hi* 
shop  of  Bangor,  having  advanced  some  doctrines,  respect* 
ing  sincerity,  in  one  of  his  tracts,  which  our  prelate  judged 
to  be  injurious  to  true  religion,  he  took  occasion  to  ani- 
madvert upon  them  in  his  first  visitation  the  following  year; 
Mt4  bis  charge  having  been  published,  at  the  request  of  his 
elei'gy^  Di^^  Hoadly  answered  it,  which  ptoduced  a  reply, 

«34  POTTER. 

from  .our  prelate.  In  this  short  controversy,  he  displayed 
more  warmth. than  was  thought  consistent  with  the  general 
moderation  of  his  temper ;  but  auch  were  his  arguments  and 
his  character,  that  Hoadly  is  said  to  have  been  more  con- 
cerned on  account  of  this  adversary  than  of  any  other  he 
had  thtsn  encountered. 

Some  time  after  this  he  became  much  a  favourite  with 
queen  Caroline,  then  princess  of  Wales  ;  and  upon  the  ac- 
cession of  George  II.  preached  the  coronation  sermon,  Oct. 
11,  1727,  which  was  afterwards  printed  by  his  majesty's 
express  commands,  and  is  inserted  among  the  bishop's 
theological  works.  It  was  generally  supposed  that  the 
chief  direction  of  public  afiairs,  with  regard  to  the  church, 
was  designed  to  be  committed  to  his  care;  but  as  he  saw 
that  this  must  involve  him  in  the  politics  of  the  times,  he 
declined  the  proposal,  and  returned  to  his  bishopric,  until 
the  death  of  Dr.  Wake,  in  January  1737,  when  he  was  ap» 
pointed  his  successor  in  the  archbishopric  of  Canterbury. 
This  high  office  he  filled  during  the  space  of  ten  years  with 
great  reputation,  and  towards  the  close  of  that  period  fell 
into  a  lingering  disorder,  which  put  a  period  to  his  life  Oct. 
10,  1747,  in  the  seventy- fourth  year, of  his  age.  He  was 
buried  at  Croydon. 

He  left  behind  him  the  character  of  a  prelate  of  distin- 
guished piety  and  learning,  strictly  orthodox  in  respect  to 
the  established^  doctrines  of  the  church  of  England,  and  a 
zealous  ailri  vigilant  guardian  of  her  interests.  He  was  a 
great  advocate  for  regularity,  order,  and  oecaoomy,  bat 
he  supported  the  dignity  of  his  high  office  of  archbisbopy  in 
a  manner  which  was  by  some  attributed  to  a  baughtinesa  of 
temper.  Whiston  is  his  principal  accuser,  in  this  respect^ 
but  allowances  made  for  that  writer's  prejudices, 
especially  when  we  find  that  among  the  heaviest  chaiges 
h%  brings  against  th^  archbishop  is  his  having  the  Athana<- 
sian  Creed  read  in  bis  chapel.  He  had  a  numerous  family 
of  children,  of  whom  three  daughters  and  two  sons  survived 
him.     One  of  his  daughters,  Mrs.  Sayer,  died  in  1771. 

His  eldest  son,  John  Potter,  born  in  1713,  after  apri* 
vate  education,  was  entered  a  member  of  Christ  Churcliy 
Oxford,  in  .1727,  and  took  his  master's  degree  in  1734. 
After  he  went  into  orders/  be  obtained  from  his  father  the 
vicarage  of  Blackburne,  in  the  county  of  Lancaster,  and  ia 
1739,  the  valuable  sinecure  of  Elme  cum  Emneth,  ip  the 
isle^of  Ely.    In^  1741  (lis.  JE^ther  presented  him  to  tb^  arch-. 

POT  T  E  It  23j5 

<ieaconry  of  Oxford.  His  other  promotions  were  the  vtca<^ 
mge  of  ;Lydde  in  Kent,  the  twelfth  prebend  of  Canterbury, 
and  the  rich  benefice  of  Wrotfaam  in  Kent,  with  which  he 
retained  the  vicarage  of  Lydde*  In  1 766  he  was  advanced 
to  the  de^nftry  of .  Canterbury,  on  which  be  resigned  the 
archdeaconry  of  Oxford.  He  died  at  Wrotham  Sept.  2Q, 
1 770,  -  He  offended  his  father  very  much  by  marrying  one 
of  his  servants,  in  consequence  of  which,  although  the 
archbishop^  as  we  have  seen,  gave  him  many  preferments, 
be  left  his  personal  fortune,  which  has  been  estimated  at 
70,000/.  some  say  90,000/.  to  his  second  son,  Thomas  Pot- 
ter, esq.  who  followed  the  profession  of  the  law,  became 
recorder  9f  Bath,  joint  vice-:treasurer  of  Ireland,  and  mem- 
ber of  parliament  for  Aylesbury  and  Oakhampton.  He 
died  June,  17,   1759. 

The  Archbishop's  works  were  published  in  1753,.  3  vols. 
8vo,^  under  the  title  of  "TbeTheological  Worksof  Dr.John 
Potter,  &c.  containing  bis  Sermons,  Charges,  Discourse  of 
Cburch.*gdverninent,  and  Divinity  Lectures.'*  He  had 
himaelf  fMrepared  these  for  the  press  ;  his  divinity  lectures 
forme  continued  treatise  on  the  authority  and  inspiration  of 
the, Scriptures.  SomeJetters  of  his,  relative  to  St.  Luke's 
Gospel,  &c.  are  printed  in  "Atterbury's  Correspondence."* 

POTTER  or  POTER  (Paul),  an.  excellent  landscape 
painter,  was i born  ^tEnkbuysen,  in  1625,  and  learned  the 
principles  of  painting  from  his  father,  Peter  Potter,  who 
was, but  a  moderate  artist ;  yet,  by  the  power  of  an  enlarged 
gii^nius  and  uncommon  capacity,  which  he  discovered  even 
in,bis  infapdy,  hi^  improvement- was  so  extraordinary,  that  •** 
he  was  considered  as  a  prodigy,  and  appeared*  an , expert 
master  in  bis  profession  at  the  age  of  fifteen. 
.  .  Paurs.\subjepts  were  landscapes,  with  different  animals,., 
iiotrprincipally  cows,-  oxen,  sheep,  and  goats,  which  he 
p;stintjed  in  the  highest  perfection.  His  colouring  is  saft, 
agreeable^  and  transparent,  and  appears  to  be  true  nature; 
iis  tguch  is  free,*an4  exceedingly  delicate,  and  his  outline 
very  cprr;ect.  His  skies,  trees,  and  distances,  shew  a  re- 
markable freedom,  of  hand,  .and  a  masterly  ease  and  negli- 
gence: but  his  animals,  are  exquisitely  finished,  and  touched 
..with  abundance  of  spirit.  On  these  accounts  he  is  es- 
tee^i^  of. the  best  painters  of  the.  Low  Countries. 
J^^t  only  ao^usement, was. walking  into  the  fields  ;.  and  even 

. .  »  Biog.. Brit.— Alb.  Ox.  yol.  ^I.^NichoU'8  Bowyer.— Whiston'g  Life.    . 

236  P  O  T  T  E  K. 

that  amusement  be  so  managed,  as  to  make  it  conduce  to 
the  advancement  of  his  knowledge  in  that  art;  for  he 
always  sketched  every  scene  and  object  on  the  spot,  and 
afterwards  composed  his  subjects  from  his  drawings;  fre^ 
quently  he  etched  those  sketches,  and  the  prints  are  de- 
servedly very  estimable. 

The  paintings  of  Potter  are  exceedingly  coveted,  and  bear 
a  high  price ;  because,  beside  their  intrinsic  merit,  the  artist 
having  died  young,  in  his  twenty-ninth  year,  in  1654,  and 
not  painted  a  great  number  of  pictures,  they  are  now  scarcely 
to  be  procured  at  any  rate.  One  landscape,  which  origi- 
nally he  painted  for  the  countess  of  Solms,  was  afterwards 
sold  (as  Houbraken  affirms)  to  Jacob  Van  Hoeck,  for  200O 
florins.  Lord  Grosvenor  has  in  his  collection  a  small  work  '. 
bf  Potter's,  for  which  his  lordship  gave  900  guineas.' 

POTTER  (Robert),  an  excellent  classical  scholar  and 
translator,  was  born  in  1721 ;  but  where,  or  of  what  fa«- 
mily,  we  have  not  discovered.     He  was  educated  at  Em-* 
manuel  college,  Cambridge,  and' took  his  bachelor's  degree 
in  1741,  but  that  of  master  not  until  1788,  according  to 
the  published  list  of  Cambridge  graduates,  probably  owing 
to  his  being  then  made  a  dignitary  in  Norwich  cathedral. 
His  first  preferment  was   the  vicarage    of   Scarning   in 
Norfolk,  in  the  gift  of  the  Warner  family ;  and,  until  he 
completed  his  translation  of  Sophdcles,  he  held  no  higher 
.preferment.     In  1774,  he  published,  in  octavo,  a  volume 
of  poems,  some  of  which  had  appeared  before  separately: 
they  consist  of,  "A  Birth-day  Thought;'*  <*  Cynthia;*' 
'**  Verses  to  the  same  ;'*  <*  Retirement,  an  epistle  to  Dr^ 
Hurd ;"  "  A  Fragment  ;'•  "  Verses  to  the  painter  of  Mrs. 
Longe*s  picture  at  Spixworth ;"  "  An  Ode  to  Phibdea  ;*^  ^ 
'<  Verses  to  the  same,  exemplifying  the  absurdity  of  an 
affected  alliteration  in  poetry  ;*'  *^  Two  Pieces  in  imita- 
tion of  Spenser  ;*'    **  Holkham,  inscribed  to  the  earl  of  * 
Leicester  ;'^  **  Kymber,  to  Sir  A.  Woodhouse ;"  and  a  cho* 
rus  from  the  '^  Hecuba*'  of  Euripides,  his  intended  trans- 
lation of  whose  tragedies  he  announces  in  an  advertise^ 
ment.     In  most  of  these  poems,  particularly  the  ^*  Holk- 
ham,** and  ^<  Kymber,**    he  shews   himself  a  succemful 
imitator  of  Pope.     In  the  following  year  he  published  a 
very  judicious  tract,  entitled  "  Observations  on  the  Poor 
Laws,  on  the  present  state  of  the  Poor,  and  on  houses  of 

1  PJlkiogtoB.— Rcts'f  Cydoi^ift.«-AifeB?iU«,  vol.  HI.— Dncaniri^  vol.  fit 

P  O  T  T  E  B.  2il 

Industiy/'  in  which  bis  principal  object  was,  to  recom* 
mend  houses  of  industry,  upon  the  plan  of  those  already 
established  in  some  parts  of  Norfolk  aud  SuffoUc,  particu* 
lariy  that  at  Buloamp. 

Although  Mr.  Potter  had  announced  his  ^^  Euripides*'  as 
in  a  state  of  preparation  for  the  press,  he  first  published^ 
in  1777,  his  translation  of  ^^^schylus/'  in  a  quarto  vo- 
lume, indisputably  the  best  translation  of  any  Greek  poet 
that  had  appeared  in  the  English  language.     In  the  same 
year  appeared  his  '^  Notes  ^on  the  Tragedies  of  JEschylus,'^ 
about  eighty  pages  in  quarto.     These  were  dedicated  to 
Mrs.  Montague,  at  whose  request  they  were  written,  and 
were  printed  and  distributed  at  her  expence  gratis  to  the 
purchasers  of  the  tragedies.     A  second  edition  appeared 
in  1779,  in  two  volumes  octavo,  corrected  in  many  places^ 
and  with  the  notes  inserted  in  their  respective  places.     In 
1781,  he  published  the  first  volume  of.  his  translation  of 
**  Euripides,"  in  quarto ;-  and,  the  following  year,  the  se- 
cond;  and,  in  1788,  that  of  **  Sophocles,"    in  the  same 
si2e^     These last*mentioned  versions  are,  on  the  whole,  in« 
ferior  to  his  first  production,  yet  they  are  each  of  them 
excellent  performances,     and    thought  even  superior  to 
those  of  Mr.  Wodhuil  and  Dr..  Franklin.     Besides   these 
very- laborious  works,  Mr.  Potter  published,  in  1783,  in 
quarto^  <^  An  Enquiry  into  some  passages  of  Dr.  Johnson's 
Lives  of  the  Poets ;"  in  which  we  are  sorry  to  observe  a 
degree  of  petulance  unworthy  of  liberal  criticism ;  and,  in 
1785,  in  qaarto,  ^^  A  Translation  of  the  Oracle  concerning 
Babylon,  and  the  Song  of  Exultation,  firom  Isaiah,  cbap% 
xiiL  and  xiv.'*  and  '^  A  Sermon  on  the  Thanksgiving  for  the 
Peace,   1802.** 

In  1788  he  was  promoted  by  the  lord  chancellor  Thur« 
low  to  the  dignity  of  a  prebendary  in  the  cathedral  of  Nor- 
wich. He  had  been  a  schoolfellow  of  lord  Thurlow,  and 
had  constantly  sent  bis  publications  to  that ,  nobleman^ 
without  ever  soliciting  a  single  favour  from  him.  On  re-^ 
ceiviog  a  copy  of  the  <^  Sophocles,*'  however,  his  lordship 
wrote  a  short  note  to  Mr.  Potter,  acknowledging  the  receipt 
of  his  books  from  time  to  time,  and  the  pleasure  they  bad 
afforded  him,  and  requesting  Mf.  Potter's  acceptance  of 
a  prebeudal  stall  in  the  cathedral  of  Norwich.  In  the 
following  year,  and  during  his  residence  at  Norwich, 
the  united  vicarages  of  Lowestoft  and  Kessingland  were 
presented  to  him^  without  solicitation^from  any  quarter,  by 



-Br.  Bagot,  then  bishop  of  Norwich.  His  mindiwfts  sensibly 
impressed  by  such  a  disinterested  and  honourable  mark  of 
•that  prelate's  favour,  which  was  the  greater,  as  these 
united  vicarages  were  the  best  subject  of  patronage  that  fell 
Yacant  during 'the  seven  years  that  Dr.  Bagot  held  the  ^e^. 
^r.  Potter  died  suddenly,  in  the  night-time,  at  Lowestoff, 
Aug.  9,  1804,  in  the  eighty-third  year  of- his  age..  .HiS 
was  a  man  of  unassuming  simple  manners,  and  his  life  was 
exemplary.  His  translations  are  a  sufficient  proof  of  vliia 
intimate  acquaintance  with  classical  learning,  and  in'tbi9 
character  he  was  highly  respected  by  the  literati  of  his 
time.  It  is  said  that  he  left  a  manuscript  biography  of?  the 
learned  men  of  Norfolk,  .but  into  whose  hands  this,  hai 
fallen,  we  have  not  heard.^ 

.  P.OUGET  (Francis  Amb'),  a  French  divine,  succes- 
sively priest  of  the  oratory,  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  and 
'abb6  of  Chambon,  was  born  at  Montpellier  in  1666.  .He 
-was  some  time  at  the  head  of  an-  ecclesiastical  seminary, 
under  Colbert,  bishop  of  Montpellier;  where  he  wasfQf 
infinite  service,  not  only  by  the  excellence  of  his  jnstruc* 
dons,  but  the  purity  of  his  example.  He  was  vicar  of  St. 
Roch  at  Paris,  in  1692,  andi  had  there  the  credit*of  con- 
tributing to  the  penitence  of  the  celebrated  La  Fantaine^ 
of  which  the  English  reader  .may  see  his  own  curious  ac* 
count  in  the  **  New  Men^oirs  of  Literature,'-  vol.  X.;  His 
latter  days  were  passed  at  Paris,  in  the  religious  house  of 
St.  Magloire,  where  he  died  in  1723,  at  the  age  of  iifty^ 
seven.  Father  Fouget  was  the  author  of  some  works,-  of 
which  the  most  remarkable  is,  '^  The  Catechism  of  Mont- 
pellier,'* the  best  edition  of  which  is  that  of  Paris  in  1702, 
in  4to.  It  is  a  kind  of  body  of  divinity,  and  has  bjeen  con- 
sidered by-  the  clergy  of  his  communion  as  the, most  pre- 
cise, clear,  and  elegantly  simple  statement  of  ^  the  doc- 
trines and  practices  of  religion  that-  has  ever  been  pro- 
duced. He  was  concerned  in- some  other  works,  which 
were  not  entirely  his  own  ;'  such  as  "  The- Breviary  of^Nar- 
bonne;"  '^  Martinay's  edition  of  St.  Jerom ;  Montfauco^'s 
Greek  Analects^  and  a  book  of  instructions  for  the. Knights 
of  Malta.' 
POULLAIN  (Francis.);    See  BARRE'. 

1  9enL  Mag.  vol.  LXXIV.  and  LXXXIIL^-Forbei'i  Life  of    Beattic— 
KichaU*  Bowyer.'— Monthly  Reriew. 
s  Mor6n.*-Dict.  Hist. 

P  O  UP  ART.  if39 

1  POUPART  (Francis)  j  a  celebrated  anatomist  and  phy- 
stetaii,  was  i>orD  at,  Mans,-  and  after  receiving  soma  educa- 
tion ander  the  fathers  of  oratory,  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
« applied  himself,  with  great  assiduity,  to  natural  history 
and  philosophy.  In  the  study  of  the  former  he  had  be^n 
led  to  the  eicamioation  and  dissection  of  insects,  which 
turned  his  mind  to  anatomy  and  surgery,  as  the  means  of 
support;  for  which  purpose  he  presented  himself  at  the 
HcKel  Dieu,  and  passed  his  examinations  with  great 
appiaastf,  which  occasioned  the  more  surprise,  as  he 
airowed  that  he  had  had  no  opportunity  of  obtaining  prac* 
tical  information,  and  knew  no  more  of  surgery  than  to  let 
^lood.  He  subsequently  received  the  degree-  of  doctor  in 
medicine  at  Rheims,  in  169-9,  and  wa»  admitted  a. member 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences.  He  did  not  long  survive  to 
receive  the  rewards,  of  his  industry  ;  for  he  died  at  Paris, 
in  October  1708,  in  a  state  of  considerable  poverty,  which 
he  supported  with  cheerfulness.  His  success  in  anatomical 
investigation  may  be  estimated  from  the  transmission  of  his 
name,  attached  to  an  important  ligament.  The  Memoirs  of 
the  Academy  comprize  many  of  his  papers,  besides  a 
*^  Dissertation  sur  la  Sangue,''  published  in  the  Journal  des 
Savans ;  viz.  a  ''  M^moire  sur  ies  Insectes  Hermaphro- 
dites ;"  ^*  L'Histoire  du  Formica  Leo  ;"  that  of  the  **  For- 
mica Pulex;"  "  Observations  sur  Ies  Moules;"  "  Disser- 
tation sur  T  Apparition  des  Esprtts,*'  on  the  occasion  of 
the  adventure  of  St.  Maur,  and  some  other  papers.  He  is 
also  considered  as  the  editor  of  a  ^^  Chirurgie  complette,** 
which  is  a  compilation  from  many  works  upon  that  art. ' 
.  POURCHOT  (Edmund),  an  eminent  French  professor 
of  philosophy,  was  born  at  Poiliy,.  a  village  in  the  diocese 
of  Sens,  in  the  year  1651,  and  studied  at  the  university  of 
Paris,  where  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  talents  and 
great  diligence,  and  in  1673  he  was  admitted  to  the  de- 
gree of  M.  A.  In  the  year  1677  he  was  appointed  profes- 
sor of  philosophy  in  his  own  college,  whither  his  repntatioa 
soon  attracted  a  multitude  of  students ;  and  at  the  opening 
^  .of  the  *<  College  des  Quatre  Nations,'*  he  was  appointed  to 
fill  the  philosophical  chair  in  that  seminary.  >  Mr.  Pour* 
chot  soon  becanoie  dissatisfied  with  the  Aristotelian  phih)** 
sophy,  and  embraced  the  principles  of  Des  Carles,  apply  big 
ififithematical  principles  and  reasoniugps  to  the  discovery  of 

^  &of,  Diet.  Hist^  de  Medeciae.— -NioeroD,  rol.  XI. 

i40  P  O  U  R  C  H  O  T. 

physical  an<l  moral  truths.  He  now  drew  tip  a  systenf  at 
pbilosopbyy  which  be  published  under  the  title  of  ^<  Insti-* 
tutiones  Philosophies/'  which  was-  very  generally  ap« 
plauded,  and  met  with  an  astonishing  sale.  His  i«puta-> 
tion  as  a  philosopher,  at  this  time,  stood  so  high,  that  hts 
Jectures  were  always  attended  by  a  numeroui^  concourse  o^ 
students.  His  acquaintance  was  eagerly  courted  by  the 
most  celebrated  literary  characters  of  his  time :  Racine, 
Desp'reaux,  Mabilloo,  Dupin,  Baillet,  Montfttucon,  and 
Ssnteul,.  were  his  intimate  associates.  He  was. honoured 
with  the  esteem  of  M.  Bossuet  and  M.  de  Fenelon.  Tha 
latter  would  have  procured  for  him  the  appointment  of 
tutor  to  the  younger  branches  of  the  royal  family,  but  he 
preferred  to  employ  his  talents  in  the  serrice  of  the  univer-> 
aity ;  and  was  seven  times  chosen  to  fill  the  post  of  rector 
of  that  body,  and  was  syndic  for  the  long  space  of  fortjr 
years.  At  a  very  advanced  age  he  began  to  apply  him* 
self  to  the  study  of  the  Hebrew  language,  with  a  degree 
of  ardour  which  soon  enabled  him  to  deliver,  a  course  of 
lectures  upon  it  at  the  college  of  St.  Barbe.  f  n  the  midst 
of  bis  numerous  engagements,, be  found  leisure  to  improve 
his  ^^  Philosophical  Institutions,'^  of  which  he  was  prepar:^ 
ing  the  fourth  edition  for  the  press,  when  he  kjst  bis  eye- 
sight. He  died  at  Paris  in  1734,  in  the  83d  year  of  hi^ 
age.  Besides  his  *^  Institutions,"  he  was  author  of  nu«- 
merous  '^Discourses,"  which  were  given  to  the  public  in 
<he  '*  Acts  of  the  University,"  and  various  •*  Memoirs.** 
He  assisted  the  learned  Masclef  in  :  greatly  improving  the 
second  edition  of  his  ^'Grammatica  Hebraica,"  and  be 
aided  him  in  drawing  up  the  Chaldee,  Syriac,  and  Sama- 
ritan grammars,  which  are  combined  in  that  edition.^ 

POUSSIN  (Nicholas),  an  eminent  French  painter,  was 
born  at  Andely,  a  little  town  in  Normandy,  in  1594.  His 
family,  however,  were  originally  of  Soissons;  in  wfaicfa 
city  there  were  some  of  his  relations  officers  in  the  Fresi- 
dial  court.  John  Poussin,  his  father,  was  of  noble  extrac- 
tion, but  born  to  a  very  small  estate.  His  son,  seeing  the 
narrowness  of  his  circumstances,  determined  to  support' 
himself  as  soon  as  possible,  and  chose  painting  for  his 
profession,  having  naturally  a  strong  inclination  to  that  art. 
At  eighteen,  he  went  to  Paris,  to  learn  the  rudiments  of 
it.    A  Poictevin  lord,  who  had  taken  a  liking  to  him,  placed 

1  Mortri.-^Dict.  Bht. 

P  O  U  S  S  I  N,  «41L 

hi0  mib  Ferdioaiidy  a  portrdit-painter)  whom  Ponssin  left 
ia  three  iQontbs  to  place  bimaelf  with  •  Lalleniant,  wkh 
wboca  he  i»taid  hut  a  month :  he  saw  he  should  never  leara 
any  thing  from  such  masters,  and  he  resolved  not  to  lose 
Us  time  with  them ;  belieying  he  should  profit  more  by 
atudyiog  the  vrotk^  of  g^at  ma^terS)  than  by  the  discipline 
of  ordinary  painters.  He  worked  a  while  in  distemper^ 
and  performed  it  with  extraordinary  facility.  The  Italiaa 
pcaet  Marino  being  at  that  time  iu  Paris,  and  perceiving 
PoHSsin's  genius  to  be  superior  to  the  small  performances 
po  which  he  w^s  employed,  persuaded  him  to  go  with  him 
in%o  Italy  :  Poussin  had  before  made  two  vain  attempts  to 
undertake  that  journey,  yet  by  some  means  or  other  w^ 
hiadered.  from  accepting  this  opportunity.  He  promised^ 
bowever,  to  follow  in  a  short  time;  which  he. did,  though 
not ;. till  h^  had. painted  several  other  pictures  in  Paris^ 
l^moog  which  was  the  Death  of  the  Virgin,  for  the  chui^ca 
of  JMdtre-Dame.  Having  finished  hia  business,  he  set  out 
for  Rome  in  his  thirtieth  year. 

He  there  met  with  his  friend,  the  cavalier  Marino,  who 
rejoiced  to  see  him ;  and  that  he  migbt  be  as  serviceable 
as.  be  could,  recommended  him  to  cai'dinal.  Barberiei,  wh9 
desired  to  be  acquainted  with  him.  Yet  by  some  meant 
or  other,  he  diil  not  emerge,  and  could  scarcely  maintain 
himself.  He  was  forced  to  give  i^way  his  works  for  sums 
that  would  hardly  pay  for  his  colours.  His  courage,  how«f 
«ver,  did  not  fail ;  he  prosecuted  his  studies  assiduously^ 
resolvinig,  at  all  events,  to  make  himself  master  of  his  pro- 
fession. He  had  little  money  to  spend,  apd  therefore  the 
fOQte  leisure  to  retire  by  himself,  and  design  the  beautiful 
objects  in  Rome,  as  well  antiquities  as  the  works  of  the 
&moQ8  Roman  painters. '  It  is  said,  that  he  at  first  copied 
ftome  of  Titian's  pieces,  with  whose  colouring,  and  the 
^ucbes  of  whose  landscapes,  he  was  infinitely  pleased* 
It  it  observable,  indeed,  that  his  first  pieces  are  painted 
in  a  better  style  of  colouring  than  his.  last.  But  he  soon 
ahewed,  Jby  his  performances,  that,  generally  speakings 
he  did  not  much  value  the  part  of  colouring;  or  thought  he 
knew  enough  of  it,  to  make  his  pictures  as  perfect  as  he 
intended.  He  had  studied  the  beauties  of  the  antique^  the 
elegance^  the  grand  gusto,  the  correctness,  the  variety  of 
proportions,  the  adjustments,  the  order  of  the  draperies^ 
the  nobleness,  the  fine  air  and  boldness  of  the  heads ;  the 
snanners,  customs  of  times  and  places,  and  every  thing  thsut 

VoJL.  XXV.  R 

f4ft  P  O  U  S  S  I  N. 

18  beautiful  in  the  remains  of  ancient  sculpture,  to  stich  a 
degree,  that  one  can*  never  enough  admire  the  efxactness 
^vith  which  he  has  enriched  his  painting  in  alt  those  par*> 

He  tised  frequently  to  examine  the  ancient  sculptures  iit 
the  vineyards  about  Rom^,  and  this  confirmed  him  more 
and  more  in' the  love  of  those  antiquities.  He  would  spend 
several'days  together  ^in  making  reBections  upon  them  by 
himself.  It  was  in  these  retirements  that  he  considered  the 
extraordinary  effects  of  nature  with  respect  to  )andsca|>e9, 
that  hedesigiiled  his  animals,  his  distances,  his  trees,  and 
every  thing  excellent  that  was  agreeable  to  his  taste.  He 
also  made  curious  observations  on  the  works  of  Raphael 
and  Domenichino ;  who  of  all  painters,  in  his  opinidn,  in- 
vented best,  designed  most  correctly,  and  expire'ssed  th^ 
passions  most  vigorously  :  three  things,  which  Povnsin  4es- 
teemed  the  most  essential  parts  of  painting.  He  neglected 
nothing  that  coold  render  his  knowledge  in  these  three 
parts  perfect :  he  was  altogether  as  curious  about -the  ge- 
neral expression  of  his  subjects,  which  he  has  adorned  withi 
firety  thing  that  he  thought  wotild  excite  the  attention  of 
the  learned.  He  left  no  very  large  compositions  behind 
bim ;  and  all  the  reason  we  can  give  for  it  is,  that  he  had 
no  opportunity  to  paint  them ;  for  we  cannot  imagine  that 
it  was  any  thing  more  than  chance,  that  made  him  apply 
himself  wholly  to  easel  pieces,  of  a  size  proper  for  a  biJl>it 
net;  such  as  the  curious  required  of  him«  ,       ' 

■  Louis  XIII.  and  de  Noyers;  minister  of  stateand  super- 
intendant  of  the  buildings,  wrote  to  him. at  Rome  to  oblige 
him  to  return  to  France ;  to  which  he  consented. with  great 
reluctance.  He  had  a  pension  assigned  him,  and  a  lodging 
ready  farntsfaed  at  the  Thuilleries.  He  drew  the  picture  of 
^*  The  Lord's  Supper,'*  for  the  chapel  of  the  castle  of<  St. 
Germain,  and  that  which  is  in  the  Jesuit's  noviciate  at  ^ 
Paris.  He  began  <^  The  Labours  of  Hercules,"  in  the  gal- 
lery of  the  Louvre ;  but  V6uet's  school  railing  at  him  -and 
bis  works,  put  him  out  of.  humour  With  bis  own  country* 
fie  was  alse  weary  of  the  tumultuous  way  of  living  at  Paris, 
which  never  agreed  with  him.  For  j  these -reasons  be  se- 
cretly resolved  to  return  to  Rome,  pretending .  he  went 
to  setde  his  domestic  affairs  and  fetch  his  wife ;  but  when 
be  was  there,  whether  he  found  himself  in  his  proper  situa« 
(ion,^  or  was  quite  pot  off  from  any  thought  of  returning  to 
FFamce  hy  the  deaths  of  Richelieu  and  the  king,  which 

F  O  U  S  S  I  N.         ^  243 

tiappened  about  that  time, :  he :  never  afterwards  leCt  Italy. 
Jie  continued  working  on. his  easel-pieces,  and  sent  th^m 
from  Home  t.o  Paris ;  the  French  buying  theai  vpry.eage/ly, 
whenever  they  could  be  obtained,  and  valuing  his  produc« 
tiaQS; as  qauch. as  Raphael's. 

r   Poussin,  having  lived  happily  to  his  seventy- Rrst  yiear, 
died  paralytic  in  I665«     He  married  the  sister  of  Caspar 
Dughet,  •  by   whom    he    bad   no    children.      His    estate, 
^mounted  to  no  more  than  sixty  thousand  livrei ;  ^ut  be. 
K^ued  his  ease  above  .riches,  and  preferred  his  abode, at 
R<4ll^  wb^re  bejived  without  ambition,  to  fortune  else-' 
where.     He  never  made  words  about  the  price  of  hi^  pic-; 
turea ;  but  put  it  down  at  the  back  of  the  canvas,,  and  it  ifas 
always  given  him..  .  He  bad  no  disciple;     The  fpHaw^n^ 
aa^cdote;  much  illustrates  his  character. '  Bishop  ManciQi^ 
who  was,  afterwards  a  cardinal,  staying  onc^  o^i  a  visit  ta 
him  tilt  it  was  dark,  Pqusain '  took  the  candle  in  his  band,^ 
lighted  him  down  stairs,  and  patted  upon  him  t^  his  coach^ 
Tbe  prelate  was  sorry  to  see  him  do  it  himself,  and  could 
not  help  saying,  **  I  very  much  pity  you,  •  Monsieur  Pons- 
sin,  that  yon  have  not  one  servant.*' .   <^  And  I  pity  you^ 
more,  my  lord,"  replied  Poussin,  **  that  you  have  so  many/'  * 
.   POUSSIN  (Gaspar),  whose  proper  name  wasDUGHET, 
was  born,'  according  to  some  authors,  in  France,  in  16PQ| 
according  to  others,  at  Borne,  in  1,6 1 3 ;  nearly  the  same 
flifference  has  been  found  in  the  dates  of  his  death,  whici^ 
some  place  in  1663,  and  others  in  1675.     Which  may  bQ 
right,  it  is  not  easy  to  ascertain  ;  but  the  two  latter  dates 
are  adopted  by  the  authors  ofabe  Dictionnaire  Historique* 
His  sister  being  married  to  Nicholas^Poussin,  and  settled 
fit  Rome,  he  travelled  to  that  place,  partly  to  visit  her,  and 
partly  from  a  strong  love  of  painting.     Sandr art  says,  that 
Caspar  was  employed  at  first  only  to  ptepare  the  palette, 
pencils,  and  colours,  for  Nicholas ;  but,  by  the  instrvictions 
and  example  of  that  great  master,  was  so  led  pn,  .that  he 
ako  obtained  a  high  reputation.     While  he.  remained,  at 
Rome,  be  dropped  his  own  name  of  Dughet,  and  assumed 
Itbat  of  Poussin,  from  his  brother-ra-lavir,  und  benefactor* 
He  is  acknowledged  to  have  been  one  of  the  best  painters 
of  .^atadscapes  that  the  world,  has  seen.     No  painter  ever 
studied  nature  to  better  effect,  particularly  in -expressing 
4he  effects  of  land^storms.     His  scenes  are  always  beautji* 

.,       I  Ar^enirille,  rot.  IV.— Pitkmstoo.-:-Rejnoldt*i  Works. 

244  P  O    U    S  S  I  NL 

fully  chosen,  and  bid  buildings  nimpte  and  elegant.  H« 
was  not  equally  skilled  in  painting  figures,  and  frequently^ 
prevailed  on  Nicbolas  to  draw  them  for  bim.  The  con* 
noisseurs  distinguish  three  different  manners  in  his  paint-^ 
ings ;  the  first  is  dry  ;  the  second  is  more  simple,  yet  de-< 
lightful,  and  natural,  approaching  more  than  any  other,  to  the 
style  of  Claude.  His  third  manner  is  more  vague  and  unde- 
fined thiin  these,  but  pleasing;  though  less  so  by  far  than  the 
Second.  His  style  is  considered  on  the  whole  by  Mr; 
Mason,  in  his  table  subjoined  to  Du  Fresnoy,  as  a  mixture 
between  those  of  Nicolo  and  Claude  Lorraine.  Mr.  Mason 
adopts  the  date  of  1675  for  his  death.' 

POUSSINES  (Peter),  in  Latin  Possmils,  a  learned  Je- 
suit, of  Narbonne,  in  the  1 7th  century,  resided  a  consider- 
able  time  at  Rome,  where  he  was  much  esteemed  by  Chrfs-* 
dAa,    queen  of  Sweden,  cardinal  Barberini,  ami  several 
•ther  illustrious  persons.     He' understood  Greek  well,  had 
very  carefully  studied  the  fathers,  and  has  left  translations 
of  a  great   number    of   Greek   authors,    with   notes  ^    a. 
•*  Catena  of  the  Greek  Fathers  on  Sr.  Mark,*'  Rome,  1673, 
fol. ;  and  other  works.     He  died  1686,  aged  77.' 
\  POWELL  (David),  a  learned  Welsh  divine,  was  born  irt 
PenbighshJre,  about  1552.     In  1568,  he  wassent  to  Ox- 
foird^  but  to  what  college  is  uncerrain.  When  Jesus-college 
Iras  founded,  in  1571,  he  removed  thither;  and  took  hi* 
degrees  in  arts  the  year  following.  In  1576,  he  took  orders, 
ind  became  vicar  of  Ruabon,  or  Rhiw-Abon,  in  Denbigh^ 
shire,  and  rector  of  Llanfyllin,  which  last  he  resigned  in 
1579.     About  the  end  of  the  same  year  he  was  instituted 
to  the  vicarage  of  Mivod  in  Montgomeryshire,  and  in  158S 
he  had  the  sinecure  rectory  of  Llansanfraid,  in  Mechaifii 
He  held  also  some  dignity  in  the  church  of  St.  Asapbi    H^ 
proceeded  to  his  degrees  in  divinity  in  1532^  and  the  sub^ 
i;equent  year,  and  was  afterwards  chaplain  to  sir  Henr^ 
Sidne}',  then  president  of  Wales.     He  died  in  1598,  and 
^s  buried  in  his  own  church  of  Ruabon.     The  works*  pub* 
lished   by  him   were,    1.  <' Caradoc's    History  of   Cam* 
bria,  with  annotations,*'  1584,  4to.     This  history  had  been 
^translated  from  the  Latin,  by  Humphrey  Lloyd,  but  wa^ 
left  by  him  unfinished  at  his  death.      Powel  corrected  and 
augmented' the  manuscript,  and  published  it  with  notes; 
2^.  *<  Annotationes  in  itinerarium  Cambriic,.  scriptum  per 

^  Arg UYitlc,  ToL  l«^Pakiqgtoii.  •  Mareri.— Diet  Hist. 


P  O  W  E  L  I^  245 

Stiviam  QeraMum  Catnbrensem,"  London^  1585,  3.  "  Au- 
'  notationes  in  Cambrise  descriptionem,  per  Ger.  Cambr/' 
4.  f^  I)e  Britannica  bistoria  reqte  intelligenda^  epistola  ad 
GuL  Fleetwooduai  civ.  Loncl.  recordaiorera."  This  an4 
the  former  are  printed  with  the  aDnotations  on  the  itine^ 
rary..  5.  <'  Pontici  Virunnii  Histpria  Britannica/'  London^ 
lo85,  8vo.  Wood  says,  that  he  took  great  pains  in  coin^ 
piling  a  Welsh  Dictionary,  but  died  before  it  was  coni7 

He  left  a  very  learned  son,  GAfiRiEL  Powell,  who  wa9 
born  -^t  Buabon,  in  1575,  and  educated  at  Jesus  college 
Oxford,  after  which  he  became  master  of  the  free*scboo^ 
at  Rutben,  in  his  native  county.  Not  however  finding  his 
^tuation  here  convenient  for  the  studies  to  which  he  wa^ 
addicted,  ecclesiastical  history,  and  the  writings  of  the  far 
tbers,  he  returned  to  Oxford,  and  took  up  his  abode  in  St* 
Mary  Hall.  Here  principally  he  wrote  those  works  wbicii 
procured  him  great  reputation,  especially  among  the 
puritans.  Dr.  Vajghau,  bishop  of  London,  invited  him  to 
the  metropolis,  and  made  him  his  domestic  chaplain,  and 
would  have  given  him  higher  preferment  had  he  lived.  If 
was  probably  Vaughan's  successor  who  gave  him  the  pre- 
bend of  Portpoole,  in  1609,  and  the  vicarage  of  Northall, 
in  Middlesex,  in  1610.  He  died  in  1611.  His  works  enu* 
merated  by  Wood  are  chiefly  controversial,  against  the 
papists,  except  one  or  two  in  defence  of  the  silenced 
puritans.  Several  of  them,  being  adapted  to  the  circum-; 
stances  of  the  times,  went  through  numerous  editions,  bu^ 
are  now  little  known.  Wood  says  be  was  esteemed  a  pro*? 
digy  of  learning,  though  he  died  when  a  little  more  thaq 
thirty  years  old  (thirty-six),  and  had  he  lived  to  a  greater 
maturity  of  years,  it  is  "  thought  he  would  have  exceeded 
the  famous  Dr.  John  Rainolds,  or  any  of  the  learned  heroes 
of  the  age.''  Wood  adds  that  he  ^^  was  a  zealot,  and  a  stiff 
ptrritan."  By  one  of  his  works,  entitled  "  The  unlawfuU 
ness  and  danger  of  Toleration  pf  divers  religions,  and  con-^ 
nivance  to  contrary  worship  in  one  monarchy  or  kingdom,'* 
it  would  appear  that  he  wrote  against  toleration  while  h^ 
vras  claiming  it  for  himself  and  his  puritan  brethren.  ^ 

POWELL  (Edward),  a  learned  popish  divine,  was  bora 
about  the  latter  part  of  the  sixteenth  century,  and  was  edu- 
cated at  Oxford.     He  appears  to  have  been  fellow  of  Orie| 

I  Atlu  Ox^  vol.  I.  new  edit.<-*-BJpg.^Brit.— Oldyi's  Librariaik 


college  in  1495^  and  afterwards  became  D.  D.  and  was 
accounted  one  of  the  ornaments  of  the  university.  In  No- 
vember 1501,  he  was  made  rector  of  Bledon,  in  the  diocese 
of  Wells,  and  in  July  1503  was  collated  to  the  prebend 
Centum  solidorum,  in  the  church  of  Lincolui  as  well  as  to 
the  prebend  of  Carleton,  In  1508,  by  the  interest  of  Ed- 
mund Audley,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  he  was  made  preben- 
dary of  that, church,  and  in  1525  became  prebendary  of 
Sutton  in  Marisco,  in  the  church  of  Lincoln.  In  Novem^ 
ber  1514,  Pope  Leo  gave  him  a  licence  to  hold  three  bene7 
fices,  otherwise  incompatible.  His  reputation  for  learning 
induced  Henry  VIII.  to  employ  him  to  write  against  Lu- 
ther, which  he  did  in  a  work  entitled  "  Propugnaculum 
summi  sacerdotii  evangelici,  ac  septenarii  sacramentorum 
numeri  adversus  M.  Lutherum,  fratrem  famosum,  et  Wick- 
liffistam  insignera,'*  Lond.  1523,  4to.  This  performance, 
says  iDodd,  was  commonly  allowed  to  be  the  best  that  had 
hitherto  been  published.  There  are  two  public  letters  from 
the  university  of  Oxford,  one  to  the  king,  the  other  to  bishop 
Audley,  applauding  the  choice  of  a  person  so  well  quali- 
fied to  maintain  the  cause  of  the  church ;  and  in  these  let- 
ters, they  style  him  the  glory  of  their  university,  and  re- 
commend him  as  a  person  worthy  of  the  highest  preferment: 
But  all  this  could  not  protect  him  from  the  vengeance  of 
Henry  VIII.  when  he  came  to  employ  his  learning  and  zeal 
in  defence  of  queen  Catherine,  and  the  supremacy  of  the  see 
of  Rome,  on  both  which  articles  he  was  prosecuted,  hanged, 
drawn,  and  quartered"  in  Smithfield,  July  30,  1540,  along 
with  Dr.  Thomas  Abel,  and  Dr.  Richard  Fetherstone,  who 
suffered  on  the  same  account.  He  wrote  in  defence  of 
queen  Catherine,  "  Tractatus  de  non  dissolvendo  Henrici 
regis  cum  Catberina  matrimonio  ;**  but  it  is  doubtful  if  this 
was  printed.  Stow,  indeed,  says  it  was  printed  in  4to,  and 
that  he  had  seen  it,  but  no  copy  is  now  known.  Mrj 
Cburton,  in  his  "  Lives  of  the  Founders  of  Brazenose  col- 
lege," mentions  Dr.  Powell's  preaching  a  Latin  sermon,  in 
a  very  elegant  style,  at  the  visitation  of  bishop  Smyth  at 

POWELL  (GitiFFiTH),  principal  of  Jesus  college,  Ox- 
ford, was  bom  at  Lansawell  in  Carmarthenshire,  in  1561, 
and  entered  a  commoner  of  Jesus  college  in  1581,  and  after 
taking  his  degrees,  and  obtaining  a  fellowship,  was  chosen 

'  Ath^  Ox*  vol.  I.  new  edtt.-^Dodd's  Ch.  Hist>-.WiUis*8  Civthedrals. 

P  O  WE  L  L. 



principal  in  1.613  ;  being  then,  says  Wood,  **  accounted  bj 
aII  a  most  pot^d  philosopher,  or  subtle  disputant,  and  one 
that  acted  and  drudged  much  as  a  tutor,  moderator  and 
adviser  in  studies  among  the  juniors/'  He  died  June  28, 
1620,  and  was  buried  in  St.  Michaers  church.  By  will  he 
\]eft  all  his  estate,  a^iounting  to  betweep  six  and  seven 
handi;ed  poqnds,  to  the  college,  with  which  a  fellowship  was 
founded*  He  wrote  **  Analysis  Analy  ticorurn  posteriorum 
seu  librgruoi  Aristotelis  de  Demonstratione,  cum  scholiis/ 
Oxon.  1594, 8vo,  and  ^^'Analysis  libri  Aristotelis  de  Sophisticis 
Eienchis,".  ibid.  1594,  reprinted  1598  and  1664.  Concern- 
ing these  two  works,  a  wit  of  the  day  made  the  following 
liuips : 

*'  Griffith  PowdU  fbr  the  honour  of  bis  natign. 
Wrote  a  hook  of  D^moi^tratioo^. 
And  having  little  else  to  do. 

He  wrote  a  book  of  Elenchs  too.*' 

There  is  more  wit  than  truth  in  this,  however,  for  his 
office  as  principal  engrossed  so  much  of  his  time,  as  to  pre*- 
Tent  him  from  preparing  for. the  press  other  treatises. which 
be  bad  written.^  .      . 

POWELL  (Sir  John),  an  eminent  lawyer,  and  an  up- 
right judge,  wa^  a  native  of  Gloucester,  which  city  he  re- 
presented in  parliament  in   1685.     He  was  called  to  the 
coif  April  24,   1686,  appointed  a  justice  of  the  common 
pleas  April  21,  1687,  at  which  time  he  received  the  ho- 
nour of  knighthood,    and  was  removed   to  the  court  of 
king's  bench  April  26  in  the  following  year.      He  sat  in 
that  court  at  the  memorable  trial  of  the  severt  bishops,  and 
having    declared    against    the    king's    dispensing   power, 
James,  n.  deprived   him  of  his  office  in  July  1688;  but 
William  III.  placed  him  again  in  the  common  pleas,  Oct 
2$,  l'695,  and  queen  Anne  advanced  him  to  the  queen's 
bench  June    IS,   1702,  where  he  sat   until  his  death,  at 
Gloucester,  on  his  return  from  Bath,  June  14,  1713,  far 
adv?inced  in  life.     He  was  reckoned  a  sound  lawyer,  and 
in  private  was  tq  the  last  a  man  of  a  cbeerfuli  facetious  dis- 
position.    Swift^  in  one  of  his  letters,  mentions  his  meeting 
with  him  at  Lord  Oxford's,  and  calls  hitn  ''an  old  fellow 
with  grey  hairs,  who  was  the  merriest  old  gentleman  I  ever 
saw,    spoke  pleasing  things,  and   chuckled   till  he  crie4 

>  Ath.  Ox.  ToU  L 

248  P  O  WE  L  L. 

again/'  tn  fais  time  the  laws  against  witchcraft  being  un-* 
repealed,  one  Jane  Wenman  was  tried  before  him,  and  her 
adversaries  swore  that  she  could  fly :  ^^  Prisoner,"  said  our 
judge,  "  can  yob  fly  ?"  ^  Yes,  my  lord."  **  Well  thea 
you  may ;  there  is  no  law  against  flying."  * 

POWELL  (WiLLUM  Samuel),  an  English  divine  of 
good  abilities,  was  born  at  Colchester j  Sept.  27,  1717  ;  ad- 
mitted of  St.  John^s  college,  Cambridge,  in  1734  ;  and,  hav« 
ing  taken  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  in  1739,  elected 
fellow  of  it  in  March  1740.  In  1741,  be  was  taken  into 
the  family  of  lord  Townshend,  as  private  tutor  to  his  second 
son  Charles  Townshend,  afterwards  chancellor  of  the  ex« 
chequer ;  and  was  ordained  deacon .  and  priest  at  the  end 
of  th§  year,  wbeii  he  was  instituted  to  the  rectoiy  of  Col« 
kirk  in  Norfolk,  on  lord  Townshend's  presentation.  He 
returned  to  college  the  year  after,  and  began  to  read  lec- 
tures as  an  assistant  to  the  tutors,  Mr.  Wrigley  and  Mr. 
Tunstall ;  but  becaniie  himself  principal  tutor  in  1744.  He 
took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity  in  1749,  and  in  175S 
was  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Stibbard,  in  the  gift  of  lord 
Townshend.  In  1757  he  was  created  D.  D.  In  1761  be 
left  CQllege,  and  took  a  house  in  London  ;  but  did  not  re« 
sign  his  fellowship  till  1763.  In  Jan.  1765,  he  was  elected 
master  of  his  college,  and  was  chosen  vice-chancellor  of 
the.  university  in  November  following.  The  yeat-  tifter,  he 
obtained  the  archdeaconry  of  Colchester;  and,  in  1768, 
was  instituted  to  the  rectory  of  Freshwater  in  the  Isle 
of  Wight.  He  died,  Jan.  19,  1775,  and  was  interred  in  the 
chapel  of  St.  John's  college. 

The  preceding  sketch  is  taken  from  an  advertisemeni 
prefixed  to  a  volume  of  his  *^  Discourses  on  various  sub-^ 
jects,"  published  by  his  friend  Dr.  Thomas  Balguy  ;  "  which 
Discourses,"  says  the  editor,  "are  not  published  for  the 
credit  of  the  writer,  but  for  the  beneflt  of  his  readers;  es<f 
pecially  that  class  of  readers,  for  whom  they  were  chiefly 
intended,  the  youpger  students  in  divinity.  The  author's 
reputation,^'  he  adds,  ^^  stands  on  a  much  wider  bottom :  a 
whole  life  uniformly  devoted  to  the  interests  of  sou^d  phi« 
losophy  and  true  religion." 

The  office  of  master  of  the  college,  says  Mr.  Cole,  be 
maintained  with  the  greatest  reputation  and  honour  to  him-s 

1  Noble*!  ContinnaiioQ  of  Granger.— lifurnet's  Owb  Times,*NichoU*a  Edition 
uf  Swift  2  see  ladcx. 

POWELL.  5249 

self;  and  credit  and  advantage  to  the  society.  Some  yearft 
before  be  attained  this  office^  a  relation  with  whom  he  had 
very  little  acquaintance,  and  l«$s  expectation  from,  Charles 
Reynolds,  of  Peldon  Hall,  esq.  left  him  the  estate  and  ma<*> 
nor  of  Peldon  Hall  in  Essex,  together  with  other  estates  at 
Little  Bentley  in  the  same  county  ;  and,  adds  Mr.  Cole,  to 
-do  him  justice  he  well  deserved  it,  for  be  wa^  both  hospi- 
table and  generous,  and  b^ing  a  single  man  had  ample 
mean^  to  exercise  his  generosity.  In  Feb.  1773,  when  St« 
John's  college  had  agreed  to  undertake  two  very  expensive 
works,  the  new  casing  the  first  court  with  stone,  and  laying 
out  their  gardens  under  the  direction  of  the  celebrated  Mr. 
Brown,  who  told  them  that  his  plan  would  cost  them  at 
least  800/.  the  master  recommended  an  application  to  those 
opulent  persons  who  had  formerly  been  members  of  the 
college,  and  told  the  fellows  that  if  they  thought  proper 
to  make  such  application,  and  open  a  subscription,  he  would 
begin  it  with  a  donation  of  500/.  which  he  immediately 
subscribed.  On  all  such  occasions,  where  the  honour  and 
reputation  of  his  college,  or  the  university,  was  concerned, 
no  one  displayed  his  liberality  more  in  the  sumptuousness 
and  elegance  of  his  entertainments,  but  in  other  cases  h6 
was  frus^al  and  ceconomical. 

The  late  celebrated  poet,  Mr.  Mason,  in  his  life  of  White- 
head, takes  occasion  to  pay  ^  high  compliment  to  Dr. 
Powell  on  that  part  of  his  literary  character  concerning 
which  he  may  be  thought  the  least  liable  to  be  mistaken, 
and  pronounces  Dr.  Powell's  taste  in  works  of  imagination 
to  have  been  as  correct  as  his  judgment  was  in  matters  of 
more  abstruse  speculation.  **  Yet  this  taste,"  adds  Mr. 
Mason,  ^<  always  appeared  to  be  native  and  his  own  :  he  did 
not  seem  to  have  brought  it  with  him  from  a  great  school^ 
nor  to  have  been  taught  it  by  a  celebrated  master.  He 
never  dealt  in  the  indiscriminate  exclamations  of  excellent 
and  sublime:  but  if  he  felt  a  beauty  in  an  author,  was  ready 
with  a  reason  why  he  felt  it  to  be  such :  a  circumstance 
which  those  persons,  who,  with  myself,  attended  his  lec^ 
tures  on  the  Poetics  of  Aristotle,  will  both  acknowledge  and 
reflect  upon  with  pleasure." 

His  published  works  consist  of  the  volume  above  men- 
tioned, edited  by  Dr.  Balguy,  which  contains  three  dis- 
courses preached  before  the  university ;  thirteen  preached 
in  the  college  chapel ;  one  on  public  virtue  \  three  charges 

250r  P,0  W  ELL.: 

to  the  clergy  of  the  archdeaconry  of  Colchester;  and  hk 
^^  Disputatio^':  on  taking  his  doctor's  degree.  One  of  hv 
discourses,,  relatire  to  subswption,  was  first  preached  on. 
commencement.  Sunday  in  1757;  and  being  reprinted  in 
1772,  when  an  application  to  parliament  on  the  ma^tteir  of 
subscription  was  in  agitation,  was  attempted  to  be  answerf  c|, 
probably  by  the  author  of  the  **  Confessional,''  in  a  paoiphr 
let  entitled  **  Remarks  on  the  Rev.  Dr.  Powell's  Sermoq, 
&c."  but  of  this  we  do  not  know  that  he  took  any  notici^ 
contenting  himself  with  this  reprint  of  his  sermpn,  whic^ 
was  the  fourth  edition^  He  had  spoken  his  sentiments,  and 
had  no  turn  for  controversy.  He  acted  the  same  part  in 
his:  college;  during  the  controversy  in  1772  he  called 
all  his  scholars  before  him,  and  submitted  to  them  the  real 
state  of  the  case  relating  to  their  subscription,  and  left  j^ 
with  them.  In  1760,  Dr.  Powell  published  Observations  on 
^^  Miscellanea  Analytica,"  which  was  the  beginning  of  a 
controversy. that  produced  many •  pamphlets  relative  to  the 
Lucasian  professorship  of  mathematics  at  Cambridge,  when 
Mr.  Waring  was  elected. 

A  letter  of' Mr.  ^arkland's  having  been  published  in  the 
^*  Anecdotes  of  Bowyer,"  reflecting  on  Dr.  Powell  as  if  he 
had  died  rich  in  consequence,  of  accumulation,  a.nd  had 
been  saving  of  bis  money  to  the  last,  produced  a  satisfac- 
tory defence  of  him  from  a  member  of  St.  John's  college, 
part  of  which  it  is  but  justice  to  Dr.  Powell's  memory  to 
copy.  '■  ^'  It  is  true,"  says  this  writer,  *'  that  Dr.  Powell 
died  in  very.a£9uent  circumstances ;  but  the  greatest  part 
of  his  fortune  was  left  to  him  in  1759  by  Mr.  Reynolds,  a 
relation  of  his  mother,  and  thfe  remainder  was  the  well* 
earned  fruits  of  his  labours  in  educating  his  pupils  while 
tutor,  •  During  the  ten  years  he  was  roaster,  he  lived  in 
great  splendour  and  magnificence,  and  had  considerably 
diminished  his  private  fortune  before  his  death.  When  it 
was  determined  to  rebuild  the  first  court,  he  generously 
made  a  present  of  500/.  to  the  society :  to  several  under^ 
graduates  he  occasionally  gave  sums  of  money,  and  to 
others  he  allowed  annual  stipends  to  enable  them  to  comr 
plete  their  studies  :  at  his  own  expence  he  bestowed  prizes 
upon  those  wbp  distinguished  themselves  at  the  public  ex- 
aminations. By  his  will,  which  had  been  made  a  con$i- 
•  derable  time  before  his  death,  he  bequeathed  lOOO/,  to  bis 
friend  Dr.  Balguy ;  to  six  actual  fellows,  to  ten  who  bad 

P  O  W  N  A  L  L.  251 

Wen  fellows,  and  to  four  who  had  only  been  of  the  col- 
lege, 100/.  each  ;  and  to  four  fellows  his  books.'*  *  ^ 
POWNALL  (Thomas),  a  gentleman  of '  considerable 
learning  and  political  knowledge,  was  born  in  17212,  and 
educated  at  Lincoln.  His  first  appearance  in  public  life 
was  when  appointed  secretary  to  the  commissioners  for 
irade  and  plantations  in  1745,  subjects  with  which  he  must 
have  made  himself  early'  acquainted,  as  he  had  not  yet 
TeAched  his  twenty- fourth  year.  In  1753  he  went  to  Ame- 
rica, and  in  the  following  year  was  concerned  in  a  matter, 
which  eventually  proved  of  great  importance.  At  the  be- 
ginning of  what  has  been  called  the  seven  years'  war  with 
France,  which  commenced  in  Apnerica  in  1754,  two  years 
before  it  broke  out  in  Europe,  a  number  of  persons,  styled 
commissioners,  being  deputed  from  each  colony,  assembled 
at  Albany,  to  consider  of  defending  themselves  against  the 
French,  who  were  making  alarming  encroacliments  on 
their  back  settlements.  This  assembly  was  called'the  Albany 
Congress,  and  became  the  precedent  for  that  other  more 
remarkable  congress  established  at  the  revolution  in  1775. 
As  sbon  as  the  intention  of  the  colonies  to  hold  a  congress  at 
Albany  was  known  in  England,  Mr.  Pownall  immediately 
foresaw  the  danger  to  the  mother  country,  if  such  a  general 
tinion  should  be  permitted,  and  presented  a  strong  memorial 
to  lord  Halifax,  the  secretary  of  state,  on  the  subject,  in  1 754. 
The  plan  which  the  congress  had  in  view  was,'  to  form  a 
great  council  of  deputies  from  all  the  colonies,  with'a  go- 
vernor-general to  be  appointed  by  the  crown,*  and  em- 
poweted  to  take  measures  for  the  common  safety,  and  to 
raise  money  for  the  execution  of  theirdestgns.  The  oiinis- 
«ters  at  home  did  not  approve  of  this  plan';  'but,  seeing  that 
they  could  not  prevent  the  commissioners  meeting,  they 
resolved  to  take  advantage  of  this  distress  of  the  colonies^ 
and  turn  the  subject  of  deliberation  to  their  own  account. 
For.this  purpose  they  sent  over  a  proposal,  that  the  con- 
gress should  be  assisted  in  their  considerations  by  two  of 
the  king's  council  from  each  colony,  be  empowered  to  erect 
forts,  tp  levy  troops,  and  to  draw  on  the  treasury  in  Lon- 
don for  the  money  wanted ;  and  the  treasury  to  be  reim- 
bursed by  a  tax  on  the  colonies,  to  be  laid  by  the  British 

parliament ;  but  this  proposal  was  peremptorily  rejected, 

'  '         f  •  '       .  •  .'.»■' 

'    1  Life  by  Dr.  Balsruy. •—'Cole's  MS  Atheoar  in  Xfrituh  Museum. — NicUoIn't 
Bo«y£r. — Masoa's  Life  of  Wb'teheaJ,  p.  29.->GeaC.  Mag.  LV.'p.  329. 

252  P  O  W  N  ALL. 

because  it  gave  tbe  British  parliament  a  power  to  tax  th« 
colonies.  Although  Mr.  Pownall  did  not  agree  with  the 
ministry  in  the  whole  extent  of  their  proposal,  yet  tbey 
thought  him  so  well  acquainted  with  the  affairs  of  tbe  co» 
lonies,  that  in  1757  they  appointed  him  governor  of  Mas** 
sachttsett^s  bay. 

After  two  years'  residence,  some  political  differences 
with  some  of  the  leading  men  of  the  province,  induced 
him  to  solicit  to  be  recalled;  and  in  1759  he  succeeded 
Mr.  Bernard  as  governor  of  New  Jersey  ;  but  he  retained 
his  post  a  very  short  time,  being  almost  immediately  ap« 
pointed  governor,  captain-general,  and  vice-admiral,  of 
South  Carolina.  Here  he  continued  until  1761,  when  he 
was  recalled,  at  his  own  desire ;  and  on  .his  arrival  in  Lonr 
don,  he  was  appointed  director*general  of  the  office  of 
controul,  with  the  rank  of  colonel  in  the  army,  under  the 
command  of  prince  Ferdinand,  in  Germany.  At  the  end 
of  tbe.  war  he  returned  to'  England,  where  his  accounts 
were  examined,  and  passed  with  honour. 

At  the  general  election,  1768,  he  was  chosen  represen- 
tative in  parliament  for  Tregony  in  Cornwall,  and  in  1775 
for  Minehead  in  Somersetshire,  and  on  all  occasions  vigo- 
rously opposed  the  measures  which- led  to  the  war  with 
America ;  and,  from  the  knowledge  which  he  was  supposed 
to  have  acquired  in  that  country,  was  listened  to  with  atr 
tention.  Of  the  importance  of  his  speeches  he  had  hioi* 
self  a  considerable  opinion,  by  his  sending  them  in  manu- 
script, to  be  printed  in  Almon's  Parliamentary  Register. 
He  is  also  said  to  have  assisted  that  bookseller  in  his  '^  Ame- 
rican Remembrancer,'*  a  periodical  paper  which  contained 
all  the  calumny,  as  well  as  all  the  arguments,  which  the 
opponents  of  the  measures  of  administration  could  bring 
together.  At  the  general  election  in  1780  he  retired  froan 
parliament,  and  resided,  in  his  latter  years,  at  Batb,  where 
he  died  Feb.  25,  1805,  in  the  83d  year  of  his  age,  if  our 
date  of  his  birth  be  correct. 

Governor  Pownall  was  twice  married;  first,  in  1765,  to 
lady  Fawkener,  relict  of  Sir  Everard  Fawkener,  and  daugh-? 
ter  of  lieutenant-general  Churchill,  who  died  in  1777  :  and 
secondly,  in  1784,  to  Mrs.  Astell,  of  Everton-house,  in 
Bedfordshire ;  but  bad  no  issue  by  either. 

He  had  a  vigorous  and  comprehensive  mind  ;  which  by  4 
liberal  education,  and  constant  cultivation  during  a  long 
series  of  years,  was  furnished  with  an  uncommon  fund  of 

P  O  W  N  A  L  L.  SSS 

tarious  knbwledge,  politician  and  antiquary^;  but 
not,  in  both  characters,  without  some  singular  opinions. 
His  works  were  very  numerous.  The*  first,  and  most  po« 
pular,  which  went  through  several  editions,  was  his  ^^  Ad-* 
ministration  of  the  Colonies/*  2,  Observations  on  a 
Bread  Bill,  which  be  introduced  in  parliament ;  and,  3; 
*^  Of  the  Laws  and  Commissions  of  Sewers ;"  both  printed^ 
bat  not  published.  4.  An  ironical  pampbletj  entitled 
'^  Considerations  on  the  indignity  suffered  by  the  Crown, 
and  dishonour  brought  upon  the  Nation,  by  the  Marriag6 
of  bis  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of  Cumberkind  withaa 
Enlgliiih  subject,'*  1772,  4to.  5.  A  pamphlet  on  ^^Tha 
btgti  price  of  Bread,"  &c.  1774,  8vo.  6.  "A  Topogra- 
phical Description  of  such  parts  of  North  America  a»  am 
totitaiiied  in  the  annexed  map  of  the  middle  British  Colo<» 
nms,  &G.  in  North  America,"  1776,  folio.  7.  ^<  A  Letter 
to  Adam  Smith,  LL.D.  F«  R.  S."  respecting  his  *^  Wealth 
of  Nations,"  1776,  4to.  8.  f*  Drainage  and  Navigatiort 
but  one  united  work,"  1776,  Svo;  9,  "  A  Treatise  on  the 
study  of  Antiquities,"  1782,  8vo.  10.  **  A  Memorial  ad-» 
dress^  to  the  Sovereigns  of  America,"  1782  *.  1 1.  "  Two 
Memorials,  vyith  ian  explanatory  Preface."  12*  "  Memo^ 
rial  addressed  to  the  Sovereigns  of  Europe  and  the  Atlan* 
tic,"  1783.  13.  "  Proposal  for  founding  University  Frofes* 
sorships  for  Architecture,  Painting,  and  Sculpture,"  1786i 
14.  "  Answer  to  a  Letter  on  the  Juts&  or  Viti»'*  15.  *<  No- 
tice! and  Descriptions  of  Antiquities  of  the  Provincia  Ro<^ 
mana  of  Gaul,  now  Provence,  Languedoc,  and  Dauphiay  : 
with  Dissertations  on  the  subjects  of  which  those  areexem** 
^ars ;  and  an  Appendix,  describing  the  Roman  Baths  and 
Thermae,  discovered  in  1784,  at  Badeiiweiler,"  1787,  4|o, 
16.  *^  An  Antiquarian  Romance,  endeavouring  to  mark  a 
line  by  which  the  most  ancient  people,  and  the  processions  • 
of  the  earliest  inhabitancy  of  Europe,  may  be  investigated,^* 
1795,  8vo.  17.  *^  Descriptions  and  Explanations  of  the 
Remains  of  some  Roman  Antiquities  dug  up  in  the  city  of 
Bath  in  1790,  with  an  Engraving  from  Drawings  made  on 
the  spot,''  1795,  4to.  18.  "  Considerations  on  the  Scar- 
city and  high  Prices  of  Bread  Corn,"  &c.  1796.  He  contri- 
buted also  many  papers  to  the  Arohsologia  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries,  of  which  he  was  chosen  a  fellow  in  1772. 
He  was  elected  F.R.S.  ih  1765.     He  is  also  said  to  faavifi 

«?  la  a  letter  to  Mr.  Nichols  he'  laysi  «  This  is  the  best  tbtog  I  erer  wrotej' 



S54  .1^  O  W  N  A  L  L. 

been  the  author  of  "The  Right,  lotefest,  and  Doty,  of 
Governments,  as  concerned  in  the  aJStkir  of  the  East  Indies/'T 
1781,  8vo.  ^^Intellectual  Physics, ^n  Essay  concerning  the 
nature  of  Being,"  4to,  1803  ;  and  a  <<  Treatise  an  Old  Age" 
i'  His  brother,  John  PoWnall,  was  also  an,  antiquary, 
and  contributed  a  few  articles  to  the  Archieologia^ .  He  died 
July  17,  1795.  V  ,  - 

.  POYNET,  or  PONET  (Joini),8uciceMively  bishop  of 
Rochester  and  Winchester,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  YL 
was  born  in  the  county  of  Kent,  about  the  year  1516,  attd 
was  educated  in  King^s  college,  Cambridge,  where^bis 
adversaries  allow  be  w^s  .distinguished  forbis  learning.  He 
was  not  only ' skilled  in  Greek  -and'  Latin,  but  in  some  of 
^e  modern  lailguages,  particularly  balian  tod  Outoh.  In 
early  life  he  proved-  himself  an'  able  mathemltt;i<siit;n  and 
inechtoist.  .He  constructed  n  dock,  ivhieh  pointed  botb 
to  the  hours  of  the  day,  the  day  Of  the  month,  the  sign  of 
the.Z^diack,  the.  lunar  raliations^  and  .the  tides»\ which 
was  presented  to  Henry  YUI.  ,and  .considered  by  him  and 
others  as  a  very  .extraordinary  perforft^noe.  Heylui^.  wboi 
is^eldom  pajrtial  to  the  early  English  reformers,  teUs  us^ 
that  he  was  *'  wdWtudied  with  the  ancient  fathers-'* 
*  /  At  what  time  he  imbibed  the  prineiples  of  the  RefcK'ttia* 
tioO  is  uncertain  ;  but  it  ap'pears  that  be  was  laccomft^  .a 
champion  for  thilt  great  change  in  the  beginning  of-  the 
reigtt  of  Edward  VI.  when  te  was  made  bishop  ofRp* 
Chester,  although  only  in  bis  33d  year.  He  was  then 
D.  D.'  and  chapU^in  to  archbishop  Cranmer.  When  Gar- 
diner was  deprived,  he  was  the  following  year,  1551^ 
translated  to  Winchester,  and  was  one  of  the.  bishops  ap- 
.  pointed  to  make  a  new  code  of  ecclesiastical  law^.  •  He  bad 
fr^uently  preached  before  king  Edward ;  who,  on  accottnt  of 
his  zealous  efforts  for  the  reformation,  desired  that  he  ifiight 
have  the  above  dignities.  He  had  before  this,  however, 
some  lesser  preferment.  By  Newcourt  we.fipd,  that  Cran- 
mer gave  hinii  the  rectory  of  St.  Michael  Queenhithe,  Lon- 
don, Nov.  15,  1543,  which  beheld,  in  commendt^my  until 
May  15,  1551,  when  he  was  translated  to  Winchester.  He 
was  a  frequent  preacher,  and  wrote  several  treatises  in  de- 
fence of  the  Reformation ;  but  his  most  remarkable  per- 
formance was  what  is  commonly  called  '^  King  Edward's^ 
Catechism,^'  which  appeared  in  1553,  in  two  editions,  the 
one  Latin,  the  other   English,  with  the  royal  privilege. 

p  •  ...  , 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer,  tq\  Vlll. 

P  O  Y  N  E  Tv  iSS 

Tbat  it  was  not  hastily  adopted,  however,  appears  by  king 
Edward's  letter  prefixed  to  it,  in  which  he  says :  "  When 
there  was  presented  unto  us,  to  be  perused,  a  short  and 
playne  order  of  Catechisme,  written  by  a  certayne  godlye 
and  learned  man  :  we  cooitnitted  the  debatinge  and  diligent 
examination  thereof  to  certain; bysboppes  and  oMier  learned 
nien,  whose  judgment  we  have  in  greate  estimation."  This 
catechism  has  been  attributed  to  Nowell ;  but  the  late  ex- 
cellent biographer  of  that  eminent  divine  considers  it  as 
4Hiquestionably  Poynet^s,  although  Nowell  took  much  from 
it  into  his  own  catechism. 

i  When  queen  Mary  came  to  the  crown,  Poynet,  wkh 
many  others,'  retired  to  Strasburgh,  where  he  died  April'}  l> 
1556^  not  quite  forty  yestrs  of  age,  Dojtld  says  het  way 
obliged  to  leav«  England  for  treasonable. practices  ;  :as  -he 
had  not  only  encouraged  Wyat's  rebellion,  but  personally 
appeiared  in  the  field  against  the  queen  and  government. 
This  may  be  true ;  but  no  treason  was  necessary  to  render 
England  an  unsafe  place  for  a  man  so  zealous  for  the  re* 
formation,  a  professed  opponent  of  Gardiner,  and  who 
succeeded  that  tyrannical  prelate  in  the  see.of  Winchester. 
StYype  informs  us,  tbat  immediately  on  the  accession  of. 
Mary,  bishop  Poynet  was  qjected  and  imprisoned,  and  de« 
prived  of  episcopacy,  for  being  married.  He  doubts  wfae^ 
ther  be  ever  was  concerned  with  Wyat,  but  says  he  Was  a 
great  friend  to  the  learned  Ascham.  Milner  accuses  him 
of  signing  away  a  great  number  of  the  most  valuable  pos- 
sessions of  the  see  of  Winchester.  He  accuses  him  also 
of  being  of  an  intolerant  spirit,  and  that  he  persecuted  the 
learned  physician,  Andrew  Borde.  •  Borde,  however,  wag 
guilty  of  irregularities,  which  it  was  not  unbecoming  in  his 
diocesan  to  punish.  If  Poynet  was  intolerant,  what  shall 
we  say  of  the  favourites  of  the  popish  historians  ?  .  ^^ 

Besides  the  ^^  Catechism"  already  mentioned,,  bishop 
Poynet  was  the  author  of:  1.  "A  Tragedie  or  Dialoge  of 
the  unjust  usurped  primacie  of  the  bishop  of  Rome,'-  trans.- 
lated  from  Bernard  Ochinus,"  1 54d,  8vo.  2.  '^  A  notable 
Sermon  concerning  the  ryght  use  ^f  the  Lordes  Supper,'* 
&c.  preachecl  before  the  king  at  Westminster,"  1550,  8vo. 
When  abroad,  be  wrote,  which  was  published  the  year 
after  his  death,  a  treatise  on  the  same  subject,  entitled 
**  Dialecticon  viri  boni  et  literati  de  veritate,  natura,  atque 
substantia  corporis  et  sanguinis  Christi  in  Eucharistia  ;"  in 
wlucb^  Bayle  says,  be  endeavoured,  to  reconcile  the  Lu? 

256  P  O  Y  N  E  T. 

therans  and  Zuinglians.  3^  "A  short  Treatise  of  Poli- 
tique Power,  and  of  the  true  obedience  which  subjectes  owe 
to  kynges  and  other  civile  governours,  with  an  exhorta* 
^ion  to  all  true  naturail  EngUshe  men,  cooipyled  by 
D.  I.  P.  B.  R.  V.V.  ue.  Dr.  John  Poynet,  bishop  of  Ro- 
chester and  Winchester/'  1356,  8vo.  The  contents  of 
this  may  be  seen  in  Oldys's  Catalogue  of  Pamphlets  in 
the  Harleian  Library,  No.  409.  It  was  reprinted  in  1639 
and  1642  ;  which  gave  a  suspicion,  that  it  contained  senti<* 
ments  respecting  queen  Mary,  which  at  this  time  were 
thought  applicable  to  a  far  milder  sovereign.  Dr.  Poynet 
firrote  "  A  Defence  for  Marriage  of  Priests,"  1549,  8vo; 
aMi  has  been  thought  the  author  of  an  answer  to  the  popish 
Dr.  Martin  on  the  same  subject,  entitled  ^^  An  Apojogie, 
fully  aunswering,  by  Scriptures  and  anc^ant  doctors,  a 
blasphemose  book,  gathered  by  D.  Stephen  Gardiner,"  &c« 
&c.  But  Wharton,  in  his  observations  on  Strype's  Me- 
morials of  Cranmer,  assigns  very  sufficient  reasons  why  it 
^ould  not  be  Poynet's.  *    . 

.  PRATT  (Charles,  Earl  Camden),  an  eminent  English 
lawyer,  was  the  son  of  sir  John  Pratt.  This  sir  Jphn  Pratt 
^iras  a  student  at  Oxford,  and  fellow  of  Wadham  colleget 
in  the  hall  of  which  is  bis  portrait,  among  other  distin- 
guished members  and  benefactors  of  the  80ciety«  Apply* 
in^  himself  to  the  study  of  the  law,  he  was  called  to  the 
l)ar  about  the  end  of  king  Charles  IL's  reign;  and,  after 
{various  gradations  in  the  dignities  of  bis  profession,  was  in 
1718  constituted  lord  chief  justice  of  the  court  of  King^s 
Bench.  He  died  in  1724,  when  the  subject  of  the  present 
article  was  ^a  child,  one  of  the  sons  of  bis  second  wife^ 
Elizabeth  Wilson.  He  was  born  in  1713;  and,  after  being 
educated  in  school-learning  at  Eton,  entered  of  King's 
college,  Cambridge,  on  the  election  in  172>1,  and  became 
a  fqliow  of  that  society.  In  1735  be  took  the  degree  of 
B.  A.  and  in  1739  that  of  M.  A.  after  which  he  became  a 
•member  of  Lincoln's  Inn ;  and  having  regularly  gone 
through  his  law  studies,  was  called  to  the  bar.  For  many 
years,  however,  he  had  so  little  practice,  that  at  one-time 
he  had  resolved  to  relinquish  his  attendance  at  Westniin- 
«ter  Hall ;    but,  by  degrees  he  became  noticed ;  and,  ia 

*  Godwin  de  Presul. — Bale. — ^Tanner. — Strype's  Life  of  Cranmer ^oiftm.—' 
G«n.  Dict.~Fa11er*s  Worthies.— Dodd's  Ch.  Hist.— Churton's  Life  of  NoweiJ.— 
acilner'a  Hist,  of  Winchester,  voL  L  p.  346. 

PRATT.  «7 

1752,  we  find  him  supportiog  the  risphts  of  juries,  in  oppo*- 
sition  to  Mr,  Murray,  afterwar(}s  lord  Mansfield,  in  a  case 
of  libel,  the  v.  Oweh,  wbeu  his  client  was  acquitted. 

In  1754  he  was  chosen  repr/esentative  for  the  borou(^h  of 
I>ownton,  in  Wiltshire;  and  in  1739,  recorder  of  Bath; 
and  the  same  year  was  made  bis  majesty ^s  attorney  general. 
In  Dec.  .1761,  he  was  constituted  chief  justice  of  the 
court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  received  the  honour  of 
knighthood ;  and  in  1762,  was  called  to  the  degree  of  ser«- 

His  lordship  had  the  reputation  of  having  presided  in 
that  court  with  a  dignity,  weight,  and  impartiality,  never 
exceeded  by  any  of  his  predecessors;  and  when  tiie  cele- 
brated John  Wilkes  was  seized  and  committed  to  the 
Tower,  upon  a  general  warrant,  bis  lordship  granted  him 
an  Habeas  Corpus  >  and  when  Wilkes  was  brought  before 
the  couit  of  Common  Pleas,  discharged  him  from  his  con- 
finement in  the  Tower,  on  May  6,  1763,  after  stating  the 
case,  in  a  speech  which  did  him  great  honour.  His^wise 
and  spirited  behaviour  upon  this  occasion,  and  in  the  con- 
sequent judicial  proceedings,  between  the  printers  of  the 
^  North  Briton'*  and  others  concerned  in -that  publication, 
or  in  apprehending  the  authors,  was  so  acceptable  to  the 
nation,  that  the  lord  mayor,  aldermen,  and  common-coun- 
cil of  the  city  of  I^ndon,  presented  him  with  the  freedom 
of  their  corporation  in  a  gold  box,  and  desired  him  to  sit 
for  his  picture,  which  was  put  up  in  the  Guildhall  in  1764, 
with  a  suitable  inscription  at  tlie  bottom  of  the  frame.  The 
guild  of  merchants  of  the  city  of  Dublin,  also  voted  him 
the  freedom  of  their  guild,  in  a  gold  box ;  the  corporation 

8f  barber>surgeons  of  that  city  voted  him  his  freedom 
hereof;  and  the  sheriffs  and  commons  of  Dublin  presented 
him  their  thanks  '^  for  the  distinguished  zeal  and  loyalty 
which  he  has  shewn  in  asserting  and  maintaining  the  rights 
and  liberties  of  the  subject,' in  the  high  station  whicji  he 
now  fills,  with  remarkable  dignity ;  and  for  his  particular 
services  to  this  kingdom,  in  the  office  of  attorney^general.^ 
Other  towns  sent  him  testimonies  of  their  regard,  and  his 
popularity  was  now  at  its  height.  In  1765  he  was  created 
a  peer  of  Great  Britain  by  the  title  of  lord  Camden,  barost 
Camden  in  the  county  of  Kent;  and  on  July  30,  1766,  his 
majesty,  upon  the  resignation  of  lord  Northington,  deli-^ 
vered  the  great  seal  to  bis  lordship,  as  lord  high  chancellor 
of  Great  Britaius  It  was  the  Rockingham  admipistratioii 
Vol.  XXV.  .         S 

a5t  PRATT. 

who  promoted  his  lordshjp^s  advancement  to  the  peefag^'^; 
but  they  did  not  thereby  obtain  his  entire  support  in  par* 
liament;  for  when  the  declaratory  bill,  asserting  the  right 
of  parliament  to  make  laws,  binding  the  colonies  in  all  cases 
whatever,  was  brought  into  the  House  of  Lords,  he  opposed 
it  with  the  greatest  vigour.  Lord  Camden,  whatever  might 
be  thought  of  his  opinions,  was  uniformly  independent, 
ahd  incurred  a  portion  of  popular  odium  for  supporting 
she  suspension  of  the  law,  in  order  to  prevent  the  exporta* 
lion  of  corn  at  a  time  when  scarcity  was  impending.  On^ 
this  occasion  he  happened  to  make  a  sarcastic  reply  to  lord 
Temple,  which  drew  upon  him  the  wrath  of  Junius ;  but 
for  this  he  had  as  little  regard  as  for  the  more  sober  in- 
vectives of  party.  As  a  lord  chancellor,  he  appears  to 
have  conciliated  the  good  opinion  of  all  parties.  His  acute- 
uess  and  judgment,  and  the  perspicuity  with  which  he  de- 
livered his  opinions,  and  his  general  politeness,  mixed 
with  a  becoming  regard  to  the  dignity  of  his  office,  at! 
produced  the  highest  respect  and  confidence  in  his  deci- 
sions. But  as  he  still  adhered  to  his  opinion  against  the 
taxation  of  the  Americans,  which  he  strongly  and  publicly 
opposed  on  every  occasion,  he  was  removed  from  his  high 

In  March  1782,  on  an  entire  change  of  men  and  measures, 
in  consequence  of  the  failure  of  the  American  war,  he  was 
appointed  president  of  the  council,  which,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  short  secession  during  the  coalitioo-aidministra- 
;ion,  he  held  through  life,  and  gave  his  support  to  the 
inieasures  by  which  Mr.  Pitt  provided  for  the  safety  of  the 
country,  when  the  French  revolution  had  let  loose  the  dis- 
grganizing  principles  of  bad  men  of  all  nations.  In  May 
1786,  lord  Camden  was  advanced  to  the  farther  dignities 
pf  viscount  Bayham  and  earl  Camden,  and  lived  to  enjoy 
bis  well-earned  honours  to  his  death,  April  1 8,  1 794.  High 
as  his  lordship's  character  stood  with  the  public,  it  was  not 
superior  to  the  esteem  which  his  private  virtues  univer- 
sally procured.  In  his  relative  duties  he  was  affectionate, 
benevolent,  and  cheerful.  His  mind  and  manners  threw 
an  amiable  colouring  over  every  action.  A  pamphlet  has 
been  attributed  to  him,  entitled  **  An  Inquiry  into  the 
nature  and  effect  of  the  writ  of  Habeas  Corpus^  the  great 
bulwark  of  English  liberty,  both  at  common  law,  and  un- 
der the  act  of  parliament :  and  also  into  the  propriety  of 
explaining  and  extending  that  aqt,"  Lond.   1758>    8vo. 

PRATT.  259 

Another  is  mentioned  by  Mr.  Park^  which  can  scarcely  be 
called  bis^  although  relating  to  him ;  "  Lord  Camden's 
argument  in  Doe,  on  the  demise  of  Hindson,  &ic.  versus 
Kersey ;  wherein  Lord  Mansfield's  argument  in  Wyndham 
versus  Chetwynd,  is  considered  and  answered."  This  is 
said  to  have  been  first  printied  in  4to,  at  London,  and  sup- 
pressed by  an  order  of  the  court  of  ComaK>n  Pleas,  over 
which  lord  Camden  at  that  time  presided.  It  was,  how- 
ever, published  at  Dublin  in  1766,  8vo. 

His  lordship  married  Elizabeth,  daughter,  and  at  length 
sole  heiress,  of  Nicholas  Jeffreys,  esq.*  of  the  Priory  in 
Breconshire,  by  whom  he  had  a  numerous  issue.  He  was 
succeeded  in  titles  and  estate  by  his  son  John  Jeffreys^ 
the  present  earl  Camden. ' 

PRATT  (Samuel  Jackson),  a  poet  and  miscellaneous 
writer,  is  said  to  have  been  born  of  a  good  family,  at  St. 
Ives,  in  Huntingdonshire,  Dec.  25,  1749.  He  was  edu* 
cated  at  Felstead,  in  Essex,  and  was  originally  brought  up 
to  the  church.  This,  however,  he  appears  to  have  quitted 
for' the  stage,  which  he  attempted  in  London,  in  1774,. 
with  very  little' success.  After  his  failure  in  this  attempt, 
he  subsisted  chiefly  by  writing.  He  also  was  for  some  time 
a  bookseller  at  Bath,  where,  and  at  other  places,  he  oc- 
casionally delivered  lectures  on  the  English  language.  For 
many  years  after  his  appearance  on  the  stage,  he  assumed 
the  name  of  Courtney  Melmoth,  which  likewise  is  prefixed  to 
most  of  his  publicatiotis.  As  an  author,  he  was  very  prolific. 
The  first  of  his  productions  which  attracted  the  notice  of  the 
public,  was  ^.'The  Tears  of  Genius,  occasioned  by  the  Death 
of  Dr.  Goldsmith,  1774,*'  whose  poetical  works  he  endea- 
voured^ and  not  always  unsuccessfully,  to  make  the  model  of 
his  own.  His  poem  of  ^'  Sympathy^*  was  perhaps  his  best,  and 
has  passed  through  many  editions,  and  is  characterized  by 
feeling,  energy,  and  beauty.  His  first  novel,  entitled 
**  Liberal  Opinions  upon  Animals,  Man,  and  Providence," 
1775,  &c.  was  published  in  detached  volumes,  which  were 
eagerly  perused  as  they  successively  appeared.  His  *<Shen- 
stoniB  Green,"  «  Emma  Corbett,"  "  The  Pupil  of  Plea- 
sure, or  the  New  System  (Lord  Chesterfield's)  illustrated," 
had  likewise  a  temporary  popiUarity.  His  other  novel  of 
any  note  was  entitled  "Family  Secrets,"  1797,  5  vols. 

1  Cdlliiit'i  Peerage,  by  sir  £.  Brydget.— Harwood's  Alumni  Etbueoser.-^ 
Fark's  edition  of  ih%  Royal  and  Noble  Authocs.— Almoa's  Anecdotes^  vol.  I.  . 


no  PRATT. 

l2mo,  but  bad  not  the  success  of  the  former.  His  dra- 
matic productions  were,  a  tragedy,  "  The  Fair  Circassian/* 
taken  from  Hawkesworth^s  ^'  Almoran  and  {laroet/'  which 
required  all  the  support  of  himself  and  friends^  in  tha 
newspapers,  to  render  it  palatable  for  a  few  nights.  His 
other  dramatic  pieces,  enumerated  in  the  Biog.  Dram. 
T/ere  so  little  successful  as  to  be  soon  forgot. 

Other  works  by  Mr.  Pratt,  not  noticed  in  the  above  ac- 
count, are  :  "  The  Sublime  and  Beautiful  of  Scripture. 
Being  Essays  on  select  Passages  of  Sacred  Compositions,** 

1777.  "  An  Apology  for  the  Life  and  Writings  of  Ps^vid 
Hume,''  1777.  "  Travels  of  the  Heart,  written  in  France,'* 

1778,  2  vols.  "Observations  on  Young's  Night  Thoughts,'* 
9vo.  "  Landscapes  in  Verse,  taken  in  Spring,"  1785. 
^^Miscellanies,"  1786,  4  vols,  which  included  tbQ  most 
popular  of  the  preceding  pieces*  "  Triumph  of  Benevo- 
lence," a  poem,  occasioned  by  the  design  of  erecting  Sk 
Monument  to  Mr.  Howard.  '^  Humanity,  or  the  Rights  o£ 
Nature,"  a  poem,  1788.  "  An  Ode  on  bis  Majesty's  Re- 
covery." "  A  Letter  to  the  Tars  of  Old  England,"  and 
"A  Letter  to  the  British  Soldiers,"  1797.  "  John  and 
Dame  ;  or,  The  Loyal  Cottagers,"  a  ppem,  1803.  "  Har- 
vest Home,  consisting  of  Supplementary  Gleanings,  Ori- 
ginal Dramas  and  Poems,  Contributions  of  Literary  Friends^ 
und  Select  Republications,  including  Sympathy,  a  poem, 
revised,  corrected,  and  enlarged,  from  the  eighth  edition,'* 
1805,  3  vols.  8vo.  **The  Cabinet  of  Poetry,  containing 
the  best  entire  pieces  which  are  to  be  found  in  the  ^yorks 
of  the  British  Poets,  from  Milton  to  Beattie.  The  Works 
gf  each  Poet  prefaced  by  an  Account  of  his  Life  and  Cha- 
racter, by  Mr.  Pratt  j"  6  vols.  1808.  "The  Contrast,  a 
Poem,  including  Comparative  Views  of  Britain,  Spain,  and 
France,"  1808.  "The  Lower  World,  a  poem,  in  four 
books,  with  notes,"  1810.  "  A  Descriptiou  of  ly-eqming- 
ton  Spa,"  a  retreat  of  Mr.  Pratt's,  &c.  To  these  we  may 
fidd  his  "Gleanings,"  or  Travels  Abroad  and  in  England, 
in  which  there  is  some  amusement,  but  so  much  mixture 
of  fiction,  that  very  little  reliance  can  be  placed  on  them 
for  matters  of  fact.  Mr.  Pratt  died  Oct.  4,  1814,^  at  bis 
apartments  in  Colmore-row,  Birmingham.  Hq  was  un- 
questionably a  man  of  genius,  and  a  selection  might  be 
made  from  bis  works  which  would  establish  his  reputation 
9LS  a  poet ;  but  his  necessities  seldom  gave  him  time  to  po- 
}is.h  and  correct,  and  his  vanity  prompted  hioi  so  often  to' 


become  his  bwil  revietrei*  aud  his  own  panegyrisl,  that  fot 
tdtile  yedrs  before  bis  death  he  sunk  in  respect  with  thfe 
}>ublici  There  are  no  marks  of  learning  in  any  of  his  J>er- 
fortxHirices ;  ahd  from  the  time  he  devoted  himself  to  repre- 
sent fictiori  on  the  stage^  his  general  conduct  was  that  of  i 
Id&n  playing  a  part,  or  led  through  the  adventures  of  a 
floVel;  It  was  to  his  praise,  however,  that  in  his  lattet* 
d^ys  bis  works  contained  a  more  pure  morality  than  some 
be  bad  published  at  ah  earlier  period  of  his  life. ' 

PRAXITELES,  st  most  celebrated  Grecian  sculptor, 
flourished,  according  to  Pliny,  in  the  I04tb  olympiad, 
that  is,  about  364  years  before  the  Christian  aera.  He 
worked  chiefly  in  Parian  marble,  to  which  he  seemed  to 
convey  not  only  expression  but  animation.  He  was  much 
attached  to  the  beautiful  Phryne,  to  whom  he  promised  to 
give  the  very  finest  of  his  works,  if  she  would  select  it. 
Not  trusting  to  her  own  judgment  irt  this  itiatter,  she  con- 
trived a  stratagem,  as  Pausanias  relates,  to  discover  which 
he  most  esteemed.  She  ran  to  him  in  a  pretended  alarm, 
Exclaiming  that  his  workshop  was  on  fire,  when  he  imme- 
diately cried  out,  **  If  my  Satyr  and  Cupid  are  not  saved, 
I  am  rained."  Having  thus  learned  his  private  thoughts, 
she  took  advantage  of  them  in  making  her  choice.  His  lovd 
for  Phryne  led  him  also  to  preserve  her  beauties  by  his  art; 
tod  her  statue,  carved  by  him,  stood  afterwards  in  the  tem-^ 
pie  at  Delphi,  between  those  of  Archidamus  king  of  Sparta, 
and  Philip  of  Macedon.  Grace  and  beauty  prevailed  in 
ei'ery  work  of  Praxiteles  ;  and  his  statue  of  Venus  clothed, 
#hich  was  bought  by  the  inhabitants  of  Coos,  was  only  sur- 
passed by  a  naked  figure  of  the  same  goddess,  which  wasi 
obtained  by  the  Cnidians.  It  is  uncertain  whether  ainy 
work  of  Praxiteles  remains  ;  but  an  antique  Cupid,  for- 
iMerly  possessed  by  Isabella  d^Este,  of  the  ducal  family  of 
Mantu^,  was  supposed  to  have  been  the  production  of  his 

'  PREMONTVAL  (Peter  le  Gnat/  de),  of  the  acaderhy 
6f  sciences  at  Berlin,  was  born  at  Charenton  Feb.  16,  1716. 
His  attachment  to  the  mathematics  was  so  strong,  that  he 
opened  a  school  at  Paris,  in  1740,  where  he  taught  them 
gratuitously,  and  formed  several  excellent  scholars,  hut 
^ bis  temper  was  acrimonious  and  haughty,  which  created 

1  Gent.  Mrff.  vol.  LXXXIV. — Biog.  tram. — toiirtgesr's  Common  Place  Book, 
vol.  m.  9  HayJey*s  Essay  on  Sculpture.  \ 

262  P  R  E  M  O  N  T  V  A  L, 

bim  so  many  enemies,  that  he  quitted  France  for  Bftle^ 
where  he  staid  a  year  or  two;  and  having  wandered  for  some 
time  in  various  cities  of  Qermany,  he  iinally  settled  at 
Berlin  ;  where,  though  he  did  not  escape  quarrels,  he  was 
altogether  successful,  and  became  ^n  author.  He  died  at 
Berlin  in  1767,  at  the  age  of  fifty -one.  His  works :  are 
neither  nqiperous  nor  very  valuable.  The  best  is,  1.  His 
f  ^  Pr^servatifs  contre  la  corruption  de  la  langue  Frangoise  en 
Allemagne.''  He  wrote  also,  2.  '^  La  Monogamie,  ou 
Punit^  en  Mariage,'*  1751,  3  vols.  8vo  ;  a  work  of  learning, 
but  whimsical  and  tiresome.  3.  "  Le  Diogene  die  I'Alem- 
hert ;"  not  so  singular  as  the  preceding,  but  not  better 
written,  with  some  tendency  to  modern  sophistry.  4.  Se? 
veral  memoirs  in  the  volumes  of  the  academy  at  Berliti. 
He  appears  to  have  been  in  a  great  degree  unsettled  in  hi^ 
religious  opinions  ;  jnclining  at  times  tp  Socinianism,  and 
the  doctrines  of  fortuitous  creation  ;  at  others  producing 
strong  suggestions  in  favour  of  religion.' 

PRESTET  (John,)  a  priest  of  the  oratory,  son  of  a 
Serjeant  at  Cb&Ions-sur-Saone,  was  born  in  1648.  He  went 
to  Paris  early  in  life,  and,  having  finished  his  studies  there, 
entered  into  the  service  of  father  Malebranche,  who, 
finding  he  had  a  genius  for  the  sciences,  taught  him  mathe- 
matics, in  which  the  young  pupil  ipiade  so  rapid  a  progress, 
that,  at  the  age  of  seventeen  be  published  the  first  editiou 
of  his '^  E16mens  de  Math^matique?.^'  ^n  the. same  year, 
1675,  he  entered  the  pongregation  of  the  oratory,  audi 
taught  mathematics  with  distinguished  reputation,  particur. 
larly  at  Angers.  He  died  June  8,  1690,  at  Mechlin.  The 
best  edition  of  his  "  Elements,"  is  that  of  1689,  2  vols, 
4to.    They  contain  many  curious  problems.'. 


PSESTON  (John),  a  celebrated  divine  in  the  beginning 
of  the  seventeenth  century,  descended  from  the  Prestons, 
of  Preston  in  Lancashire,  was  born  at  Heyford,  in  Norths 
^mptonshir^,  in  Oct.  1 587.  Au  uncle  on  the  mother's  side^ 
who  resided  at  Northampton,  undertook  the  care  of  his 
education,  and  placed  him  at  first  at  the  free-school  of  that 
town,  and  afterwards  under  s^  Mr.  Guest,  an  able.  Greek 
scholar,  who  resided  in  Bedfordshire.  With  him  be.  re- 
Qiained  until  1584,  when   he  was  admitted  of  King's  col"^ 

'  Diet.  Hist.*.— Necrologe  desJiommes  Celebres,  pour  ann^e  1770. 
'  Diet.  HisU— Moreri. 

P  R  E  S  TO  N.  «69 

lege,  Cambridge.  Here  be  appUled  to  wbafc  bis  biographer 
tells  119  was  at  tbat  time  the  genius  of  the  college,  viz. 
musiq,  studied  its. theory,  and  practised  on  the  lute  ;  but 
thinking  this  a  waste  of  time,  he  would  have  applied  him- 
self to  matters  of  more  importance,  .could  he  have  remained 
here, .  but  as  not  coming  from  Eton  school,  he  could  not  be 
upon  the  foundation.  Being  therefore  incapable  of  prefer- 
ment, he  removed  to  Queen^s  college,  and  by  the  instruc- 
tions of  Oliver  Bowles,  an  able  tutor,  be  soon  became  dis- 
tinguished for  his  proficiency,  especially  in  the  philosophy 
of  Aristotle,  and  took  his  degrees  with  uncommon  reputa- 
tion. Bowles  leaving  college  for  a  living,  his  next  tutor  wa/» 
Dr.  Porter,  who,  astonished  at  his  talents,  recommended  him 
to  the  notice  of  the  master.  Dr.  Tyndal^  dean  of  Ely,  by 
whose  influence  he  was  chosen  fellow  in  1609.  Thin  he 
appears  to  have  thought  rather  convenient  than  honourable,, 
for  at  this  time  his  mind  was  much  set  on  public  life,  and 
on  rising  at  court.  He  continued,  however,  to  pursue  his 
studies,  to  which  he  now  added  that  of  o^edicine ;  and, 
although  he  did  this  probably  without  any  vi^w  to  it  as  a 
profession,  we  are  told  that  when  any  of  his  pupils  were 
ai<:k,  he  sometimes  took  the  liberty  to  alter  the  physicians* 
prescriptions.  Botany  and  astronomy,  or  rather  astrology, 
also  engrossed  some  part  of  bis  attention.  But  from  all 
these  pursuits  he  was  at  once  diverted  by  a  seroion  preached 
at  St.  Mary's  by  Mr.  Cotton,. .which  made  such  an.impresr 
sion  on  him,  that  be  immediately  resolved  on  the  study  of 
divinity,  and  began,  as  was  then  usual,  by.  perusing  the 
9choolmen.  '<  There  was  nothing,'Vsays  bis  biographer, 
^'  that  ever  Scotus  or  Occam  wrote,  but  he  had  weighed 
and  examined;  he  delighted. much  to  read  them  in  the  first; 
and  oldest  editions  that  could  be  got*  I  have  still  a  Scotu^ 
ip  a  very  old  print,  and  a  paper  not  inferior  to  parchment^ 
that  baith  his  hand  and  notes  upon  it  throughout ;  yet  be 
<:ontinued  longer  in  Aquinas ;  whose  sums  he  would  some- 
times-read  as  the  barber  cut  his  hair,  and  when  it  fell  upon 
the  place  he  read,  he  would  not  lay  down  his  book,  but 
blow  it  off.'* 

While  thus  employed,.  ki,ng  James  paid  a  visit  to  Cam- 
bridge, and  Dr.  Harsnet,  the  vice-chancellor,  ^^  knowing 
well  the  critical  and  able  apprehension  of  his  majesty,''  se*? 
lected  the  ablest  in  every  faculty  to  dispute,  which  was 
then  a  mode  of  entertaining  royal  visitors.  Preston  he  se- 
ttled tQ  answer  in  the  philosophy  act,  and  there  wa>  a  tiijne 

264t  PRESTO  N. 

when  be  would  have  been  proud  of  the  honour ;  but  his 
thoughts  were  now  so  much  fixed  on  divinity,  that  the  apr 
plause  of  kings  and  courts  had  no  longer  any  charms.  In 
the  mean  time  a  dispute  arose  about  the  place  of  answereTy 
which  terminated  in  Mr.  Preston's  being  appointed ^rs/  op* 
penenU  The  account  of  this  dispute,  as  given  by  Prestoa's 
biographer,  is  so  curious  an  illustration  of  the  academical 
customs,  of  the  time,  that  we  are  persuaded  no  apology  can 
be  necessary  for  giving  it  in  his  own  words.  It  exhibits 
king  James  also  in  one  of  his  favourite  characters. 

**  His  (Mr.  Preston's)  great  and  first  care  was  to  bring  his 
argument  unto  a  head,  without  affronts  or  interruptions 
irofu  the  an^werer^  and  so  made  all  bis  major  propositions 
plausible  and  firm,  that  bis  adversary  might  neither  be  will- 
ing nor  able  to  enter  there,  and  the  minor  still  was  backed 
by  other  syllogisms,  and  so  the  argument  went  on  unto  the 
issue :  which  fell  out  well  for  master  Preston ;  for  in  dis- 
putations of  consequence,  the  answerers  are  many  times  so 
fearful  of  the  event,  that  they  slur  and  trouble  the  opponents 
all  they  can,  hnd  deny  things  evident,  which  had  been  the 
case  in  all  the  former  acts ;  there  was  such  wrangling  about 
their  syllogisms,  that  sullied  and  clouded  the  debates  ex- 
tre^iely,  and  put  the  king's  aetsmen  into  straits ;  but  whea 
master  Preston  still  cleared  his  way,  and  nothing  was  de- 
nied, but  what  was  ready  to  be  proved,  the  king  was  greatly 
satisfied,  and  gave  good  heed,  which  he  might  well  do,  be- 
cause the  question  was  tempered  and  fitted  unto  his  con- 
tent; namely.  Whether  dogs  could  make  s^fUogisms  ? 

*^  The  opponent  urged,  that  they  could ;  an  Eathymeme 
(said  he)  is  a  lawful  and  real  syllogism,  but  dogs  can  make 
them ;  be  instanced  in  an  hound  who  had  the  major  pro- 
position in  his  mind,  namely,  *  the  hare  is  gone  either  tfaas 
or  that  way ;'  smells  out  the  minor  with  his  nose,  namely, 
'  she  is  not  gone  that  way,'  and  follows  the  conclusion, 
^  Ergo,  this  way  with  open  mouth.'  The  instance  suited 
Ae  auditory,  and  was  applauded ;  and  put  the  answermr  to 
his  distinctions,  that  dogs  might  bare- sagacity  but  not  sa- 
piencej  in  things  especially  of  prey,  and  that  did  concern 
their  belly,  might  be  nasutidi,  but  not  hgici;  had  much 
in  their  mouths,  little  in  their  minds,  unless  it  had  relation 
to  their  mouths ;  that  their  lips  were  larger  than  their 
understandings:  which  the  opponent,  still  endeavouring  to 
wipe  off  with  another  syllogism,  and  put  the  dogs  upon  a 
fresh  scent,  the  moderator,  Dr.  Reade,  began  to  be  a^raidy 

PRESTON.  2es 

and  to  think  bow  trooblesome  a  pack  of  hounds,  well  fol- 
lowed and  applauded,  at  last  might  prove,  and  so  came  to 
the  answerer^s  aid,  and  told  the  opponent  that  his  dogs,  he 
did  believe,  were  very  weary,  and  desired  him  to   take* 
them  off,  and  start  some  other  argument ;  and  when  the 
opponent  would  not  yield,  but  halloed  still  and  put  them  on, 
be  interposed  his  authority,  and  silenced  him.     The  king 
in  bis  conceit  was  all  the  while  upon  Newmarket  heath, 
and  liked  tbe  sport,  and  therefore  stands  up,  and  tells  the 
moderator  plainly  he  was  not  satisfied  in  all  tb&t  bad  been 
answered,  but  did  believe  an  bound  bad  more  in  him  than 
waa  imagined.     I  bad  myself  (said  he)  a  dog,  that  strag- 
gling far  from  all  his  fellows,  had  light  upon  a  very  fresh 
scent^  but  considering  he  was  all  alone,  and  had  none  to 
second  and  assist  him  in  it,  observes  the  place,  and  goes 
away  unto  his  fellows,  and  by  such  yelling  arguments  as 
they  best  understand,  prevailed  with  a  party  of  them  to  ga 
along  wftb  bim,  and  bringing  them  unto  the  place,  pur- 
sued it  into  an  open  view.     Now  the  king  desired  for  to 
know  how  this  could  be  contrived  and  carried  on   witbodt 
the  use  and  exercise  of  underststnding,  or  what  the  mode-- 
rator  could  have  done  in  that  case  better ;  and  desired  him 
that  either  he  would  think  better  of  his  dogs,  or  not  so 
highly  of  himself. 

"  The  opponent  also  desired  leave  to  pursue  the  king*s 
game,^  which  he  bad  started,  unto  an  issue ;  but  the  an- 
swerer protested  tbat  his  majesty*s  dogs  were  Always  to  be 
excepted,  who  bunted  not  by  common  law,  but  by  prero- 
gative. And  the  moderator,  fearing  the  king  might  let  loose 
another  of  his  hounds,  and  make  more  work,  applies  him- 
self with  all  submisse  devotion  to  the  king,  acknowledged 
his  dogs  were  able  to  out-do  him,  and  besought  his  ma- 
jesty for  to  believe  they  bad  the  better :  That  he  would 
consider  bow  bis  illustrious  influence  had  already  ripened 
and  concocted  all  their  arguments  and  understandings; 
tbat  whereas  in  the  morning  the  reverend  and  grave  di- 
vines could  not  make  syllogisms,  the  lawyers  could  not, 
nor  tbe  physicians ;  now  every  dog  could,  especially  his 

Mr.  Preston's  part  in  this  singular  disputation  might 
have  led  to  favour  at  court,  if  he  had  been  desirous  of  it ; 
and  sir  Fulk  Greville,  afterwards  lord  Brook,  was  so  pleased 
with  his  performance  that  he  settled  50/.  perann,  upon 
him,  and  was  his  friend  ever  after ;  but  he  was  now  seri- 


ously  intent  on  the  office  of  a  preacher  of  the  gospel,  and 
having  studied  Calvin,  and  adopted  his  religious  opinions, 
be  became  suspected  of  puritanism,  which  was  then  much 
discouraged  at  court.     In  the  mean  time  bis  reputation  for 
learning  induced  mauy  persons  of  eminence  to  place  their 
sons  under  his  tuition ;  and  Fuller  telU  us,  he  was  ''  the 
greatest  pupil-monger  ever  known  in  England,  having  six- 
teen fellow-commons  admitted  into  Queen's  college  in  one 
year,''  while   he  continued   himself  so  assiduous  in   his 
studies  as  considerably  to  impair  his  health.    When,  it 
came  to  his  turn  to  be  dean  and  catechistof  his  college,  be 
began  such  9,  course  of  divinity-lectures  as  might  direct  the 
juniors  in  that  study;  and  these  being  of  the  popular  kind, 
were  so  much  frequented,  not  only  by  the  members  of 
other  colleges,  but  by  the  townsmen,  that  a  complaint  was 
at  length  made  to  ^e  vice-chancellor,  and  an  order  given 
that  no  townsmen  or  scholars  of  other  colleges  should  be 
permitted  to  attend.     His  character  for  puritantsm  seems 
now  to  have  been   generally  established,    and   he   was 
btought  into  trouble  by  preaching  at  St.  Botolph's  church, 
although  prohibited  by  Dr.  Newcomb,  commissary  to  the 
chancellor  of  Ely,  who  informed  the  bishop  and  the  king, 
then  at  Newmarket,  of  this  irregularity.     On  the  part  of 
Newcomb,  this  appears  to  have  been  the  consequence  of 
a  private  pique;  but  whatever  might  be  his  motive,  the 
matter  qame  to  be  heard  at  court,   and  the  issue  was,   that 
Mr.  Preston  was  desired  to  give  his  sentiments  on  the  Iit 
turgy  at  St.  Botolph's  church  by  way  of  riecantation.     He 
accordingly   handled  the  subject  in  such  a  manner  as 
cleared  himself  from  any  suspicion  of  disliking  the  forms  of 
the  liturgy,  and  soon  ^fter  it  came  to  bis  turn  to  preach 
before  the  king  when  at  Hinchingbrook.     The  court  that 
day,  a  Tuesday,  was  very  thin,  the  prince  and  the  duke 
of  Buckingham  b^ing  both  absent.     After  dinner,  which 
Mr.  Preston  had  the  honour  of  partaking  at  his  majesty's 
table,  he  was  so  much  complimented  by  the  king,  that 
when  he  retired,  the  marquis  of  Hamilton  recommended 
him  to  his  majesty  to  be  one  of  his  chaplains,  as  a  man 
^*  who  had  substance  and  matter  in  him."     The  king  aspv 
sented  to  this,  but  remembering  his  late  conduct  at  Cam- 
bridge, declined  giving  him  the  appointment. 

Such,  however,  was  Mr.  Preston's  weight  at  this  time 
that  it  was  recommended  to  the  duke  of  Buckingham  by 
all  me^iQs  to  patronize  him,  and  thus,  do  an  act  highly 

PRESTON.  267 

Mceptable  to  the  puritans  who  might  prove  his  grace's 
friends,  in  case  his  other  friends  should  fait.  The  duke 
accordingly  applied  in  his  behalf  to  the  king,  who  still  de- 
murred, but  at  last  fancied  that  his  favours  to  Preston 
might  have  a  different*  effect  from  what  the  duke  medi- 
tated. The  duke  wished  to  court  him,  as  the  head  of  a 
party ;  the  king  thought  that  by  giving  him  preferment, 
he  should  detach  him  from  that  party.  In  this  conflict  of 
motives,  it  occurred  to  some  of  Mr.  Preston's  friends  that 
it  would  be  preferable  to  appoint  him  chaplain  to  the 
prince  ^(afterwards  Charles  I.),  who  now  was  grown  up  and 
bad  a  household.  Sir  Ralph  Freeman,  a  relation  of  Mr. 
Preston's,  suggested  this  to  the  duke,  who  immediately 
sent  for  the  latter,  and  receiving  him  with  such  a  serious 
air  as  he  thought  would  be  acceptable,  told  him  that  the 
•prince  and  himself  having  the  misfortune  to  be  absent 
when  he  preached,  i/^ould  be  obliged  to  him  for  a  topy  of 
his  sermon,  and  entreated  him  to  believe  that  he  would  be 
always  ready  to  serve  him  to  the  best  and  utmost  of  his 
power.  The  sermon  was  accordingly  written  out  in  a  fair 
hand,  and  presented,  and  the  preacher  havings  been  intro- 
duced to  the  prince,  was  formally  admitted  one  of  his  six 
chaplains  in  ordinary. 

<  About  the  time  that  Mr.  Preston  was  thus  honoured.  Or. 
Dunn,  the  preacher  of  Lincoln's-inn,  died,  and  the  place 
was  offered  to  our  author,  and  accepted  by  him, -as  he 
pould  now  ^^  have  an  opportunity  of  exercising  his  ministry 
to  a  considerable  and  intelligent  congregation,  where;  he 
was  assured,  many  parliament  men,  and  others  of  his  best 
acquaintance,  would  be  his  hearers,  and  where  in  term-time 
be  should  be  well  accommodated."  His  usual  popularity 
followed  him  here,  yet  he  was  not  so  much  reconciled  to 
the  situation  as  he  would  have  been  to  a  similar  one  at 
Cambridge.  There  he  would  have  students  for  his  hearers 
who  would  propagate  the  gospel,  which  he  thought  the 
lawyers  were  not  likely  to  do;  and  his  Cambridge  friends 
seemed  to  be  6f  the  same  opinion,  and  wished  him  again 
among  them.  To  promote  this  object,  some  of  the  fellow^ 
of  Emanuel  college  endeavoured  to  prevail  upon  their 
master.  Dr.  Chaderton,  who  was  old,  and  **  had  outlived 
many  of  those  great  relations  which  he  had  before,^'  to 
resign,  in  which  case  they  hoped  to  procure  Mr.  Prestori 
to  succeed  him,  who  was  **  a  good  man,  and  yet  a  cour- 
|.ier|  the  prince's  chaplain,    and  very  gracious   with  the 

268  PRESTON. 

duke  of  fiackingbam.'*    Tvro  obstacles  presented  them- 
selves  to  this  design ;  the  one  Dr.  Chaderton's  unwilling- 
ness to  be  laid  aside  without  some  provision  for  bis  old 
age ;  and  the  second^  their  diread  lest  some  person  might 
procure  a  mandate  to  succeed  who  was  disagreeable  to 
them^  and  might  be  injurious  to  the  interests  of  the  col- 
lege that  had  flourished  tinder  Dr.  Cbaderton's  manage- 
ment.    This  last  apprehension  they  represented  to  him  in 
such  a  manner  that,  after  some   hesitation,  he  entered 
into  their  views^  and  desired  that  Mr.  Preston  biight  em- 
ploy his  interest  wi^  his  court-friends  to  prevent  any ' 
mandate  being  granted,  and  likewise  to  secure  some  pro- 
Tision  for  himself.     Accordingly  by  a  letter  from  the  duke 
of  Buckingham  addressed  to  Dr«  Chaderton,  dated  Sept. 
20,  1622,  we  find  that  both  these  objects  were  attained, 
and  Mr.  Preston  admitted  master  of  Emanuel  before  the 
news  bad  transpired    of    bis    predecessor's  resignation. 
When  his  proniotion  became  known,  it  affected  the  two 
parties  into  which  the  kingdom  was  then  divided  according 
to  their  different  views.     The   puritans  were  glad   that 
^'  honest  men  were  not  abhorred  as  they  bad  been  at  court,'^ 
and  the  courtiers  thought  him  now  in  a  fair  way  of  being 
their  own.     All  considered  him  as  a  rising  man,  and  re- 
spected btm  accordingly,'  and  the  benchers  of  Lincoln's- 
Inn,  whose  preacher  he  still  continued,  took  some  credit 
to  themseWes  lor  having  been  the  first  who  eit  pressed  their 
good  opinion  of  him^     Such  indeed  was  his  consequence, 
that  even  the  college  statmes,  which  seemed  an  insupera- 
ble objection  to  bis  holding  both  places^  were  so  inter- 
preted by  the  fellows  as  to  admit  of  bis  repairing  to  Lon- 
don at  the  usual  periods.     He  now  took  his  degree  of  D.  D^ 
The  object  Of  the  courtiers,  we  have  already  observed^ 
was  to  detach  Dr.  Preston  from  the  purittins,  of  which  he 
was  considered  as  the  head.     They  were  therefore  much 
alarmed  on  hearing  that  be  bad  been  offered  the  lecture- 
ship of  Trinity-church  Cambridge,  which  was  in  future  to 
be  dreaded  as  the  head-quarters  of  puritanism.     So  much 
was  it  an  object  to  prevent  this,  that  the  matter  was  seri- 
ously debated  not  only  by  the  duke  of  Buckingham,  but 
by  the  king  hims^^lf ;  but  here  again  their  private  views 
clashed.     The  duke,  although  he  endeavoured  to  dissuade 
Dr.  Preston  from  accepting  this  lectureship,  and  offered 
him^  the  bishopric  of  Gloucester,  then  vacant,  in  its  stead, 
would  not  otherwise  exert  himself  against  the   doctor,   . 

PRESTON.  ?j6? 

bbcaute  be  would  not  lose  hioi ;  while  the  king^  having  no 
other  object  than  wholly  to  detach  him  from  the  puritans, 
sent  bis  secretary  to  inform  him  that  if  he  would  give  up 
this  lecturesl^ip,  any  preferment  whatever  was  at  his  ser-* 
vice.  Dr.  Preston,  ||iowever,  whose  object,  as  his  biogfa« 
pher  says,  ^'  was  to  do  good,  and  not  to  get  good,'*  per- 
sisted, and  was  appointed  lecturer,  and  the  king  could  not 
conceal  his  displeasure  that  Buckingham  still  sided  with 

I)r.  Preston  happened  to  be  at  Theobalds,  in  attendance 
sfs  chaplain,  when  king. James  died,  and  on  this  inelancboly 
occasion  had  many  interviews  both  with  the  duke  of  Buck- 
ingham, and  the  prince;  and  as  soon  as  the  event  was  an* 
Dounced,  went  to  London  in  the  same  coach  ^ith  his  new 
sovereign  and  the  duke,  and  appeared  to  be  in  high  favour ; 
but  the  duke  was  ultimately  disappointed  in  his  hopes  of 
support  from  Dr.  Preston  and  his  friends.     In  a  public  con- 
ference Dr.  Preston  disputed  against  the  Arminian  doctrines 
in  a  manner  too  decided  to  be  mistaken ;  and  when  on  this 
account  be  found  his  influence  at  court  abate,  he  repaired 
to  his  college,  u^til  Qnding  bis  end  approaching,  he  re- 
moved to  Preston,  near  Hey  ford  in   bi^  native  county, 
where  he  died  in  July  1628,  in  the  forty- first  year  of  his 
age.      His  remain^   were   deposited   in   Fausley   church. 
Fuller,  whp  has  classed  him  ?tmong  tl^e  learned  writers  of 
Clueen's  college,  says,  ^^  he, was  all  judgment  and  gravity, 
and  the  perfect  master  of  his  passions,  an  excellent  preacher, 
a  celebrated  dispjjts^nt,  and  a  perfect  politician.''     Ecb^rd 
styles  him  <'  the  most  celebrated  of  the   puritans,"  and 
copies  the  latter  part  of  what  Fuller  had  said.     He  wrote 
various  pious  tracts,  all  of  which,  with  his  Sermoi^s,  were 
published  after  his  death.     The  uipst  noted  of  these  works 
i^  his  **  Treatise  on  the  Covenant,"  1629,  4to.* 

PRESTON  (Thomas),  an  English  dramatic  writer,  who 
6ourished  in  the  earlier  part  of  queen  Elizabeth's  reign, 
was  first  M.  A.  and  fellow  of  King's  college,  Cambridge, 
and  afterwards  created  a  doctor  of  civil  law,  and  master  of 
Trinity-hall  in  the  same  university,  over  which  be  preside4 
about  fourteen  years,  and  died  in  1598.  In  1564,  when 
qu^en  Eiis^abeth  was  entertained  at  Cambridge,  tins  gen- 
Ueppan  acted  so  admirably  well  in  the  Latin  tragedy  of 

1  Ciark'i    JLW«8. — Neal'n    Puritans.  — Fulier't    Worthies.— -Burnet's    Own 

iio  P  R  E  S  t  O  N. 

Dido,  composed  by  John  Ritwise,  one  of  the  fellows  qt 
King's  college,  and  disputed  so  agreeably  before  her  ma-' 
jesty,  that  as  a  testimonial  of  her  approbation,  she  be- 
stowed a  pension  of  twenty  pounds  per  annum  upon  him ; 
nor  was  she  less  pleased  with  him  on  hearing  his  disputa* 
tions  with  Mr.  Cartwright,  and  called  him  *'  her  scholar,'* 
and  gare  him  her  hand  to  kiss.     The  circumstance  of  the 
pension  Mr.  Steevens  supposes  to  have  been  ridiculed  by 
Sfaakspeare  in  the  "  Midsummer  Night's  Dream,"  at  the 
conclusion  of  act  the  fourth.     On  the  6th  of  Sept.  1566, 
when  the  Oxonian  Muses,  in  their  turn,  were  honoured 
with  a  visit  from  their  royal  mistress,  Preston,  with  eight 
more  Cantabrigians,  were  incorporated  masters  of  arts  in 
the  university  of  Oxford.     Mr.  Preston  wrote  one  dramatic 
piece,  in  the  old  metre,  entitled  "  A  Lamentable  Tragedy 
full  of  pleasant  Mirth,  conteyning  the  Life  of  Cambises 
King  of  Percia,  from  the  beginning  of  his  Kingdome  unto 
his  Death,  his  one  good  Deed  of  Execution  after  the  many 
wicked  Deeds  and  tyrannous  Murders  committed  by  and 
through  him,  and  last  of  all,  his  odious  Death  by  God's 
Justice  appointed,    doon   on   such   Order  as   foUowetb.'* 
This  performance  Langbaine  informs  us,  Shakspeare  meant 
to  ridicule,  when,  in  his  play  of  Henry  IV.  part  i.  act  2. 
he  makes  FalstafF  talk  of  speaking  '*  in  king  Cambyses' 
vein."     In  proof  of  which  conjecture,  he  has  given  his 
readers  as  a  quotation  from  the  beginning  of  the  play,  a 
speech  of  king  Cambyses  himself.^ 

PREVOT  d'Exiles  (Antony  Francis),  was  born  at 
Hesdin,  a  small  town  in  the  province  of  Artois,  in  1697. 
He  studied  with  the  Jesuits,  but  soon  relinquished  that 
society  for  the  army,  into  which  he  entered  as  a  volunteer, 
but  being  disappointed  in  his  views  of  promotion,  he  re- 
turned to  the  Jesuits.  Still,  however,  bis  attachment  to 
the  military  service  seems  to  have  been  predominant ;  for 
he  soon  left  the  college  again,  and  a  second  time  be- 
came a  soldier.  As  an  officer  he  acquired  distinction,  and 
some  years  passed  away  in  the  bustle  and  dissipation  of  & 
military  life.  At  length,  the  unhappy  consequence  of  an 
amour  induced  him  to  return  to  France^  and  seek  retire* 
ment  among  the  Benedictines  of  St.  Maur,  in  the  monas* 
tery  of  St.  Germain  des  Pres,  where  he  continued  a  few 

*  Biog.  Dram. -^Har wood's  Alumni  Etonenses.-^Peck^s  D^iderata.^-Coote's 
Catalogue  of  CiviliaDs,  p.  59.— Fuller's  Hist,  of  Cambrislge. 

p  ft  E  V  d  r.  271 

years.  Study,  and  a  monastic  life,  could  not,  hovrever, 
entirely  subdue  bis  passions.  Recollection  of  former  plea- 
sures probably  inspired  a  desire  again  to  enjoy  them  in 
tbe  world.  He  took  occasion,  from  a  triHing  disagreement, 
to  leaVe  tbe  monastery,  to  break  his  vows,  and  renounce 
his  habit.  Having  retired  to  Holland  in  1729,  besought 
resources  in  his  talents,  with  success.  In  the  monastery 
at  St.  Germain,  he  had  written  tbe  two  first  parts  of  his 
**  Memoires  d'un  Homme  de  Quality.**  The  work  was  soon 
finished,  and,  when  it  was  published,  contributed  no  less 
to  his  emolument  than  his  reputation.  A  connexion  which 
he  had  formed  at  tbe  Hague  with  an  agreeable  woman, 
and  which  was  thought  to  have  exceeded  tbe  boundaries 
of  friendship,  furnished  a  subject  of  pleasantry  to  the  abbiS 
Lenglet,  the  Zoilus  of  his  time.  In  his  journal  entitled 
**  Pour  &  Contre,"  Prevot  thus  obviates  the  censure : 
**  This  Medoro,"  says  he,  speaking  of  himself,  **  so  fa- 
voured by  the  fair,  is  a  man  of  thirty-seven  or  thirty-eight 
years,  who  bears  in  his  countenance  and  in  his  humour  the 
traces  of  his  former  chagrin ;  who  passes  whole  weeks 
without  going  out  of  his  closet,  and  who  every  day  em- 
ploys seven  or  eight  hours  in  study ;  who  seldom  seeks  oc- 
casions for  enjoyment,  who  ev6n  rejects  those  that  are 
offered,  and  prefers  an  bourns  conversation  with  a  sensible 
friend,  to  all  those  amusements  which  are  called  pleasures 
of  the  world,  and  agreeable  recreation.  He  is,  indeed, 
civil,  in  consequence  of  a  good  education,  but  little  ad- 
dicted to  gallantry  ;  of  a  mild  but  melancholy  temper ;  in 
fine,  sober,  and  regular  in  his  conduct.*' 

Whether  tbe  accusations  of  his  enemies  were  true  or 
not,  there  were  reasons  which  obliged  him  to  pass  over 
into  England  at  the  end  of  1733,  and  the  lady  followed 
him.  There,  according  to  Palissot,  he  wrote  the  first  vo- 
lumes of  "  Cleveland."  Tbe  first  part  of  his  "  Pour  & 
Contre,"  was  published  this  year,  a  journal  which  brought 
down  upon  him  the  resentment  of  many  authors  whose 
works  be  had  censured.  His  faults  were  canvassed,  and 
perhaps  exaggerated;  all  his  adventures  were  brought 
to  the  public  view,  and  related,  probably,  not  without  much 
misrepresentation.  His  works,  however,  having  established 
his  reputation,  procured  him  protectors  in  France.  He 
solicited  and  obtained  permission  to  return.  Returning  to 
Paris  in  the  autumn  of  1734,  he  assumed  the  habit  of  an 
abb^.     I^alissot  dates  this  period  as  the  epoch  in  which  his 

272  P  R  E  V  O  T. 

literary  .fame  commenced;  but  it  is  certain^  that  three  of 
bis  most  popular  romances  had  been  published  before  that 
time.  He  now  lived  in  tranquillity  under  the  protectibn 
of  the  prince  of  Conti,  who  gave  him  the  title  of  his 
almoner  and  secretary,  with  an  establishment  that  enabled 
him  to  pursue  his  studies.  By  the  desire  of  chancellor 
d^Aguesseau,  be  undertook  a  general  history  of  voyages, 
pf  which  the  first  volume  appeared  in  1745.  The  success 
9f  his  works,  the  favour  of  the  gi^eat,  the  subsiding  of  the 
passions,  a  calm  retreat^  and  literary  leisure,  seemed  to 
promise  a  serene  and  peaceful  old  age.  But  a  dreadful 
accident  put  an  epd  to  this  tranquillity,  and  the  fair  pro- 
spect which  had  opened  before  him  was  closed  by  the  hand 
of  death,  ^o  pass  the  evening  of  his  days  in  peace,  and 
to  finish  in  retirement  three  great  works  which  he  had  un- 
dertaken, he  hud  chosen  and  prepared  an  agreeable  recess 
at  Firmin  near  Chantilly.  Qn  the  23d  of  Nov.  1763,  he 
was  discovered  by  some  peasants  in  an  apoplectic  fit,  in 
the  forest  of  Chantilly.  A  magistrate  was  csdied  in,  who 
unfortunately  ordered  a  surgeon  immediately  to  open  the 
body,  which  was  apparently  dead.  A  loud  shriek  from  the 
victim  of  this  culpable  precipitation,  convinced  the  spec- 
tators of  their  error-  The  instrument  was  withdrawn,  but 
uot  before  it  had  touched  the  vital  parts.  The  unfortunate 
abb6  opened  his  eyes,  and  expired. 

The  following  are  the  works  of  the  abb6  Prev6t :  I.  "  Me- 
moires  d'un  Homme  de  Qualit^j^  qui  s^est  retir6  du  monde,'' 
Q  vols.  12mo.  This  romance  has  been  translated  into 
English  in  2  vols.  12mo,  and  in  3  vols.  12mo,. under  the 
title  of  the  ^*  Memoirs  of  the  marquis  de  Bretagne ;''  to 
which  is  added,  another  romance  of  Prevot's.  See  art^  3. 
J5.  "  Histoire  de  M.  Cleveland,  fils  naturel  de  Cromwell,'* 
1732,  6  vols.  12mo;  an  English  translation  al>o,  5  vols. 
12mo.  3.  ^^  Histoire  du  Chevalier  des  Grieux,  &  de  Ma* 
non  Lescaut,''  1733,  12mo.  An  English  translation  of  this 
romance  has  been  published  separately,  and  is  also  affixed 
to  the  translation  of  art.  1 .  in  3  vols.  4.  "  Pour  &  Centre,** 
a  literary  journal,  1733,  and  continued  in  the  following 
years,  20  vols.  12mo.  5.  ^^  The  first  volume  of  a  transla* 
tion  of  Thuanus,"  1733,  4tp.  6.  "  A  translation  of  Dry- 
den's  play.  All  for  Love,**  1735.  7.  •*  Le  Doyen  de  KiU 
lerine,"  1735,  6  vols.  12mo,  translated  into  English,  3  vols, 
12mo,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Dean  of  Coleraine.**  8. 
**  History  of  Margaret  of  Anjou,".  1740,  2  vols,    12mo^ 

PREiVOT.  273 

translated  idlo  Engfiah^.S  Voluhies  iSmo.  9.  **  Histdim 
d'uoe  Griecqu^  ModemfiyV  174I»  2Lval8..12ino9  trandated 
into  Englisb,  I  vot.:i2mo.  10.  ^^  Campagties  Philosophi- 
ques^  ou  Meriioires  d^  M*  de  Montcaloi/*  1741,  2  vols. 
*12it)o,  part  history,  aod  part  fiodon.  11.  '^  Memoires  pour 
3ecvir  a  Histoire  de  Makbe/'  1742,  12nio.  12.  ^<  Histoire 
.de  Guillaume  le.  Conquerant  Roi  d^Angleterre,"  1742, 
12010.  13.  "  Voyages  du  Captaine  R.  Lade,"  1744,  2  vols. 
J2mo.  14.  ^^  A  translation  of  Cicero's  Letters  to  Brutns,^' 
with  notes,.  17;44,  l2mo',  and  a  translation  of  his  Familiar 
Letters,  1746,  ,5i  vols.  12aio^  15.  <VA  translation  of  Mid^ 
dleton's  Life  i>f  Cicero,''  1743,  ,4vol&  12mo.  16.  "  Me- 
moires d'no  honnete  homme,*'  17451  17.  ^<  Histoife  ge^ 
ttecale  des  Voyages,"  1745,  &o.  16  vols.  4to,  and  64  vols. 
<I2aio.  La  Harpe  has  abridged  this  compilation  in  2 1  vols. 
Jivo}  he  has  also,  added.  Cook's  Vojrages.  18.  A  Die- 
tionary  of  the  Frendh  language,  17dl,  ^vo,  and  a  new 
iedition,  2  vols.  8vo.  19  and  20.  ^^  Clarissa  Harlowe," 
1751,  12  parts;  and,  ^' Sir  Charles  Grandison,"  Sparts, 
1755  ;  both  translated  froin  Richardson. .  21.  ^^  Le  Monde 
Moral,",  i  760, 4  vols.  ISmo.  22.  **  A  tratislation  of  Hume's 
history  of.the .Stuarts^"  :1760,  3  Vols.  4to,  and  6  vols.  12mQ. 
23.  "Mfemoires  pour  servir  a  la  Histoire  de  la  Verto,'* 
1762,4  vols.  12iiiOy  translated  from  the  English.  24. 
^.Aimoran  and  Hamet,"  translated  fronir  Hawkesivortir^ 
1762,  2  vols.  12mo.r "  And,^5.  A  posthuoiouis  translation 
£kom  the  English,  entitled  ^^  Letters  de  Mentor,  a  une 
Jeune  Seigneur,' ■  il  7^4,.  12010.^ 

PRICE  (John),  in  Lathi  Pricau&j  a  learned  writei^ 
arigioaUy.of  a  WeUh  family^  was  bom  in  1600;a^  London. 
He:,  was  brought  up  at  Westoainster-school,  whence  ia 
1617  he  wasdlepted  to  Christ^churcb,  Oxford.  He  mad^ 
great  proficiency  in  learning,*  and  was  esteemed^  one  of  the 
ableist  critiea  a^  his  day,  but  espoused  the  Roman  catholic 
religton  which  €or  some  time  he  appears  to  have  concealed;. 
On  leaving  eoUege^be  was  enter,tained  in  the  £arl  of  Arun- 
del's family,;  with*  whiich  he  travelled  into  Italy,  and  there 
was  made  doctor  4)fl  laws^  On  his  return  to  England,  he 
became  acquainted  with  the  earl  of  Strafford,  who  being 
pleased  with  his  talents  and  learning,  took  him  with  him  to 
Ireland,  where  be  likewise  became  acquainted  with  arch^ 
tbisbop  Usher,  and  was  one  of  his  correspondents,  their 

1  NecTologle  d^  Hommes  Celebres  pour  aonee  1764.'^P(ct.  Hist 

Vol.  XXV.  T 

274  PRICE, 

biblical  studies  forming  a  bond  of  onion.  When  his  noble 
patron  was  prosecuted,  J)r.  Price  shared  in  his  misfortuDett^ 
and  returned  to  England  in  1640.  During  the  rebellion 
be  endeavoured  to  support  the  royal  cause  by  his  pen,  and 
wrote  several  pamphlets,  for  which  he  was  imprisoned  for 
a  considerable  time.  After  his  release  he  went  abroad,  and 
took  up  his  residence  in  Florence,  where  the  grand  duke 
jnade  him  superintendant  of  his  museum^  which  was  then 
one  of  the  finest  in  Europe.  By  the  interest  of  this  prince^ 
he  was  appointed  Greek  professor  at  Pisa,  and  filled  that 
office  with  great  reputation.  Besigning  it,  however,  pro- 
bably owing  to  bad  health,  he  went  to  Venice,  with  a  view 
to  publish  Hesychius*s  Lexicon,  but  not  succeeding  in  the 
design,  he  went  to  Rome,  and  was  entertained  by  cardinal 
Francis  Barberini.  When  advanced  in  years,  he  retired  to 
St.  Augustine^s  convent  at  Rome,  where  he  died  in  1676, 
aged  seventy-six.  His  works  are :  1.  '^  Notse  et  observa*- 
tidnes  in  apologiam  L.  Apuleii  Madaurensis,  philosopU 
Platoniciy*'  Paris,  1635,  4to.  These  are  to  be  f4>uiid  in 
the  Gouda  edition  of  Apuleius,  1650,  8vo,  but  the  original 
is  very  scarce.  .  2.  *^  Matthsus,  ex  sacra  pagina,  Sanctis 
patribus,  &c.  illustratus,''  Paris,  1646,  8vo.  3.  *^  Anno- 
tationes  in  epist.  Jacobi,''  Paris,  1646,  8vo.  4.  '^Acta 
Apostolorum,  ex  sacra  pagina,  Sanctis  patribus,  &c.  illus- 
trata,"  Paris,  1647,  Svo.  5.  **  Index  Scriptorum,  qui  in 
Hesychii  Graeco  vocabulario  laudantur,.  alpha- 
betico  ordine  dispositus,''  1668.  See  Schrevdius's  Lexicon 
at  the  end.  6.  *^  Comment,  in  varios  Novi  Test,  libros,'* 
inserted  in  the  5th  vol.  of  the  '*  Critici  Sacri.'^  Dr.  Price  is 
praised  by  Sarravius,  in  his  letters ;  by  archbishop  Usher 
.on  St.  Ignatius's  epistles;  by  Heinsius,  in  an  epistle  to 
Carlo  Dati;  by  Leiden  more  than  once,  in  the  aecond 
book  ^^  de  Synedriis  Ebrseorum ;''  by  Vossius,  in  his  <<  Har- 
mon ia  Evangelica ;''  by  Moras,  in  hb  liotes  oa  the 'New 
Testament ;  by  Redi,  in  his  treatise  on  the  Generation  of 
Insects ;  but  especially  by  Axenius  on  Pheedrus.  ^    . 

PRICE  (RiCHARD)9^an  eminent  (Assenting  minister  and 
political  writer,  was  born  Feb.  .23,  1723,  at  Tynton,  in 
the  parish  of  Langeinor,  in  Glamorganshire.  His  father, 
iwho  was  many  years  minister  of  a  dissenting  congregatioo 
at  Bridgend  in  the  same  county,  intended  him  for  trade, 

I  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Geo.  Diet — Dodd'f  Qh.  Hist.  toU  lU.— Uihw'i  Ljf*  ani 
U\XM,  p.  5Q6,  595,  59G. 

P  R  I  C  E.  275 

b«t  gave  him  a  good  education,  in  the  course  of  which, 
kewever,  he  became  dissatisfied  with  bis  son's  departure 
from  bis  own  views  of  religion,  which  were  Calvinistic.  He 
died  in  1739,  while  his  son  was  a  scholar  at  a  seminpy  at 
Talgavtb,  and  a  scholar  of  more  than  ordinary  thinking. 
In  1740  we  are  told. that  be  first  engaged  in  studying  But- 
ler's '^  Analogy,''  a  work  which  never  erased  to  be  the  sub- 
ject of  his  praise  and  admiration.  In  his  eighteenth  year, 
by  the  advice  of  his  paternal  uncle,  the  rev,  Samuel  Price, 
vAko  officiated  as  co-pastor  with  the  celebrated  Dr.  Watts, 
be  was  removed  to  a  dissenting  academy  in  London, 
founded. by  Mr.  Coward,  and  of  which  Mr.  Eames  was  at 
that  time  the  principal  tutor,  where  he  devoted  his  whole 
time  with  ^^ardour  and  delight"  as  be  used  to^  say,  to  the 
study  of  mathematics,  philosophy,  and  theology.  On 
completing  his  course  of  education,  he  was  removed,  by 
the  recommendation  of  his  uncle^  to  Stoke  Newington,  and 
resided  there  fornear  thirteen  years,  in  the  family  of  a  Mr. 
Sireatiield,  as  his  chaplain  and  companion. 

While  in  this  place,  he  occasioniiliy  officiated  in  different 
congregations,    particularly   at    Dr.  Chandler's   meeting- 
house in  the  Old  Jewry,  where  he  seemed  to  acquire  con- 
siderahlov  popularity;  but   Dr.  Chandler  having  advised 
him  to  be  less  energetic  in  bis  manner,  and  to  deliver  his 
discourses  with  more  diffidence  and  modesty,  Mr.  Price 
ran  into  the  opposite  extreme  of  a  cold  and  lifeless  delivery, 
which  naturally  injured  his  popularity.     During  the  latter 
end  of  his  residence  at  Mr.  Streatfield's,  he  officiated  prin- 
cipally at  £dmonton,  till   he  was  chosen  to  be  morning 
preacher  at  Newington  Green.  By  the  death  of  Mr.  Streat- 
£eld>.and  also  of  his. uncle,  which  happened  in^  1756,  his  cir- 
cumstances were  considerably  improved;  the  former  having 
.bequeathed  him  a  legacy  in  money,  and  the  latter  a  house 
•in  Leadenhall-street,  and  some  other  property,  but  not  so 
much  ajs  it  was  supposed  h^  would  have  left  him,  if  he  had 
not  offended  him,  as  he  had  done  his  father,  by  the  freedom 
of  bis  sentiments  on  certain  religious  doctrines,  particularly 
that  of  the  Trinity.     In  1757  he  married  Miss  Sarah  Blun- 
<dejl,  and  in  1758  removed  to  Newington  Green,  in  order  to 
be  near  his  congregation.     Previous  tq  his  leaving  Hackney 
.he  published  his  *<  Review  of  the  principal  questions  and 
difficulties  in  Mixrals,"  of  which  he  revised  a  third  edition 
(0r  the  press  in  1787.    This  gave  him  considerable  reputa« 
;lipn  as  a  mejtapbysiciaa. 

T  2  ^ 

n^  E  R  I  iC  E.: 

During  t|ie:.€i«t -years  .of  bis  Iresideiice  aA  Nefrifigtoaf 
Green,  he  devoted  binEi^etf  aknost  wholly  to  the  eompontiott 
of  sermons,  apd  to  his  pastoral  duties ;  but  in  .1762,  as  hia 
bearers  were  few,  he  was:  induced,  £1*0111  the  .hope  of  being 
more  extensively  useful,  to  accept  ao  invitation  to  saoeeed 
Dr.  Benson*^ as  evening   preacher    in    Poor  Jewry 4aiie* 
Even  bere>  however,  he  acquired  lio  additional  number  of 
hearers,  which  discouraged  him.  so  niucfa^.  tJikat  he  had  de- 
termined to  give  up  preaching  altogether,  from  an  idea 
that  his.  talents  were  totally  .unfit  £ar  the  offioeof.  a  public 
speaker.    .Regarding,  himself  thereSore,  aa  incapable  ■of 
giving  effect  to  bis  moral  infatrncdous  by  deliveriog  ^em 
from  the  pulpit,  he  consoled  himself  with  the  hope  of  fen4> 
dering  them  «  the  wcorld  by  coaveyiog  them  in  ano^ 
ther  manner.    With  this  view  he  formed  the  sermons  whidl 
be  bad  preached  on  private  prayer  into  a  dissertation  00 
that  subject^  which  he  pi^bliabed  in.17.67,  ailong  viih  tiivee 
other  *^  Dissertatioiis,^  on  providence,,  mirades^  labd  the 
junction  of  virtuous  men  ki  afutiniestate. .  These. dissert 
tations  procured  him  the  lacquaiotance  of  the.  iirst;marquis 
of  LansdovHie,  then  eatl  of  Sbelburne,  which  beg«ui- ift 
17611^,  and  contiiiued  for  some  time  before  Mr«.  iPrice  had 
iever  written  on  political  subjlects ;  but  was  probably  more 
firmly  estabUsfaed  in  consequence  of  those  publications^    . 
Having  .officiated  near  foiirteen  years -at  Newnigtoft 
Green  without  kay  hope  of  ever:  becoming,  ektensively 
useful  in  that  situation,  be  was  the  more  easily  induced  to 
acce[it  an  invitdtiob  to  succeed  Mr.  Law,    as   morwiog 
preacher  at  the  Gravel-Pit  meeting-house  in  Hackney,  but 
^consented  to  officiate  as  afternoon  preacher  at  Newingtop 
Green,  and  in  consequence  resigned  that  service  at. Booir 
Jewry ^lane.    Although  his  audience  at  Hackney^ waa  nroch 
more  numerous  than  in  eitfayer  of  the  above  places,  yet 
during  the  first  four  or  five  years  q£  bis  miuistry,  it  in* 
creased  very  slowly ;  "  and,"  says  bis  biographer,  ••^ -it-  is 
probable  that  neither  the  excellence  of  his  di^courses^  nor 
the  impressive  manner  in  which ihey  were  delivered,  would 
have  made  any  great  addition  to  bis  hearers,- had  not  other 
causes  of  a  very  different  nature  concurred  to  render  him 

Mr.  Price  hacf  hitherto  confined  his  studies  almost  exclo* 
sively  to  moral  and  religious  subjects,  and  had  long  const** 
dered  his  profession  as  excluding  him  from  taking  any  part 
in  the  temporal  affairs  of  this  world ;  but  (tpm  this  opinion 

PRICK.  277 

km  tiowrbegan.  gnidtMilty  to  depart^  aiidofirit'beBtow<0d.  t 
•bare  of  hi^  attebtioh  on  philosop^ical'stodies^  which  pro^ 
duced  many,  valuable-  paperg  insertad  in  the^^vpfailosopfaioal 
Trahaaedons^  of  the  Royal  Society  of  LondooH^  of:  which  fa^ 
had  been  ohosen  a  fellow  in  1165.  So  imeat^was  hisniind 
in  oae  of  bn:ioTe8tigation8,  that  we  are  told|,  the  colour  of 
his  .faair^  whicH  was  nkturaldy  blade,  became  ctuinged  in 
different.pairts  of  his  bead  into  spots  of  perfect  white.  In 
1769  he  pabUehed  his  valuable  ^^  Treatise  on  Reyerstonary 
Payments/'  wbicb  contained^  among  vl  varidty  of  olbet 
matters^  tbesolation  of  many  quest'ioas  in  the  doctrine  of 
annuities  ;.  schemes  for  establishing  societies  for  the  benefit 
6f  i|ige  and. widows! on  jost  principles;  ahd  am  exposure  of 
the  inadequacy  of  the  societies  of  this 'kind -which  Were 
caotinoaUy  .forining  in  Loiidon  and  otbep  pans  of  the  kitig* 
dom. ,  Altogether  this  was  perhaps  his  most  usefdl  perform* 
ance.  About  the  end  of  1769^,  the  univepsity  of  Glasgow^ 
conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  doctor  of'  divinity^  i  without 
any: solicitation  or  knowledge  on  his  own  part,  >but,  as  his 
biogcaph^  candidly  acknowledges,  in  consequence  of  th^ 
appJicatioa  of  some  erf  bis  clerical  friends  inf  London,  who 
paid  the  usual  fees,  and  left.him  to  suppo^*tha(t  the  honour 
was  entirely  gratuitous*  ' 

This  work  was  followed  in  1772  by  his  ^^  Appeal  to  the 
public  on  the  National  Debt,^^  the  principal  object  of  ^ 
wbicb  was  to  restore  the  sinking  fund  which  had  been  ex- 
tinguished in  1733:;  and  although  the  proposition  then  met 
with  much  opposition^  una  have  lived  to  see  it  adopted-by 
parliament,  and  become  one  of  the  chief  bulwarks^  of  our 
pabliq  credit..  We  have  also  lived  to  see  thst^the  vieiy  be 
took  of  public  affairs,^  and  his  dread  of  a  lessened  popular 
tion,:  which  he  represented  in  the  mos£  gloomy  colours^ 
were  not  founded  on  facts^rnor<haTe  bee^  confirmed  by  ex* 
perlehce.  The  ^^mov opinions, >  with  others  of  a  more  ge- 
neral kind,  led'  bias  td  oppdse  the  measures  which  ended 
io  a  war  with  Ameirica.  ^  Ivk  1775  he  published  <^  CM>sefva<^ 
tioixs 'oti  dvil  Libortyiand  thc^  Justice  and  Policy  of  the 
War  .with 'America,^*  wbieb^  was  followed,  in  the  same  spi^ 
idt^  in  1777,  byanotber  pamphlet  entitled  <<  Observations 
osi  the  Nature  of  Civil  Government."  The  principles  of 
botbtheke  works  encountered' a- variety  of  opinions,  being 
both  extvavagantly  praised  and  censored  :  by  some  esteemed 
widiout  faolt;- while  by  others;  they  ar&  deemed  vitsionary  > 
diimerical,  mischievous  io  their  theory,  and  tendif\g 

'278  PRICE 

in  their  effect  to  the  unhingiDg  of  all  governmeht  Thai 
their  influence  was  very  great,  cannot  be  denied ;  but  that 
their  author  was  firmly  persuaded  of  their  usefulness,  seeing 
to  be  generally  believed  by  those  who  have  had  the  best 
opportunities  of  knowing  his  sentiments.  For  writing  this 
last  pamphlet,  he  bad  the  honour  to  receive  the  thanks  of 
the  Court  of  common-rcouncil  the  14th  of  March,  1776,  a^ 
having  laid  down  those  principles  upon  which  alone  the  su«- 
preme  legislative  authority  of  Great  Britain  over  her  Colo- 
nies could  be  justly  or  beneficially  maintained;  and ^ for 
holding  forth  those  public  objects  without  which  it  must  be 
to'tally  indifferent  to  the  kingdom  who  were  in  or  who  were 
out  of  power.  At  the  same  time  he  also  received  a  gold 
box  of  the  value  of  fifty  pounds. 

With  these  two  pamphlets  he  had  determined  to  take  no 
further  part  in  the  political  contentions  of  that  period  ;  but, 
bis  biographer  observes,  he  certainly  mistook  the  disposi* 
tion  of  his  own  mind.  Whenever  therefore  government 
appointed  a  fast,  he  considered  it  more  as  a  political  than 
.  a  religious  ordinance,  and  always  took  an  opportunity 
on  that  day,  to  deliver  his  sentiments  on  the  conduct  of 
the  war,  and  on  the  evil  consequences  which  were  likely  to 
result  from  it.  This  insured  him  at  least  one  overflowing 
congregation  in  the  year,  for  curiosity  brought  foes  as  well 
as  friends  to  hear  him  on  such  occasions.  But  of  all  those 
discourses,  he  only  published  two  which  he  delivered  on 
the  fast  days  in  1779  and  1781.  So  many  exertions  in  be-? 
half  of  America  procured  him  an  invitation  from  the  con- 
gress to  ^^  come  and  reside  among  a  people  who  knew  how^ 
to  appreciate  his  talents,'^  but  this  he  thought  proper  to 
decline.  In  1779  he  published  an  ^*  Essay  on  the  popula- 
^ion  of  England,'*  which,  being  founded  on  incorrect  in- 
formation, was  in  proportion  incorrect  in  its  conclusions. 

But  finances  and  politics  were  not  the  only  subjects 
which  at  this  period  engaged  Dr.  Price's  time  and  atten- 
tion. In  consequence  of '  Dr.  Priestley's  disquisitions  on 
matter  and  spirit,  which  had  been  just  published,  he  was 
led  to  make  some  observations  on  those  parts  which  did 
not  accord  with  his  own  sentiments.  This  produced  an 
amicable  correspondence  between  them,  published  under 
the  title  of  "  A  free  discussion  of  the  Doctrines  of  Mate- 
rialism and  Philosophical  Necessity."  About  the  same 
4  time  he  addressed  some  important  observations  to  the 
<'  Society  for  Equitable  Assurances/'  in  an  introduction:  to 

PRICE.  97» 

«^  his  nephew,  Mr.  Morgan,  on  '^Tbe  Doctrine  of 
Aaoodties."    The  value  of  his  and  his  nephew's  services  to 
that.society  is  universally  acknowledged. 
.   WbeQ,  after  the  war  ended,  lord  Shelburne  came  into 
admioistaration,  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  the  marquis^ 
of  Rockioghain,  his  lordship  very,  gravely  offered  Dr.  Price 
the  place  of  private  secretary;  but,  his  biographer  adds,. 
<^  his  lordship  surely  could  not  be  in  earnest  in  making 
8,uch  an  offer.     It  was  no  doubt  meant  as  a  compliment^, 
and  the  simplicity  of  Dr.  Price  considered  it  in  that  light| 
though,  as  a  friend  observed,  the  minister  might,  a^  well 
have  proposed  to  make  him  master  of  the  horse.'*  ,  During 
the  time,  however,  that  lord  Shelburne  was  in  office,  he 
sought  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Price  in  forming  a  scheme  for 
paying  off  the  national  debt,  and  moved  an  introductory 
resolution  on  that  subject  in  the  House  of  Lords ;  but,  upoa 
his  leaving  administration,  the  scheme  was  abandoned.    It 
was,  however,  communicated  to  the  public  by  Dr  Price  in 
a  treatise,  entitled  <*  The  State  of  the  public  Debts  and 
Finances,  at  signing  the  preliminary  Articles  of  Peace  in 
January  1783  ;  with  a  plan  for  raising  Money  by  public 
Loans,  and  for  redeeming  the  public  Debts.''     After  tbis^ 
when  Mr.  Pitt  determined  to  introduce  a  bill  into  parlia- 
ment for  liquidating  the  national  debt,  he  applied  to  Dr. 
Price  for  his  advice  on  the  subject,  and  received  from  him 
three  separate  plans ;  one  of  which  now  forms  the  founda- 
tion of  that  act  for  reducing  the  public  debt,  which  was 
established  in  1786,  and  has  contributed,  more  than  any 
other,  or  all  other  measures,  to  raise  the  credit  of  his  ad- 
ministration.   The  friends  of  Dr.  Price,   however,  offer 
two  objections  on  this  subject ;  the  one  that  the  plan  Mr. 
Pitt  adopted  was  the  least  efficient  of  the  three ;  the  other, 
that  he  did  not  publicly  acknowledge  his  obligations  to  Dr. 

In  1784  Dr,  Price  published  ^^Observations  on  the  Im- 
portance of  the  American  Resolution,  and  the  Means  of 
inaking  it  useful  to  the  World;"  to  which  are  added  a 
letter  from  M.  Turgot,  and  the  last  will  of  M.  Fortune 
!Ricard,  which  exhibits  an  amusing,  and  rather  humorous 
application  of  Dr.  Price's  account  of  tbje  powers  of  com- 
pound interest,  and  the  uses  to  which  it  may  be  applied 
for  the  benefit  of  mankind.  In  1786  he  published  a  vo- 
lume of  sermons,  partly  on  practical,  and  partly  on  doc- 
^inal  subjects :  iu  the  latter  he  states,  and  defends  with 

280  P  R  I  e.E/ 

aiMmation  and  eeStl,  the  Arian  bypokberisy  to  wKick^  li# 
biaiself  ivas  attach^d^  against  Tiinttanans'OQtbef'oiie  faodd^ 
and  modern  Unitarians  on  the  other.  He  always  £elt  falirty 
we  are  told,  at  the  conduct  of  Dr.  Priestley  and  Mr..  Liad- 
•ay^  in  assuming  to  themselves  and  their  sect  exciustrelyy 
the  appellatidn  of.  UnitarumSj  which  •  belongs  equally  to 
J^ws  and  Mabomietansy  and  in  treating  with  so 'much  con-« 
tlimely  the  opinions  of  those  who  differed  from  them.  As 
to  'ttie  practical  sermons  in  this  volume,  they  wei«  T&ty 
generally  approved.  The  subjects  are,  die  security  and  bap* 
pines^  of  a  virtuous  coarse,  the  goodness  of  Gody  and  the 
Resurrection  of  Lazarus. 

'  The  other  publications  of  Dr.  Prioe^  which  chiefly  at^ 
tiracted  notice^  were,  a  Sermon  on  ^'  The  Evidence  of  a 
future  period  of  Improvement  in  the  State  of  Mankind^ 
#itb  the  means  and  duty  of  prompting  it,  delivered  to  thd 
supporters  of  the  new  Academical  Institution  among  Protes-* 
tant  Dissenters,^'  in  1787 ;  and'  his  /<<  Dfsoburse  on  the 
Love  of  our  Country,''  preached  the'  4tb  of  Novenfbery 
1789,  before  the  society  for  commemorating  the  revolution 
6f  1688  in  Great  Britain.  In  this  last  discourse  Dr.  Price 
displayed  his  accustomed  zeal  for  the  great  prificiples  of 
civil  and  religious  liberty }  and  towards  the  concludon  of  it^ 
be  adverted  with  triumph  to  the  revolution  in  France^ 
which  be  thought  the4)eginning  of  a  new  s&ra  of  happiness 
to  the  world.  How  much  he  was  deceived  in  this,  need 
not  be  told  ;  nor  the  consequence  of  bis  sermon,  in  pro^^ 
ducing  the  memorable  controversy  in  which"  M¥.  Burke  took 
the  lead  *.  - 

Dr.  Price  was  now  drawing  haHtity  to  bis  end.  He  had  in 
17{)6  lost  bis  lady,  and  in  February  1791  be  Was  seiaed 
with  a  fevier,  the  effects  of  a  severe'  cold,  caught  white 
attending  the  funeral  of  a  friend;  from  tlie^effecti^  of  idiis 
be  was  gradually  recovering,  whei^  be  was  attacked  with  a 

*  To  read   any  of  the  iDvectiyet  presses  himself  io  terns  of  oontempt 

against  Mr.  ^urke,  one  woidd  suppose  in  regard  to  the  French  revolution  j 

he  was  the  only  human  behif  who '  and  after  a!^iilg  rather  too  severely 

look^  witli  an  evil  eye  on  the  f  revcli  wbat  good  vjis  to  be.  eapeeM  from  a 

Kevolution.    But  Dr.  Price's  biogra-  nation  of  atheists,  be  -conclude  with 

pber  has  fonnd  aooCher  amdng  Br.  foretelling  the  destroetion  of 'a  million 

Price's  intimate  correspondents,    and  of  human  beings  as  a  probable  oon^ 

no  less  a  personage  ttian  John  Ac^ms,  sequence  of  it.    Such  a  letter,  in  out 

the.  late  Amcfictfn  apbaisador.     In  opinion,  oatweighs'an  hundred  of  those 

a  long  letter  Mift^fa  he  witote  to  Dr.  which  Dr.  Price'  received  'at  'this  time 

Price  at  fhi&tins^  a»  Ut  from  congra-  from  his  «i/tg4iA«i^  friends'  io  Ftnooe* 
tulatinghioi'dttktiie  occasion,  he  ex- 

.    I 


P  R  I  C  E.  .t«l 

9e9er^  ^vA  yety  pwifiil  disorder, .  by  wbi&h;  he'  bad  been 
]D«Qy  y«a»  tbr^f^le^ed.    Ifbis  be  .bore  with  f<)rtitud<f  md 
r«jBijgn|ttiioi|/  ibouigh  .QCcasiooaUy  Ms  .apirits  and  stiehgth 
w^re  .entirely- ejLhainpted  by  tb^  ngoqiea  wbtah  be  endured. 
He  died  oq  the  aineteeDtb  of  Marcb^  17 9 1;  ia  the  l^i^ty** 
eighth  y$i^  of  bUk%set  and  wa^  interred  im .  B^llhiU^ fields 
burying^groundy  the  fuoetal  being  ftiU^wed  by  a^  great 
pp^cpurise  i^  hto.  fciendd  and  adOGtirers,  to  whoim/  he  bad 
Img  been  endeared  by. /hi$  priva^ie  as  well  as  public:  c^arac^ 
ter.  •  Jfi^  Qkai¥>ersi  wersei  pilQidiarly  amiable,  and  whoever 
was  M«aittedtOthis{$4Hiv^9alionj  or  even  peiHiaed.  his  work9| 
fM>uld  not  avoid  hQirtg:.9tr.iiu;k'  by  contrasting,  hie  mitd  and 
placid,  teoqper  wiitb:thati  of  iuhmo  of  khe  cootrovefsi^  wi^iters 
iritb'Wbom  he.  gjen^r^ily  corop^rated.  .  He  waa  for  manjr 
years  one  of  the  ti^u^teea  v»  the  es4;ates  of  the*  l^e  Or. 
Daniel  WilUaoBA^r  whach'  is  the  ralost  important  concern  be- 
longing; to  the  Xondoja  Dissenters^    During  the  applida<* 
^OBs  <>f  the  dis^entiag.nuuistier^  to  parliament,  from  1773 
to  1779,  for  relief  from  subscription  to  the  articles  of;the 
«h)icch  9^  England,  required  by. the  act  of  Toleration,  he 
WM  cboseo  one  of  tb^  conupittee  appoint^  to  concert  and 
pursue. the  necessary  ( measures  for  obtaining  that  object^ 
but  wkiep  he  fonnd  tb^M  could  not  be  obtained  withouLa 
decoration,  of  faith. in.  th^  Holy  3criptqres,  wbich  he  con<4 
tended. the.  Qivi)  raa^tratje  had  no  right. to  demand,  he 
divide  with  a  small  Qiinority  of  .bis.  brethren  against  the 
rest  pf/tb^  fx^inniittee,  i^i^ng  an  enlargement  of  religious 
liberty  on.  terms  whi^by  ^cording  to  their  views  of  things^ 
and  according,  to  tb0  trut^^prinpiples.  of  di^ent,  implied 
•nhmiesieatotithe  anth<Nrity  of  the  civil  magistrate  in  mat*, 
tersf of  iotiscienoe,  to  wbpm^  in  n^jatters  of  this  kind,  they 
^^ed  1^  obedienQe  whatetver.    In  1783  the  degree  of  LL.  IX 
m0M  oOnferred  upon  him  by  Yale  college,  in  Connecttcvt^ 
Md  he  waa  afterwards  eleoted  a  fellow,  of  tbe  American 
Philoaopfaical  SoQieties  .a)t  Philadelphia  aohl  Boston*    la 
17869  new  academical  institution  among  the  disf 
jsentecs  wa9  established  at  Hackney,  Dr.  Price  was  apv 
pointed  tutor  in  the  higher  branches. of  the  m^heniatics  ; 
but  soon  foundhiikiself  incapable  of  attending  to  the  dntiet 
of  ilbi9  office,  and  therefore  resigned  it  the  second  year. 
He  approved  the  pian,  however^  and^  says  bis  biographer, 
^^  from  tbe  circumstance  of  bb  having  bequeathed  a  small 
legacy  towards  its  scipport,  died  inconscious  of  tbe  igno^ 
ranee  and  folly  which  were  accelerating  its  destruction,"^^* 

2B%  PRICE. 

Among  Dr.  Price's  numerous  correspondents  were,  the 
marquis  of  Lansdowne,  the  earls  Chatham  and  Stanhope  ; 
the  bishops  of  Carlisle,  St.  Asaph,  and  LlandafF;  Mr.  Harris, 
the  author  of  Philosophical  Arrangements,  &c. ;  Mr.  How* 
ard,  Dr.  Franklin,  the  duke  de  Koehefoucault,  the  ceie«> 
brated  Turgot,  and  several  of  the  most  distinguished  mem- 
bers of  the  first  national  assembly* 

The  value  of  the  political  and  religious  works  of  Dr* 
Price,  says  our  predecessor  in  this  work,  men  will  estimate 
differently,  as  they  happen  to  be  infected  or  not  by  thtfM 
principles,  which,  by  exaggerating  the  true  and  excellent 
doctrines  of  liberty,  have  proved^  in  the  present  age,  ther 
bane  of  Christianity,  and  the  scourge  of  human  nature.  Thai 
he  was  sincere  and  well-intentioned  in  bis  adoption  and 
recommendation  of  them,  there  is  not  any  reason  to  doubt; 
As  a  calculator  on  political  questions,  when  he  did  not 
take  up  his  data  from  partial  documents,  which  flattered 
his  preconceived  opinions,  he  was  acute,  jMrolbund,  an4 

PRICE  (Robert),  an  eminent  lawyer  and  judge,- was  the 
fton  of  Thomas  Price,  esq.  of  Geeler  in  Denbighshire,  and 
born  in  the  parish  of  Kerigy  Dniidion,  Jan.  14,  1653.  After 
an  education  at  the  grammar-school  of  Wrexham,  he  was 
admitted  of  St.  John^s  college,  Cambridge ;  but,  as  usual 
with  gentlemen  destined  for  his  profession,  left  the  uni-^ 
versity  without  taking  a  degree,  and  entered  himself  a 
student  of  Lincoln's  Inn  about  1673.  In  1677  be  made 
what  was  called  the  grand  tour,  in  company  with  the  earl 
of  Lexington,  and  lady  and  sir  John  Meers.  When  at 
Florence,  we  are  told  that  he  was  apprehended,  and  some 
law-books  taken  from  him;  and  his  copy  of  Coke  upon 
Littleton''  being  supposed,  by  some  ignorant  officer,  to  be 
an  English  heretical  Bible,  Mr.  Price  was  carried  before 
the  pope ;  where  he  not  only  satisfied  his  holiness  as  to  this 
work,  but  made  him  a  present  of  it,  and  the  pope  ordered 
it  to  be  deposited  in  the  Vatican  library.  In  1679  he  re- 
turned, and  married  a  lady  of  fortune ;  from  whom,  after 
some  years'  cohabitation,  he  found  it  necessary  to  be  se* 
parated,  on  account  of  the  violence  of  her  temper.  In 
1682  he  was  chosen  member  of  parliament  for  Weobly  in 
Herefordshire,  and  gave  his  vote  against  the  bill  of  exdu- 

1  Principally  from  "MemMrs  of  bi«  Life^»   by  Waiiam  Morgan,  F.R.S 
1815,  8vo. 

PRICE.  383 

Bion.  The  same  year  he  was  made  attoniey-general  for 
South  Wa1^»  elected  an  alderman  for  the  city  of.  Here- 
ford)  and  the  year  following  was  chosen  recorder  of  Rad- 
jaor.  His  high  reputation  for  knowledge  and  integrity 
procured  him  the  <^ffice  of  steward  to  the  queen  dowager 
(relict  of  Charles. II.)  in  1684;  he  was  also  chosen  towo« 
clerk  of  the  city  of  Gloucester;  and,  in  1686,  king^s 
counsel  at  Ludlow.  Being  supposed  to  have  a  leaning 
towards  the  exiled  family,  he  was,  after  the  revolution,^ 
removed  from,  the  offices  of  attorney*general  for  South 
Wales  and  town*clerk  of  Gloucester.  In  resentment  for 
this  affront,  as  his  biographer  insinuates,  or  from  a  more 
patriotic  motive,  he  opposed  king  William's  grant  of  certain 
lands  in  Wales  to  his  favourite,  earl  of  Portland,  and  made 
^  memorable  speech  on  .this  occasion  in  the  House  of  Com-^ 
mons ;  the  consequence '  of  wbidh  was,  that  the  grant  was 

(Although  it  might  have  been  expected  that  king  WiU 
Ham  would  have,  in  his  turn,  resented  this  conduct  o£ 
Mr.  Price,  yet  he  appears  not  only  to  have  acquiesced  in 
the  decision  of  parliament,  but  knowing  Mr.  Priced  abi.-' 
lities  as  a  lawyer,  made  him,  in  1700,  a  judge  of  Breck- 
nock circuit  After  sitting  in  parliament  for  Weobly  from 
1682  to  1702,  he  resigned  his  seat  in  favour  of  his  son 
Thomas,  and  was  made  seijeant-at-law,  and  one  of ^  the 
barons  of  the  excbequef.  In  this  character  he  distinguished 
hinoself  in  the  memorable  case  of  the  Coventry  election,  in 
1706,  defending  the  conduct  of  the  magistrates  who  had 
called  in  the  aid  of  the  military,  not  to  influence  the  elec- 
tion, but  to  suppress  a  riot  whinhi  tended  to  destroy  its 
freedom.  In  1710,  as  his  fortune  wsi^  considerably  in- 
creased by  his  preferment,  he  built  an  alms-house  at 
the  place  of  ixis  birth  for  six  poor  people,  and  amply  en- 
dowed it. 

.  On  the  accession  of  George  I.  in  1714^,  the  baron  wa^ 
continued  in  his  office,  although  not  employed  in  the  judi- 
cial proceedings  against  the  rebels  in  1716.  On  the  me* 
morable  quarril  between  the  king  and. the  prince  of  Wales 
(aflterwards  George  II.)  which  led  to  a  question  respecting 
tlie  care  and  education  of  the  prince's.children,  Mr.  baron 
Price  and  Mr.  justice  Eyre  had  the  courage  to  maintain  s^n 
opinion  contrary  tathat  of  the  king.  As  he  advanced  in  life, 
he  procured  an  exchange  of  his  seat  on  the  Exchequer 
bench  for  one  in  the  Common  Pleas,  the  duties  of  which, 


be  was  told,-  would  be  easier.  This-  was  effected  in  17136 ; 
but  the  <  consequences  were  t&e  reverse  of  wbat  he  ex- 
pected ;  for  ills  reputation  bron^t  s6  oia-ny  suitors  intp'  cfae 
Cominon  Pleas,  that  be  had  inore  business  than  ever,  lie 
continued, .  however,  to .  perform  his  duties  with  unremit-f 
ting  assiduity,  and  with  gcdEU;  rfeput^ion^  until  his  death, 
at  Kensington,  Jan.  2,  17^*2,  in:  the  7^ih.  year  of  bis- age; 
His  remains  were  interred  ^' Weobly  cborbb^  in  Heteford-* 
shire.  He  bore  iJ)e reputation  of  a  neiah  of  veiy  coiisider^^ 
able  abilities,  and  inflexibleio^grity ;  ^andy  as  af)peara  by 
the  few  circumstances  we  have  related,  Was 'Certainly  v^oiail 
of  independetit.spirit  and  coumge.^  .     ,       ,. 

FRIDEAUX  (Humphr'ey)^   a  learned  ,£nglisli'  dirinei 
was  born  ^at  Padstow,  in  Cornwall^  May's,  1^4dV    He  was 
the  son  of  Edmund  Prideaux,  esq.  of  an  ancient;  and  bow 
Boa^able  family  in  ;that  ooutity^  and  w^  eqcmlly  wellde^ 
scended  by  his  mother,  the  daughter  of  John  Moyloy  esq; 
of  Bake,  in  Cornwali     Afkear  some  etoinentary'  education 
at  Liskard^  and  'Bodmin,  'he  was  placed  ^nder  Dr^  Busby, 
at  Westminster-school,  and  in  1648  admillted  a  siudebt  of 
Christ  Cburch,  Oxford,  by  dean  Fell.     Hie  attainments 
bere  must  have  distinguished  biih:  v^vy  early?  for.  wefind 
that  in  1672^  when  be  took  bis  bachelor^  degree^ -Dr.  Veil 
employed  him  to  add  some  notes:  to  an  editicinV  of  wFldrus, 
tben  printing  at  the  university  press :  aad.'soon.  after,  be 
was-  requested  to  be  the  editor  -of  Mal^ela,  a  Greek  histo- 
riany  from  a  M  S.  in  ^  ^be  Bodleian-  library 4  but  halving  re- 
presented this  as  a.:work.  not  wortfi' the  printing,  b^ng 
fabulous  and  triiSing,' the  desigii.<waa  laid  aside^  until  Dr. 
Hody,  who  was  of  a  difllrent  Opinion^  undertook  th4  task. 
Mr.  Prkleaux^   about  die  same  time,,  was^  edbployed'in 
giving  a-hbtdryof  the  ArQ:ndeUan  marbles,  wttb  a  com-^ 
xnent)^  f^bichwas  published  in  May  1676,  under -the  ^itle 
**  Marmora  Oxoniensia,'*  folio.    Such  a  work  was  Well  eal«» 
eulated  to  advance  his:  repmation  abnoad^  as 'well  asat 
bom€t;  and  there  was  such  a  demaod  for  it,  tbut  within  a' 
fewyeai^  it  ^ould  not  be  procured  but  atia  very  btgb  price; 
It  suffered,  however,  very  much  fieom  ^tbe  •  carelessness'  and 
neglect  of  a  Mr.  Bennet,  then  corrector. to  'the'UMverBity: 
press,  and -contained  BO  m^ny  typograiphidal  •  errors,  tfaM 
Mr.  Prideaux  never  could  speak  of  it  ^di  ecHaiplaceney; 
A  more  correct  edition  was  published  by  Maitliaire^  in 
1732.     In  1675  Mr.  Prideaux  took  bis  degree  of  M.A.:     ^^ 

*  Life,  London,  1734,  8fo»—Whwton*s  Memoirs, 



Havlii^^  by  ofAhr,  ^ew&attd  one  of  the-  copies  of  die 
*:^  Marmora^'  to  thd  lord  chaDCcltor  Finch,  tbia  introdoGecl 
bim  to  his  lordflbip^s  patronage^  %wbo  soon  after  placed  one- 
of  hissons:upder  himy  asr.tiator  at  Cbrist  Church;  and- in 
1679  presentedhim  to  the  rbotery  of  St.  Clement's,  ia  thja^ 
suburb  of  Oxfoi-d^. where  be.officiaited  for  several  years. 
The  same  yeat  he  poblished  two  tracts  om  of  Maimonides 
in  Hebre%.  with  a  Latin  traosladon  and. notes,  ,noder  the 
title  ^^'I|t  Jure  pauperis  et  peregrini  apod  Judeos."  This 
be  did  in  consequenee  of  having  been  appointed  Dr.  Busby's 
Hebrew  lecturer  ia  Christ  Church,  and  with  a  view  to^teach 
students  the  rabbinical  dialect,  and  to  read  it  without  points. 
In  1681,'  the  lord  .chancellor  Finch,  then  earl  of  Notting^ 
barti^  presented  bim  to  a  prebend  in  the  cathedral  of  Nor« 
wich.  Id  Nov:  1682,  he  was  admitted  to  the.  degree  of 
bachelor  in  divinity^  and  on  the  death  of  Lord  Nottinghanii 
found  another  patron  in  bis 'luccessor  sir  Francis  North; 
who^  in  ^ebruaryof  the  fodlo wing  year,  g^ve  hira  the  rec^ 
tory  of  Bladeii,  with  Woodstock  cbupelry,  in  Oxfordshire ; 
and  as  Mr.  Prideaux  had  been  dppoanted  librarian  to  Cbnbt 
Church,  to  whidh  ho  salary  belongs,  he  was  allowed  to  hold 
this  living  with  his  student's  place. 

He  now  devoted  himself  .entirely  to  his  studies  and  the 
duties  of  his  function,  going  constantly,  to  Bladen  and 
Woodstock  every  Si^nday ;  and  he  kept  a  resident  curate 
at  Woodstock,  for  the  discharge  of  all  parochial  duties  i 
for  wtose  convenience,  as  well  as  that  of  fats  soccessors^ 
Dr.  Fell,  now  bishop  of  Oxford,,  built,  athis  own  exf>ence^ 
a  bouse.  The  terms  of  the  purchase  and.  building  be  left 
to  Mr. . Prideaux,  who  completed  it  in  1^685.  In  college 
he  exerted  himself  in  reforming  many  abuses,  and  restoriog 
^scipline,  which  was  not  very  acceptable  to  many  of  xhe 
studiehts,  but.  procured  bim  the  friendship  and  esteem  ^of 
•his  learned  contemporaries  at  the  ^  university,  particularly 
bishop  Fell  and  Df^s.  Pocock,  Marshall,  Bernard,  MilLs^ 
.Godolphin,  &c.  On  the  death  of  bishop  Fell^  when  king 
James^  imposed  a  popish  dean  on  Christ  Church,  Mr.  Prideaui: 
determined  to  quit  Oxford^  and  settle  on  his  €mres;'and 
accordingly,  having,*  in  1686,  proceeded  doctor  in  divinity^ 
be  exchanged  his  living  of  Bladen  for- the. rectory  of  Saham 
/in  Norfolk,  and  then  left  Oxford,  to  which  he  never  re- 
turned. A  few  days  before  this  he  attended  the  funeral  of 
his  revered  friend,  Dr.  Fell. 

Wh^n  he  came  to  settle  at   Norwich,    such  was  bis 

tSe  P  R  I  D  E  A  U  X. 

repuUtion  for  judgment  and  integrity,  that  tfae  whole  ma- 
nagement of  the  affairs  of  the  cathedral  was  Committed  to 
him,  and  throughout  life  he  was  concerned  in  placing  them 
in  a  much  better  situation  than  he  found  them,  great  irre- 
gularities having  prevailed  in  the  keeping  of  the  accounts, 
and  the  registers  and  other  documents  belonging  to  the 
church  being  much  neglected.  All  these  he  sought  out, 
examined,  and  arranged  in  a  proper  manner;  and  ordered, 
from  time,  to  time,  some  very  necessary  repaiw  in  the 
church.  He  was  also,  soon  after  his  arrival  here,  engaged 
in  a  controversy  with  the  popish  party,  whose  emissaries, 
taking  encouragement  from  the  conduct  of  king  James  II. 
were  now  more  than  usually  industrious.  Those  who  bad 
vicrited  Norfolk,  particularly,  insisted  on  the  invalidity 
of  the  orders  of  the  church  of  England ;  <<  for,  having  no 
priesthood,  we  could  have  no  sacraments,  and  consequently, 
could  be  no  church ;  nor  could  salvation  be  had  among  us. -' 
In  reply  to  this.  Dr.  Prideaux  published  a  vi^ork  entitled 
<'  The  Validity  of  the  Orders  of  the  Church  of  England 
made  out  against  the  objections  of  the  papists :  in  several 
letters  to  a  gentleman  of  Norwich,  &c/'r  1688,  8vo;  re- 
printed in  1715.  He  also  preached  in  the  cathedral  against 
several  of  the  tenets  of  popery,  at  a  time  when  many  of  his 
brethren  were  intimidated  by  the  determination  of  the  king 
to  establish  that  religion.  One  good  effect  df  this  was, 
that  his  brethren  caught  a  portion  of  his  spirit,  and  handled 
the  same  subjects  in  their  respective  churches;  and,  by 
other  seasonable  measures,  the  mischief  was  delayed  untU 
the  abdication  of  the  king ;  and  the  consequent  proceedings 
upon  that  important  event  dispelled  the  fears  of  the  ftienda 
of  the  protestant  religion. 

In  December  of  this  year  ( 1 688)Dr.  Prideaux  was  collated 
to  the  archdeaconry  of  Suffolk  by  Dr.  William  Lloyd^ 
i>ishop  of  Norwich.  In  May  1689  he  made  his  first  visita- 
Mon  of  his  archdeaconry ;  and  the  new  oaths  to  government 
being  then  the  general  subject  of  debate  among  the  clergy, 
his  chief  business  was  to  give  the  best  satisfactiou  he  could 
to  those  who  had  any  doubts  about  them ;  which  he  per- 
formed with  such  jBuccess,  that  out  of  three  hundred  pa- 
rishes, there  were  only  three  clergymen  in  all  that  juris-^ 
diction  who  refused  to  take  them.  In  the  winter  following 
lie  attended  the  convocation,  which  was  called  to  consider 
of  alterations  and  amendments  of  the  liturgy,  the  canons^ 
ordinances,  and  constitutions,  the  reformation  of  the  eccle- 


siastical  courts,  &c.  8lc«;  but,  after  sitting  ten  days,  no 
progress  was  made  in  any  of  these  measures,  and  the  convo*' 
cation  was  adjourned.  Dr.  Prideaux,  who  was  of  opinion 
that  many  alterations  in  the  liturgy  were  necessary,  wrote 
ja  pamphlet  on  the  subject,  entitled  **  A  Letter  to  a 
Friend,  relating  to  the  present  Convocation  at  Westmin<» 
ster,"  of  which  several  thousands  were  sold  within  a 

After  this  be  quitted  Norwich,  and  resided  at  his  par- 
sonage at  Saham,  in  which  church  he  officiated  every 
morning  and  afternoon  throughout  the  four  years  that  he 
Jived  there,  unless  when  keeping  his  two  months'  residence 
iat  Norwich,  or  visiting  bis  archdeaconry,  which  he  did 
constantly  twice  a  year,  until  unable  to  bear  the  journey 
in  consequence  of  the  stone,  a  disorder  he^  had  already 
contracted,  and  which  at  last  proved  fatal  to  him.  A  fa- 
vourite topic  in  his  visitations  was  the  duty  of  private  prayet 
in  the  families  of  the  clergy,  which  he  urged  by  every 
argument ;  and  told  them,  that  when  visiting,  if  there  was 
any  house  where  the  dwellers  refused  to  hearthem  per- 
form family- worship,  that  was  no  house  for  a  clergyman  to 
make  his  abode  iti.  * 

In  the  fijrst  session  of  parliament  after  the  new  bishops 
(appointed  in  the  room  of  those  who  refused  to  take  the 
oaths  to  government)  made  their  appearance,  two  bills  were 
brought  into  the  House  of  Lords,  relattj^g  to  the  church, 
in.  both  of  which  Dr.  Prideaux  was  concerned:  the  first 
was  to  take  away  pluralities  of  benefices,  the  ..other  to  pre- 
vent clandestine  marriages.  Bishop  Ekirnet  intended  to 
introduce  the  first,  but  submitted  it  previously  to  Dr. 
Prideaux,  who  drew  up  a  bill,  which  all  the  prelates  friendly 
to  the  measures  thought  would  be  less  liable  to  objection^ 
and  therefore  it  was  brought  into  the  House,  but  rejected ; 
the. other,  to  prevent  clandestine  marriages,  was  introduced 
by  one  of  the  peers ;  and  its  object  was,  to  make  it  felony 
in  .the  minister  who  should  solemnize  or  officiate  at  such 
oiarriage.  This  matter  being  warmly  debated,  Dr.  Kidder, 
then  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  wrote  to  Dr.  Prideaux, 
desiring  his  opinion  on  it.  The  doctor,  in  a  very  long  let- 
ter, proved  that  the  ecclesiastical  laws  were  already  suffi- 
cient to  prevent  clandestine  marriages,  if  only  carried  into 
execution.;  and  stated,  by  what  means,  all  the  precautions 
provided  in  these  laws  had  been  evaded  by  the  avarice  of 
|haDceV1ors,  commissaries,  and  registrars.     He  added  that. 


P  H  I  BKIA  U  X. 

w  t}ie  bill  $tbod^  it  tsooldh^ve  no  other  effect  tkma'to'  mif»i 
ject  the  clergy  to  be  tried  for  their  liveg  every  msririflg^ 
they.solemnized^  '  Kidder,  who  had  made  use  of  this, 
paper  in  the  debate  which  ended  in  withdrawing  the  bill, 
immediately  sent  it  to  the  press ;  and  the  week  following^ 
to  Dr.  Prideaux's  grea;t  surprize,  Ue  recj^tvod  a  ^printed 
copy  of  it  from  the^  bishops  whohow^^vterhad-nol  put  bis 

name  to  it.  ^  . "         *     ' 

In  i691,  on  thedeath  of  Dr.  Pbcock^  bis  pfiofeisorship 
ipf  Hebrew)  was  offered  to  Dn  Prideaiux';  but  he  deeiined 
it,  says  his  biographer,  ^^  for  several  reasons,  vrhich  «t 
that  time  made  it  inconvenient  to  him  to  accept  it,  but 
afterwards  it  proved  much  to  his  detriment -that  he  did 
not."  As  after  the  slct  of  toleration,;many^  people  imaging 
themselves  at  liberty  either  to  go  to  church^  or  stay  «tt 
home,  as  theiy  thought  proper,  by  which  means  the  chnrohes 
were  much  deserted,  Dr.  Prideaux  drew  up  a  circular  let^ 
ter,  directed  to  the  ministers  of  his  archdeaconry,  whieiii 
was*  aftenvards  published,  in  1701,  at  the  end  of  his  ^^Di« 
rections  to  Churchwardens."  In  1^4,  finding  bis  health 
impaired  by  the  aguish  air  of  Saham^  he  determined  to 
return  again  with  his  family  to  Norwich ;  but,  instead  of 
putting  in  a  curate  at  Saham,  he  thought  it  his  duty  to 
give  up  both  benefice  and  ofBce,  which  he  accordiligly 
did,  into  the  hands  of  the  bishop  of  the  diocese,  and  in-* 
formed  the  warditp  and  fellows  of  New  college,  Oxfocd, 
the  patrons  of  the  living,  of  his  resignation.  On  hitf  re- 
tarn  to  Norwich,  the  care  of  the  cathedral  aflairit  ^igaitt 
devolved  upon  him,  in  the  absence  of  the  dean  (Dr«  Fair^ 
fax),  who  resided  mostly  in  London^.  In  1696,  the  deaa 
and  chapter  presented  him  to  the  vicarage  of  Trowse,  worth 
about  40/.  and  situated  a  mile  from-  Norwich.  H^re  be  offi- 
ciated with  the  same  assiduity  and  regularity  as  at  Saham,  and 
that  purely  for  the  love  of  duty ;  for,  in  addition  to  bis  Other 
preferments,  he  had  a  private  fortune,  which  rendefi^d 
this  last  vicarage  of  no  consequence  in  a  pecuniary  view. 
In  1697  he  published  his  <«  Life  6f  Mahomet t,'*  8vo,  of 

*  On  the  promotion  of  Dr.  Tepisoa 
to  the  see  of  Canterbury,'  our  author 
addressed  a  letter  to  his  grace,  con- 
taining <'  An  Account  of  the  Eoglish 
settlements  in  the  East  Indies,  together 
with  some  proposals  for  tbe  propaga- 
tion of  Christianity  in  thosep  arts  of  ihe 

f  The  facetious  Mr.  Creates  io» 
forms  us,  **  that  when  the  learned 
Humphry  Prideaux  (as  the  story  goes) 
offered  his  life  of  Mabomel  to  th« 
bookseller,  he  was  desired  to  leare^the 
copy  with  him  a  few  days,  for  his  pe- 
rusal. The  bookseller,  who  had  hot 
the  learniDg  or  taste  of  |i  siod«fj| 

p  R  IDE  A  u::^.  isy 

*!iicli  threie  editions  were  printed  the  first  year.  He  in--. 
tended  to  have  written  a  history  of  the  Saracen  empii*ei 
and  with  it  the  decay  and  fall  of  the  Christian  religion  ; 
but.  he  gave  ufp  this  design  for  reasons  statied  in  the  preface 
to  the  Life  of  Mahomet.  This  valuable  work  was  followed! 
By  nis  useful  lititle  treatise  called  ^^  Directions  to  Church- 
wardens,'* whose  negligence  he  had  very  nauch  experi- 
enced in  his  archdeaconry:  this  has  gone  through  manjr 
editions.  In  1702,  on  the  death  of  the  dean  of  Norwichjj 
Dr.  Henry  Fairfax,  Dr.  Prideaux  was  installed  as  his  sue-- 
cesser  on  June  8th  of  that  year,  and  a  more  proper  persoa 
could  not  be  found.  He  now  continued,  with  better  eifectji 
if  possibly  that  attention  to  reeularity  and  discipline  whicfai 
•  he  had  before  piaid ;  and  although  this  made  hina  ob- 
noxious' to  the  persons  whom  he  censured  or  dismissed^ 
the  benefit  to  tKe  general  body  wai  too  obvious  not  to  be 
approved.  In  December  l7oS,  on  a  public  thanksgfvingf- 
day  for  the  success  of  the  expedition  to  Vigo,  he  preached 
a  sermon  on  the  subject,  which  we  potice  as  the  only  one 
he  ever  printed ;  and,,  had  it  been  left  to  his  own  inclina- 
tton','  would  never  liave  been  thought  of  by  himself  for  that 
purpose.  *  In  1703  he  published  a  tract  in  vindication  of  the 
ecclesiastical  law,  which  gives  the  successor  in  any  eccle- 
stasticaV  benefice  ot  promotion,  all  the  profits^  fron^  the 
day  6f  the  avoidance.  This  was  occasioned  by  an  altera*- 
tioii  in  the  Isiw  which  bishop  Burnet  was  about  to  have 
introduced;  but  our  author's  arguments  carried,  sucH 
weight,  that'  the  design  wa^  given  up. 

On  the  translation  of  the  bishop  of  Npfwich  to  Ely,  Dr. 
t^rideaiix  was  advised  ^to  make  interest  for  the  bishopric ; 
but  being  now  sixty  years  of  age,  too  late  to  enter  on  a 
course' of  public  life  and  parliamentary  attendance,  and  for 
6ttier  reasons,  he  declined  interfering,  and  Dr.  Trimnell 
became  bishop,  whom  he  thought  every  way  deserving  of 
the  preferbfient.  In  the  nlean  time  Dr.  Prideaux  continued 
his  labours  for  the  general  interests  of  the  church,  and  in 


artisti  bayiniT  coasulted  with  his  ^earned  a  ^it^le  ipqre  Rumour  in  it." — Spiritual 

gatret^en,  who  were  higlity  pleased  Qt|iiiote;  Book  II.  chV  I. — Th'is  stoiy 

with  the  perfortDanoek  told  tlie  doctor,  is  more  briefly  told  i^  a  note  on  Swift'n 

at  ^  hi;  jefijirn,  **  Well,    Mr.  What's-  wo^rks,  where  the  book  is  said  to  haV^ 

yoiir^name/'  says  he,   f<  I  have  per-'  been    l^rideaux's  *f  Connection^;"    id 

ased  ycror 'mantiscripl;  I  don't  know  which,'  it  inustlble  confessed, -the  difll'^ 

what, to  say  to  it;  I  believa  I  shall  ,  ci^Itypf  introdttcin;  humour  is  mora 

▼entare  to  print  it :  the,  thing,  is  we]l  striking. 
•bough:  bttt^I  ootid  wish  th6^e#ere 

Vol.  XXV.  U 

S90  ?  R  I  D  E  A  U  X. 

1709,  published  his  tract  on  ''The  original  right  o^ 
Tythes."  In  this,  his  first  intention  was  to  give  the  Histoiy 
of  Appropriations ;  and  this  was  to  have  been  only  an  in- 
troduction ;  but  it  enlarging  under  his  hand,  he  resolved 
to  publish  it  by  itself  as  the  first  part  of  the  work..  He  had 
for  many  years  made  collections  of  the  common  law  and 
ecclesiastical  history  ;  but  wanted  much  information  which 
he  could  not  have  without  going  to  London,  and  consulting  ' 
the  public  records  there ;  and  he  was  about  this  time 
ifteized  with  the  calamitous  distemper  of  the  stone ;  so.  that 
he  was  forced  to  lay  aside  that  design.  Upon  this  last  ac- 
count also  he  resigned  the  vicarage  of  Trowse^  when  no 
longer. able  to  go  up  into  the  pulpit.  The  severity  oC 
his  disorder  now  suggested  the  operation  of  lithotomy,! 
which  was  successfully  performed  by  Mr.  Salter,  an  enii« 
nent  surgeon  of  London,  who  went  to  Norwich  for  the  pur- 
pose ;  but  the  subsequent  cure,  having  been  entrusted  to  a 
young  man  at  Norwich,  was  so  badly  treated,  that  the  pa- 
tient had  almost  lost  his  life,  and  was  indeed  ever  after  a. 
great  sufferer  by  this  misconduct. 

Being  enabled,  however,  to  return  to  his  studies,  after 
improving  a  new  editioh  of  his  *^  Directioos  to  Church 
Wardens,''  in  1712,  he  proceeded  with  that  greater  work,  oa 
which  his  reputation  with  posterity  principally  depends. 
It  was  entitled  "The  Connection  of  the  History  of  the  Old 
and  New  Testament;''  the  first  part  of  which  was  published 
in  1715,  the  second  in  1718,  fol.  Both  parts  were  received 
with  the  greatest  approbation,  and  went  through  eight 
editions  in  4  vols.  8vo,  at  London,  besides  two  or  three  at 
Dublin,  before  the  end  of  1720,  since  which  it  has  been 
often  reprinted,  and  is  indeed  accounted  a  standard  book 
in  every  theological  library.  This  history  takes  in  the 
affairs  of  Egypt;  Assyria,  and  all  the  other  eastern  nations, 
9s  well  as  the  Jews;  and  likewise  those  of  Greece  an4 
Rome,  as  far  as  was  necessary  to  give  a  distinct  view  of  the 
completion  of  the  prophecies  which  relate  to  the  times 
comprehended  in  the  history.  The  author  has  also  set  in 
the  clearest  light  some  passages  of  propbane  history,  which 
before  lay  dispersed  and  buried  in  confusion  :  and  there 
appears  throughout  the  whole  work  such  an  amiable  spi- 
rit of  sincerity  and  candour,  as  sujBSciently  atones  for 
the  few  mistakes  which  escaped  his  diligence.  Gordon^ 
the  author  of  "  Cato'is  Letters,"  had  certainly  no  prejudices 
^n  favour  of  Prideaux,  or  of  Iiis  work  ;  yet  be  ^*a^ 

J?  R  I  D  E  A  U  X.  891 

1»ody  of  ^  universal  history,  written  with  suph  capacity,  ac«- 
curacy,  industry,  and  honesty,  as  make  it  one4)f  the  best, 
books  that  ever  came  into  the  .world,  and  shew  him  to  be 
one  of  the  greatest  men  in  it  No  book  was  ever  more  uni- 
versally read  and  approved :  it  is,  indeed,  a  great  public 
service  done  to  mankind,  and  entitles  the  author  to  the 
highest  public  gratitude  and  honour.  But  though  I  never 
saw  any  great  work,  to  which  1  found  fewer  objections,  yet 
ats  a  memorable  proof  how  inseparably  mistakes  and  preju* 
dices  cleave  to  the  mind  of  man,  the  great  and  candid  Dr. 
Prideaux  is  not  without  them.  I  therefore  do  not  upbraid 
l^im  with  them,  but  rather  admire  him  for  having  so  few. 
There  are,  however,  some  of  his  theological  observations,, 
which  seem  to  me  not  only  ill-grounded,  but  to  have  a  ten- 
dency to  create  in  his  readers  wrong  notions  of  the  Deity, 
and  to  encourage  them  to  mistake  the  common  accidents 
of  life,  and  the  common  events  of  nature,  for  judgments ; 
and  to  apply  them  superstitiously  as  such."  There  are 
letters  between  the  deaa  and  his  cousin  Mr.  Moyle,  con- 
cerning some  passages  in  this  '^  Connection,"  &c.  printed, 
in  the  "  Miscellaneous  Works"  of  the  latter,  and  in  Dr. 
Prideaux's  life.  Noman^ould  be  more  willing  to  listea 
to  reasonable  objections,  or  to  correct  what  could  be  proved 
to  be  wrong.  Candour  was  the  distinguishing  feature  of 
Pean  Prideaux's  character.. 

In  the  interval  between  the  publication  of  the  first  and 
second  parts  of  his  **  Connection,"  lord  Townsend,  secre- 
tary of  state  to  George  I.  having  meditated  a  design  to  in- 
troduce a  reformation  in  the  two  universities,  consulted 
<>ur  author  upon  ^t,  who  drew  up  a  plan  for  the  purpose^ 
and  sent  it  to  bis  lordship,  under  the  title  of  **  Articles 
for  the  Reformation  of  the  two  Universities."  These 
^mounted  to  fifty-six  in  number.  No  proceeding  was  held 
^n' consequence  of  this ;  but  some  of  his  articles  have  beea 
silently  adopted,  and  others  are  perhaps  irreconcileable  with 
^e  true  interests  of  those  seminaries.  His  proposition  to 
erect  a  sort  of  college  for  those  who  had  neglected  their 
studies,  by  the  name  oi Drone-Hall,  h^s  mc^re  the. air  of 
a.  piece  of  humour,  than  a  serious  proposition.  The 
whole  are  printed  in  the  volume  which  contains  his  life. 

In  the  seventy-fourth  year  of  his  age,  finding  himself  so 
much  weakened  by  age  aiid  infirmity  that  he  could  no  longer 
i^sbe  his  books  as  formerly,  ^nd  being, desirous  that  his^oUec* 
Ijlon  of  Oriental  books  should  not  be  dispei^se^,  he  permitt^^ 


292  P  R  I  D  E  A  tJ  X. 

his  8011,  who  had  been  educated  at  that  college^  to  make' 
a  present  of  them  to  the  society  of  Clare-hall,  Cambridge ; 
and  they  were  accordingly  deposited  in  Clare-halMibrary^ 
to  the  number  of  three  hundred  volumes  and  upwards^  It' 
were  to  be  wished,  that' such  an  example  was  more  fre- 
quently followed,  for  there  are  few  ways  that  tend  more  to 
render  such  a  valuable  collection  useless^  than  by  dispers- 
ing it  among  private  hands. 

About  a  year  before  his  death  he  was  wholly  confined 
to  his  chamber,  and  at  last  his  increasing  infirmities  took 
from  him  all  power  of  helping  himself.  He  ha:d  always 
been  a  sufferer  since  his  case,  after  being  cut  for  the  stones 
was  improperly  treated,  and  was  frequently  afflicted  and 
greatly  reduced,  by  rheumatic  pains  and  paralytic  affections. 
He  expired  Nov.  1,  1724,  in  the  seventy-seventh  year  of 
his  age,  and  was  buried,  according  to  his  own  direction,  in 
the  cathedral  of  Norwich. 

Dr.  Prideaux  was  naturally  of  a  very  strong,  robust  con* 
stitution  ;  whicli  enabled  him  to  pursue  his  studies  with 
great  assiduity ;  and  notwithstanding  his  close  application, 
and  sedentary  manner  of  life,  enjoyed  great  vigour  both 
of  body  and  mind  for  many  years  together,  till  afflicted  by 
the  stone.  Although  we  have  few  particulars  of  his  course 
of  study  at  Oxford^  it  is  evident  that  he  must  have  been 
an  early  and  hard  student,  and  had  accumulated  a  great 
fund  of  Oriental  learning,  and  an  intimate  acquaintance 
with  ecclesiastical  history.  His  parts  were  very  good,  ra- 
ther solid  than  lively:  bis  judgment  excellent:  as  a  wri- 
ter he  is  clear,  strong,  intelligent,  and  learned,  without 
any  pomp  of  language,  or  ostentation  of  eloquence.  His 
conversation  resembled  his  style,  being  learned  and  in- 
structive, but  with  a  conciseness  of  expression  on  many 
occasions,  which,  to  those  who  were  not  well  acquainted 
with  him,  had  sometimes  the  appearance  of  rusticity.  In 
his  manner  of  life,  he  was  regular  and  temperate,  being 
seldom  out  of  his  bed  after  ten  at  night,  and  he  generally 
rose  to  his  studies  before  five  in  the  morning.  His  dispo- 
sition was  sincere  and  candid.  He  generally  spoke  his 
mind  with  freedom  and  boldness,  and  was  npt  easily  di- 
verted from  pursuing  what  he  thought  right.  To  those 
who  differed  from  him  in  opinion,  he  always  behaved  with 
great  candour.  In  party  principles  he  was  rather  inclined* 
to  what  was  called  Low-church ;  but  in  his  adherence  to 
the  establishment,  in  performing  all  the  duties  annexed  to- 

P  R  I  D  E  A  U  X.  293 

bis  prefermtots,  in  enjoining  a  like  attention  upon  all 
with  whom  be  bad  inflaence,  and  in  brs  dislike  of  schism 
and  schismatics,  no  man  was  more  inflexible.  He  had  at 
one  time  flattered  himself  that  a  few  alterations  in  the  li* 
turgy  might  tend  to  bring  back  the  dissenters  to  the  church; 
but  he  lived  to  see,  what  we  have  lived  to  see  more  clearly, 
that  a  few  alterations  would  not  answer  the  purpose. — For 
most  of  these  particulars  we  are  indebted  to  an  excellent 
Life  of  Dr.  Prideaux,  which  appeared  in  October  1748, 
'^  with  several  tracts  and  letters  of  his  upon  various  subjects^ 
never  before  published.*'  * 

PRIDE  AUX  (JoHiv),  a  learned  English  bishop,  was  born 
at  Stowford,  in  the  parish  of  Harford,  near  Ivy-bridge  in 
Devonshire,  Sept  17,  1578,  and  was  the  fourth  of  seven 
sons  of  his  father,  who  being  in  mean  circumstances,  with 
so  large  a  family,  our  author,  after  he  had  learned  to  write 
and  read,  having  a  good  voice,  stood  candidate  for  the  place 
of  parish-clerk  of  the  church  of  Ugborow  near  Harford. 
Mr.  Price  informs  us,  that  ^'  he  had  a  competitor  for  the 
office,  who  had  made  great  interest  in  the  parish  for  him« 
self,  and. was  likely  to  carry  tbe^lace  from  him.  The 
parishioners  being  divided  in  the  matter,  did  'at  length 
agree  in  this,  being  unwilling  to  disoblige  either  party,  that 
the  Lord-s-day  following  should  be  the  day  of  trial ;  the 
one  should  tuue  the  Psalm  in  the  forenoon,  the  other  in 
the  afternoon ;  and  he  that  did  best  please  the  people, 
should  have  the  place.  Which  accordingly  was  done,  and 
Prideaux  lost  it,  to  his  very  great  grief  and  trouble.  Upon 
which,  after  he  became  advanced  to  one  of  the  first  digni* 
ties  of  the  church,  he  would  frequently  make  this  reflec* 
tion,  saying,  **  If  I  could  but  have  been  clerk  of  Ugborow, 
I  had  nevei*  been  bishop  of  Worcester.'*  Disappointed  in 
this  office,  a  lady  of  the  parish,  mother  of  sir  Edmund 
Towel,  maintained  him  at  school  till  he  had  gained  s<yne 
knowledge  of  the  Latin  tongue,  when  he  travelled  to  Ox- 
ford, and  at  first  lived  in  a  very  mean  station  in  Exeter- 
college,  doing  servile  offices  in  the  kitchen,  and  prosecut- 
ing his  studies  at  his  leisure  hours,  till  at  last  he  was  taken 
notice  of  in  the  college,  and  admitted  a  member  of  it  in 
act^term  1596,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  William  Helme, 
B.  D.    On  January  the  31st,  1599,  he  took  the  degree  of 

^  Life,  ubi  supra. — Biog.  Brit.— Birch's  Tiilotsoo. — Qen.  Dict.<«>GeDt.  Ma^^.* 
Tol.  LXX.^-Letters  t>y  eminent  persons,  1813^  3  vols.  8vo. 

iU  P  R  r  D  E  A  U  X. 

Bachelor  of  Arts,  and  in  1602  was  chosen  probationer  fel<-t 
low  of  his  college.  On  May  the  1  Itb,  1603,  be  proceeded 
Master  of  Arts,  and  soon  after  entered  into  holy  orders^ 
On  May  the  6th,  161  ],  he  took  the  degree  of  Bacbelor.of 
Divinity;  and  the  year  following  was  elected  rector  of  hi» 
college  in  the  room  of  Di'.  Holland;  and  June  the  lOtb, 
the  same  year,  proceeded  Doctor  of  Divinity*  In  16 15, 
upon  the  advancement  of  Dr.  Robert  Abbot  to  the  bishop* 
ric  of  Sarum,  he  was  made  regius  professor  of  divinity^ 
and  consequently  became  canon  of  Christ-church,  and 
rector  of  Ewelme  in  Oxfordshire ;  and  afterwards  dis-*^ 
charged  the  office  of  vice-chancellor  of  the  university  for 
several  years.  In  the  rectorship  of  his  college  he  behaved 
himself  in  such  a  manner,  that  it  flourished  more  than  any 
other  in  the  university  ;  more  foreigners  coming  thither  for 
the  benefit  of  his  instruction  than  ever  was  known ;  and  in  his 
professorship,  says  Wood,  '>  he  behaved  himself  very  plau<H 
fiible  to  the  generality,  especially  for  this  reason,  that  in 
bis  lectures,  disputes,  and  moderatings  (which  were  al^ 
ways  frequented  by  many  auditors),  he  shewed  himself  a 
stout  champion  against  Socinus  and  Arminius.  Which 
being  disrelished  by  some  who  were  then  rising,  and  in 
authority  at  court,  a  faction  thereupon  grew  up  in  the 
university  between  those  called  Puritans,  or  Calvinists,  on 
the  one  side,  and  the  Remonstrants,  commonly  called  Ar^ 
minians,  on  the  other :  which,  with  other  matters  of  the 
like  nature,  being  not  only  fomented  in  the  university,  but 
throughout  the  nation,  all  thiogs  thereupon  were  brought 
into  confusion.''  In  1641,  after  he  had  been  twenty- sis 
years  professor,  be  was  one  of  those  persons  of  unble*- 
mished  reputation,  whom  his  majesty  made  bishops,  on  the 
application  of  the  marquis  of  Hamilton,  who  had  been  one 
of  bis  pupils.  Accordingly,  in  November  of  that  year,  h^ 
was  elected  to  the  bishopric  of  Worcester,  to  which  he 
was  consecrated  December  the  19th  following  ;  but  the  re« 
bellion  was  at  that  time  so  far  advanced,  that  be  received 
little  or  no  profit  from  it,  to  his  great  impoverishment 
For  adhering  stedfastly  to  his,  majesty's  cause,  and  pro^ 
nouncing  ail  those  of  his  diocese,  who  took  up  arms  against 
him,  excommunicate,  be  was  plundered,  and  reduced  to 
such  straits,  that  he  was  obliged  to  sell  his  excellent  li^ 
brary.  Dr.  Gauden  said  of  him,  that  he  now  became  li- 
terally a  helluo  librorunif  being  obliged  to  turn  his  books- 
into  bread  for  his  children.     He  seems  to  have  borne  this 

P  R  I  D  E  A  U  X.  295 

barbarotis  usage  with  patience^  and  even  good*  humour. 
On  one  occasiion,  when  a  friend  came  to  see  him*  and  asked 
him  how  he  did  ?  he  answered,  "  Never  better  in  my  life, 
onljr  I  have  too  great  a  stomach,  for  I  have  eaten  the  little 
plate  which  tte' sequestrators  left  me ;  I  have  eaten  a  great 
library  of  excellent  books ;  I  have  eaten  a  great  deal  of 
iinenf  much  of  my  brasSy  some  of  my  p«i?/^,  and  now  am 
eome  to  eat  my  irrmf  and  wh^t  will  come  next  I  know 
not/'  So  great  was  his  poverty  about  this  time  that  he 
Would  have  attended  the  conferences  with  the  king  at  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  but  could  not  afford  the  means  of  travelling. 
£uch  was  the  treatment  of  this  great  and  good  man,  one 
of  the  best  scholars  and  ablest  promoters  of  learning  in  the 
kingdom,  at  the  hands  of  men  who  professed  to  contend  for 
liberty  and  toleration. 

He  died  of  a  fever  at  Bredon  in  Worcestershire,  at  the 
house  of  his  son-in-law,  Dr.  Henry  Sutton,  July  the  20th, 
1650,  leaving  to  his  children  no  legacy  but  '^  pious  po« 
verty,  God's  blessing,  and  a  father's  prayers,"  as  appears 
from  his  last  will  and  testament.  His  body  was  attended 
to  the  grave  by  persons  of  all  ranks  and  degrees,  and  was 
interred  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  of  Bredon.  He  was 
«  man  of  very  extensive  learning;  and  Nath.  Carpenter^ 
in  his  **  Geography  delineated,"  tells  us,  that  "  in  him 
the  heroical  wit$  of  Jewel,  Rainolds,  and  Hooker,  as  united 
into  one,  seemed  to  triumph  anew,  and  to  have  threatened 
8  fatal  blow  to  the  Babylonish  hierarchy.'*  He  was  ex- 
tremely humble,  and  kept  part  of  the  ragged  clothes  ia 
which  he  came  to  Oxford,  in  the  same  wardrobe  where  he 
lodged  his  rochet,  in  which  he  left  that  university.  He 
was  exemplary  in  his  charity,  and  very  agreeable  in  con- 
versation. By  his  first  wife,  Mai*y,  daughter  of  Dr.  Taylor, 
burnt  for  the  Protestant  religion  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Mary,  he  had  several  children;  viz.  William,  a  colonel  in 
the  service  of  king  Chartes  L  and  slain  at  the  battle  of 
Marston-moor  in.  1644;  Matthias,  a  captain  in  the  army 
of  that  king,' who  died  at  Lx)ndon  1646;  and  three  other 
sons,  who  died  in  their  infancy,  and  were  buried  in  Exe- 
ter-college; and  two  daughters,  viz.  Sarah,  married  .to 
William  Hodges,  archdeacon  of  Worcester,  and  rector 
of  Ripple  in  Worcestershire;  and  Elizabeth,  married  to 
Dr.  Henry  Sutton>  rector  of  Bredon  in  Worcestershire. 
Oar  author  iiad  for  bis  second  wife,  Mary,  daughter  of 

256  P  R  ID  E  A  U  X. 


sir  Thojn^s  Reyael  of  West  Ogwell  in  Devopsbice^  juit: 
Cleveland  the  poet  wrote  an  elegy  upon  his  death. 

His  son  Matthias,  ^bove  mentioned^  was  born  in  1622, 
an^  admitted  of  £x^ter-college  in  i  ^40,  wl\^re  be  toqk  bif 
degree^m  arts.  He  died  at  Loadon  in  1646.  After  hi» 
death  was  published,  under  bis  napie,  '^  An  ea:%y  apd  com* 
pendipus  introduction  for  reading  all  sorts  qf  Histories/^ 
Oxon.  ^64?,  4to;  reprinted  1655,  with  a  "  Synppsis  of 
the  Counpils,"  Syritteu  by  hi^  fathe^r.  ^ 

I)r.  Prideaux's  yvorks  wjere,  1.  ^'Ta-b^lsp  ad  Gramxnaticjini 
GraecamlntrpductorioB,"  Oxford,  i  603,  4to,  3.  "Tirocini- 
lim^d  Syllogismum  contexendum."  .3.  ^^  Heptades  Logics^ 
siveMpnitaadamplioresTraqtatus  introductoria.^'  These twp 
l^st  pieces  were  printed  with  the  *^  Tabular  ad  Gr^mmati« 
cam  GraBcam,"  &c.  Mr.  David  Lloyd  observjes,  that  our 
autbor^s  Greek  Grammar  aud  Logicjc  were  both  but  a 
fortnight's  wprk.  4.  ^^  Castigatio  cujusd^m  Ci^cuJatoris, 
qui  B.  P.  Andream  Kudsemon-Johannem  Cydonium  soc. 
J^su  seipsum  nqncupat,  opposita  ipsius  calumniis,  in  £pis<» 
tola  Isaaci  Casauboni  ad  Frontonem  DucasMm,"  Oxford^ 
16 1;4,  $vo.  5.  ^'  AUoquium  ^erexiiss,  Beg.  Jacobo  Woo4* 
sjtocbio  habitum,  24  Aug.  1624,"  in  one  sheet,  4to.  6. 
^^  Drationes  novem  inaugurates  de  totidem  Theologian  apir 
clbu^,  prout  in  promotiohe  Doctorum  Oxoniae  public^  pr^- 
pon^bantur  in  Comitiis/'  Oxford,  1626,  4to.  7.  ^^  Lee- 
tiones  decern  de  totidem  Religionis  Capitibus,  praecipue 
Hoc  tempore  controversis,  prout  publice  babebaptur  Oxo- 
nian in  Veaperiis,"  Oxford,  1625,  4to.  8.  **  Lectiones  22, 
QratioqeslS,  Concione^  6,  et  Qrafio  ad  Ji^cobum  Regf^qa,'* 
Oxford,  1648,  folio.  Ainong  which  are  contain^  tb(5 
precedipg  lectures,  oratiqus,  and  speeches  to  kiog  Jamf^s 
at  Woodstock.  9.  ^^  Cpncio  ad  Artium  Baccalaureos  pro- 
more  habits  in  Ecclesi^  3.  Mariae  Oxon.  in  di^  Cinerum 
in  Act.  ii.  ^2.  Ann.  1616.V  lo.  ^^  Fasciculus  Coutrover- 
siariiiB  ad  Juniorum  aut  occupatorum  captum  colUgaius,** 
^c.  Oxford,  1649,  1651,  4to.  11.  "Tbeo^pgiae  §clio- 
lasticae  Syntagma  Mnemoaicum,"  Oxford,  1651.  12.*'  Con-* 
cUioruig  Synopsis,"  printed  with  the '' Fasciculus.''  13. 
^',  Epistola  de.  Episcppatu,"  folio.  14.  '^  Manuductioad 
Tbeologiam  Polemicaip,"  Oxford,  1657,  8vo,  published 
by  Mr.  Thomas  Barlow,  afterwards  bishop  of  Lincoln,  nvitb^ 
a  Latin  Epistle  b^forq  it  in  the  pam^,  of  the  printer.  13.. 
'*  j^ypomnemata  Losica,  Bl^etorica,  pi^ysica,  Metaphyr; 
sica,^'  &c.  Oxford,  8vo.     16.  Several  Sermons,  as,  1.  '^A 


S^rtDon  at  the  conseerdtion  of  Exeter-co\lege  Chapel,"  on 
Luke  xix.  46,  Oxford,  1625,  4to.  2nd,  **  Perez  Uzzab> 
A  Sermon  before  the  king  ;at  Wopdstock,"  on  1  Samuel 
vi.  6,  7,  Oxford,  1685,  4to.  Both  these  sermons  are 
printed  with  another  volume,  .entitled,  17.  "  Twenty  Ser- 
mons," Oxford,  1636,  4to.  The  two  first  are  entitled, 
"jCJaxist's  Counsel  for  ending  Law-cases,"  dedicated  to  his 
kiijancian  Edmund  Prideaux,  esq.  18.  "  Nine  Sermons  pa  ' 
several  occasions,"  Oxford,  1641,  4to.  19.  "A  Synopsis 
9f  the  Coupcils/'  subjoined  to  ^'  An  easy  and  compendious 
Introduction  to  History,"  published,  as  we  have  just  no- 
ticed, in  the  name  of  his  son  Matthias* Prideaux.  20. '^  His-; 
tories  of  Successions  in  States,  Countries,  or  Families,^* 
&.C.  Oxford,  1653.  21.  "  Euehologia  :  or.  The  Doctrinet 
of.  Practical  Praying  ;  being  a  Legacy  left  to  his  daughters 
ia.  private,  directing  them  to  such  manifold  uses  of  our 
Common  Prayer  Book,  as  may  satisfy  upon  all  occasions, 
without,  looking  after  new  lights  from  extemporal  flashes," 
^e,dicated  to  his  daughters,  Sarah  Hodges  and  Elizabeth 
SuttQjn,  London,  1655,  8vo.  22.  "  The  doctrine  of  Con* 
science,  framed  according  to  the  form  in  the  Commori 
Prayer;"  left  as  a  legacy  to  his  wife,  containing  many  cases 
qf  conscience,  and  dedicated  to  Mrs.  Mary  Prideaux,  relief 
9f  the  Right  Reverend  Father  in  God  John,  late  Lord  Bi- 
shop of  Worcester,  by  T.  N.;  London,  1656,8vo.  23.  "Sa* 
cred  Eloquence :  or.  The  Art  of  Rhetoric,  as  it  is  laid  down 
in  Scripture,"  London,   1659,  8vo.  * 

PRIESTLEY  (Joseph),  a  dissenting  divine,  but  more 
justly  eminent  as  a  philosopher,  was  born  March  18, 1733,  at 
Field-head,  near  Leeds.  His  father,  a  clothier,  was  a  dis-; 
senter  of  the  Calyinistic  persuasion.  In  hi^  youth  he  was 
adopted  by  an  aunt,  who  provided  for  his  education  in  se- 
veral schools,  in  which  he  acquired  some  knowledge  of  the 
lesirned  languages,  particularly  Hebrew.  Being  intended 
for  the  ministry,  he  went,  in  1752,  to  Dr«  Ashworth's  dis<- 
i^enting  academy ,,  at  Daventry,  where  he  spent  three  years,, 
£^pd  cam^  out  from  it  an  adherent  to  the  Arian  system. 
Here  too  be  became  acquainted  with  Hartley^s  Works,  to 
whos^e  opinions  be  was  afterwards  very  partial.  He  first 
settled  as  a  minister  at  Needham- market,  in  Suffolk ;  and, 
after  thr^e  years'  residence,  removed  to  Namptwich  in 
Cheshire.     I]ere  he  also  kept  a  school,  and,  to  the  more 

1  Wood's  Athenae  and  Annalt.— Prince's  Woribies.— Walker's  Sufferings  of 
Ue  Cl^rf  y.— ^Usb«('ft  Lif«  aac(  Utters,  p.  39^9.— Puller's  Worthies, 

2d8  P  R  I  E  S  T  L  E  V- 

Common  olDJects  of  instruction,  added  experiments  in  na« 
tural  pliilosopby,  to  which  be  had  already  become  attached.* 
His  first  publication  was,  an  **  English  Grammar,"  printed' 
in  1761,  in  which  he  pointed  out  errors  in  Hume^s  lan- 
guage, which  that  author  bad  the  candour  to  rectify  in  hir 
future  editions  of  his  celebrated  history,  ' 

In  the  same  year,  he  was  invited  to  become  a  tutor  in 
languages  in  the  academy  at  Warrington  ;  and  here  he  first 
began  to  acquire  reputation  as  a  writer  in  various  branches 
iof  literature.  Several  of  his  works  had  relation  to  his  office 
in  the  academy,  which,  besides  philosophy,  included  lec- 
tures on  history  and  general  policy.  A  visit  to  London 
having  introduced  him  to  the  acquaintance  of  Di*.  FrankHn, 
Dr.  Watson,  Dr.  Price,  and  Mr.  Canton,  he  was  encou- 
raged by  them  to  execute  a  plan  he  bad  already  begun,  of 
writing  a  "  History  of  Electricity,"  which  accordingly  ap- 
peared in  1767.  It  is  rather  carelessly  and  hastily  exe- 
ecuted,  but  must  have  been  of  advantage  to  the  science. 
Almost  the  whole  of  his  historical  facts  are  taken  from  the 
Philosophical  Transactions ;  but  dt  the  end  he  gives  a  num- 
ber of  original  experiments  of  his  own.  The  most  impor- 
tant of  all  his  electrical  discoveries,  was,  that  charcoal  is  a 
conductor  of  electricity,  and  so  good  a  conductor  that  it 
vies  even  with  the  metals  themselves.  This  publication 
went  through  several  editions,  was  translated  into  foreign 
languages,  and  procured  him  the  honour  of  being  elected 
a  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Society,  as  one  of  his  biographers 
says ;  but  Iris  election  took  place  the  year  befoipe ;  and  about  • 
the  same  time  the  university  of  Edinburgh  conferred  on 
liim  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws.  ^ 

In  the  same  year  in  which  his  History  of  |llectricity  ap- 
peared, he  left  Warrington,  and  settled  at  Leeds  as  mi- 
nister, and  instantly  resumed  his  theological  studies,  which 
produced  a  number  of  publications,  in  which  he  amiounc^d 
the  opinions  he  bad  adopted.  -From  an  Arian  he  was  now 
become  a  Socinian,  and  not  content  with  enjoying  the 
changes  which  he  was  at^perfect  liberty  to  make,  he  began 
to  contend  with  great  zeal  against  the  authority  of  the 
established  religion.  It  was,  however,  during  his  resi- 
dence here,  that  his  attention  was  more  usefully  turned  to 
the  properties  of  fixed  air.  He  had  commenced  experi- 
me;its  on  this  subject  in  1768,  and  the  first  of  his  publican 
tions  appeared  in  1772,  in  which  he  announced  a  method 
Qf  impregnating  water  with  fixed  air.     In  the  paper  res^d* 


to  the  toyal  society  in  ]  77'2,  which  obtained  the  Copley 
medal,  be  gave  an  account  of  bis  discoveries ;  and  at  the 
$ame  tiitie  announced  the  discovery  of  nitrous  air,  and  its 
application  as  a  test  of  the  purity  or  fitness  for  respiratioa 
pf  airs  getrerally.  About  this  time,  also,  he  shewed  th^' 
use  of  the  burning  lens  in  pneumatic  experiments ;  he  re« 
lated  the  discovery  and  properties  of  muriatic  acid  air ; 
added  much  to  what  was  known  of  the  airs  generated  by 
]»utrefactive  processes,  and  by  vegetable .  fermentation  ; 
and  he  determiued  many  facts  relative  to  the  diminutioa 
and  deterioration  of  air,  by  the  combustion  of  chatcoal, 
and  the  calcination  of  metal.  In  1774,  he  made  a  full 
^discovery  of  dephlogisticated  air,  which  he  procured  from 
the  oxyds  of  silver  and  lead.  This  hitherto  secret,  source 
of  animal  life  and  animal  heat,  of  which  Mayow  had  a  faint 
glimpse,  was  unquestionably  first  exhibited  by  Dr.  Priest-* 
ley,  though  it  was  discovered  about  the  same  time  by  Mr« 
Scheele,  of  Sweden.  In  1776,  his  observations  on  respi- 
ration were  read  before  the  royal  society,  in  which  he  dis*^ 
covered  that  the  common  air  inspired  was  diminished  ia. 
quantity,  and  deteriorated  in  qualit}^,  by  the  action  of  th» 
blood  on  it,  through  the  blood-vessels  of  the  Jungs;  and 
that  the  florid  red  colour  of  arterial  blood  was  communis 
cated  by  the  contact  of  air  through  the  containing  vessels* 
lu  1778  Dr.  Priestley  pursued  his  experiments  on  the  pro* 
perties  of  vegetables  growing  in  the  light  to  correct  impure 
air,  and  the  use  of  vegetation  in  this  parto^f  the  oeconomy 
of  nature ;  and  it  seems  certain  that  Dr.  Priestley  made  hia 
discoveries  on  the  subject  previously  to  those  of  Dr.  In- 
genhouz,  then  engaged  in  similar  researches.  From  tbia 
period  Dr.  Priestley  seems  to  have  attended  to  his  pneu- 
matic experiments  as  an  occupation,  devoting  to  them  a 
regular  portion  of  his  time.  To  this  attention,  among  a 
prodigious  variety  of  facts,  tending  to  shew,  the  various 
substances  from  which  gases  may  be  procured,  the  methods 
of  producing  them,  their  influence  on  each  other,  and 
their  probable  composition,  we  owe  the  discovery  of  vw 
triolic  acid  air,  of  alkaline  air,  and  of  dephlogisticated  ni- 
trous air;  or,  as  il  has  since  been  denominated,  the  gas- 
eous oxyd  of  azote,  the  subject  of  so  many  curious  and 
interesting  experiments  by  $ir  Humphrey  Davy.  To  these 
may  be  added  the  production  of  various  kinds  of  inSam-^ 
mable  air,  by  numerous  processes  th&t  bad  escaped  the 
observation  of  Mr*  Cavendish*     To  Dr.  Priestley,  we  ar« 

3D0  PR  I  E  8  T  L  E  Y. 

iodebted  for   that  fine  experiment  of  reviving  metallic 
calces  iu  inflammable  air ;  and  he  first  ascertained  the  ne-« 
oessity  for  water  to  be  present   in  the  formation  of  tbQ 
gasesy    and  the  endless  production  of  gases  from  water 
kself.     His  experiments  on  this  subject^  viz.  the  genera<« 
tion  of  air  from  water,  opened  a  new  field  for  reflection^ 
and  deserve  particular  notice.     It  had  been  already  re-* 
marked  that  water  was  necessary  to  the  generation  of  every 
species  of  gas ;  but  the  unceasing  product  of  air  from  water 
had  been  obser\red  by  no  one  before. 
..  ^*  To  eniomerate,"  says  Mr.  Kirwan,  "  Dr.  Priestley's 
diBCoreries,  would  in  fact  be  to  enter  into  a  detail  of  most 
of  those  that  hare  been  made  within  the  last  fifteen  years. 
How  many  invisible  fluids,  whose  existence  evaded  the  sa* 
gacity  of  foregoing  ages,  has  he  made  known  to  us  ?     The 
very  air  we  breathe  he  has  taught  us  to  analyse,  to  exa- 
mine, to  improve :  a  substance  so  little  known,  that  even 
the  precise  effect  of  respiration  was  an  enigma,  until  be 
explained  it.     He  first  made  known  to  us  the  proper  food 
of  vegetables,  and  in  what  the  difference  between  these 
and  animal  substances  consisted.     To  him  pharmacy  is  in- 
4lebted  for  the  method  of  making  artificial  mineral  waters^ 
as  well  as  for  a  shorter  method  of  preparing  other  medi« 
cines;  metallurgy  for  more  powerful  and  cheap  solvents ; 
and  chemistry  for  such  a  variety  of  discoveries  as  it  would 
be. tedious  to  recite — discoveries  which  have  n^w-modelled 
that  science,  and  drawn  to  it,  and  to  this  country,  the  at-' 
ten  tion  of  all  Europe,     it  is  certain,  that,  since  the  year 
1773,  the  eyes  and  regards  of  all  the  learned  bodies  in 
Europe  have  been  directed  to  this  country  by  his  means. 
Jn  every  philosophical  treatise  his  name  is  to  be  found,  and 
in  almost  every  page.     They  all  own  that  most  of  their  dis- 
coveries are  due  either  to  the  repetition  of  his  discoveries^ 
or  to  the  hints  scattered  through  his  works." 
•    The  success. of  his  '^  History  of  Electricity'*  induced  him 
to  adopt  the  design  of  treating  on  other  sciences,  in  the 
same  historical  manner ;  and  at  Leeds  he  occupied  him-' 
self  in  preparing  '^  The  History  and  present  state  of  Dis- 
coveries relating   to  Vision,  Light,  and  Colours."      The 
expences  necessary  in  composing  such  a  work  obliged  him 
to  issue  proposals  fot  publishing  it  by  subscription  ;  and  it 
appeared  in  1772,  in  one  very  large  volume  4to.     The 
sale  of  this  work  by  no  means  corresponded  with  the'  expec- 
tations formed  from  the  4)  umber  of  names  given  in  as  &ab- 

PHI  E  S  T  L  E  Y.  Mt 

scribers ;  il:  has  been  said,  not  one«-tbird  part  of  tbe  hi]iir4t 
ber  paid  for,  or  demanded  the  book  when  it  was  published* 
One  of  his  biographers  says  that  it  failed,  chiefly  because 
it  was  impossible  to  give  adequate  notions  of  many  parts  o£ 
the  dieory  of  optics  without  a  more  accurate  acquaintance 
with  mathematics  than  common  readers  can  be  supposed 
to  possess.  Perhaps  too^  the  writer  himself  was  scarcely 
competent  to  explain  the  abstruser- parts  of  this  scnence. 

After  a  residence  at  Leeds  for  six  years,  Dr.  Priestlej 
accepted  tbe  offer  of  the  eurl  of  Sfaelburne,  afterwarcb 
marquis  of  Lansdowne,  to  reside  with  his  lordship  in  tfao 
nominal  capacity  of  librarian,  but  really  as  his  literary  com«- 
panion.  The  terms  were  250^.  per  annum,  with  a  house 
for  his  family  to  live  in,  and  an  annuity  for  life  of  1 50/.  in 
the  eyent  of  their  being  separated  by  his  lordsbip^s  dying^^ 
or  changing  his  mind*  He  accordingly  fixed  bis. family  m 
a  house  at  Calne,  in  Wiltshire,  near  bis  lordship'«  seat  j 
and  during  seven  years  attended  upon  the  Doble  earl  in  his 
winter-s  residences  at  London,  and  occasionally  in  bis  ex** 
cursions)  one  of  which,  in  1774,  was  a  tour  to  the  conti-* 
nent.  This  situation  was  useful,  as  affording  Dr.  Priestley 
advantages  iir  improving  his  knowledge  of  the  world,  and; 
in  pursuing  bis  scientific  researches ;  and  as  he  was  peC'i* 
fectly  free  from  restraint^  this  was  the  period  of  sodm  of 
those  exertions  which  increased  his  reputation  as  a  philo^ 
sopher,  avid  some  of  those  which  brought  the  greatest 
obloquy  upon  him  as  a  divine.  In  1775,  he  published  bi« 
**  Exannnation  of  the  doctrine  of  Common  S^nse,  as  held/ 
by  Drs.  Reid,  Beattie,  and  Oswald,*'  in  which  he  treated 
those  gentlemen  with  a  contemptuous  arrogance,  of  wbich^ 
we  ^re  told,  he  was  afterwards  ashamed.  In  his  manner 
of  treating  his  opponents,  he  always  exhibited  a.  striking 
contrast  to  the  mild  and  placid  temper  of  his  friend  Dr^ 
Price.  After  this  he  became  the  illustrator  of  the  Hart- 
leian  theory  of  the  human  mind.  He  had,  previously  to 
this,  declared  himself  a  believer  in  the  doctrine  of  pbilo* 
sophi(ial  necessity ;  and  in  a  dissertation  prefixed  to  hii 
edition  of  Hartley,  he  expressed  some  doubts  of  the  imma^ 
teriality  of  the.  soul.  The  charge  which  these  induced 
against  him  of  infidelity  and  atheism,  seems  only  to  have 
provoked  him  to  a  more  open  avowal  of  the  same  obnoxious 
sentiments;  and  in  1777  he  published  "  Disquisitions  oft 
Matter  and  Spirit,"  in  which  be  gave  a  history  of  the  doc- 
trines concerning   the  soul,    and   openly  supported.  th« 

SOi  '^         PRIESTLEY.: 

system  wbich,  upon  due  investigatiooy  he  bad  adopted/  ft 
was  followed  by  *^  A  Defence  of  Unitarianism,  or  tbesimplei 
Humanity  of  Christ,  in  opposition  to  his  Pre<-existence$ 
and  of  the  Doctrine  of  Necessity.*^  It  seems  not  improbable 
that  these  works  produced  a  coolness  in  the  behaviour  of 
his  noble  patron,  wbich  about  this  time  he  began  to.iC'^ 
mark,  and  which  terminated  in  a  separation,  after  a  con-v 
iiection  of  seven  years,  without  any  alledged  complaint.^ 
That  the  marquis  of  Lansdowne  bad  changed  his  sentiments 
of  Dr.  Priestley  appears  from  the  evidence  of  the  latter,: 
who  informs  us,  that  when  be  canje  to  London,  be  pro-^ 
posed  to  call  on  the  noble  lord ;  but  the  latter  declined 
receiving  bis  visits.  Dr.  Priestley  adds,  that  during  his 
connection  with  bis  lordship,^  he  never  once  aided  him  in 
his  political  views,  nor  ever  wrote  a  single  political  para* 
graph.  The  friends  of  both  parties  seem  to  think  that 
there  was  no  bond  of  union  between  them,  and  his  lord-, 
ship's  attention  became  gradually  so  much  engaged  by 
politics,  that  every  other  object  of  study  lost  its  hpld.  Ac* 
cording,  however,  to  the  articles  of  agreement,  Dr.  Priest* 
ley  retained  his  annuity  for  life  of  150/.  which  was  honour* 
ably  paid  to  the  last ;  and  it  has  been  said,  that  when  the 
bond  securing  to  him  this  annuity  was  burnt  at  the  riots  q£ 
Birmingham,  bis  lordship  in  the  handsomest  manner  pre- 
sented him  with  another. 

Dr.  Priestley  now  removed  to  Birmingham,  a  situatioi^ 
which  he  probably  preferred  to  almost  any  other,  on  ac^ 
count  of  the  advantage  it  afforded  of  able  workmen  in  eveiy 
branch  requisite  in  his  experimental  inquiries,  and  of  some, 
men  distinguished  for  their  chemical  and  mechanical  know- 
ledge, particularly  Watt,  Withering,  Bolton,  and  Kier» 
Several  friends  to  science,  aware  that  the  defalcation  of 
his>  income  would  render  the  expences  of  his  pursuits  toa 
burtbensome  for  him  to  support,  joined  in  raising  an  an- 
nual subscription  for  defraying  them.  This  iissistance  her 
Without  hesitation  accepted,  considering  it  as  more  truly, 
honourable  to  hin^self  than  a  pension  from  the  crown,  which 
inight  have  been  obtained  for  him,  if  he  had  wished  it^ 
during  the  short  administration  of  the  marquis  of  Rocking-^ 
bam,  and  the  early  part  of  that  of  Mr.  Pitt.  Some  of  these, 
snbscriptions  were  made  with  a  view  to  defray  the  expences 
of  his  philosophical  experiments  only,  but  the  greater  part, 
of  the  subscribers  were  equally  friends  to  bis  theological 


.  He  had  not  been  long  settled  at  Birminghs^m^  before  a 
Tacaiicy  happened  in  the  principal  dissenting  congregation^ 
and  he  was  unanimously  chosen  to  supply  it^    Theology 
now  again  occupied  a  principal  share  of  his  attention,  and 
He  published  his  **  History  of  the  Corruptions  of  Chris-' 
tians,"   and  "  History  of  early  Opinions  concerning  Jesus: 
Christ."     These  proved  to  be,  what  might  be  expected,  a. 
fertile  source  of  controversy,  into  which  he  entered  with 
his  usual  keenness,  and  he.  had  for  his  antagonists  two  men 
not  easily  repelled,  the    rev.  Mr.  Badcock,  and  Dr.  Hors» 
ley,  in  whose  articles  we  have  already  noticed  their  contro-. 
versies  with  this  polemic.     The  renewed  applications  of 
the  dissenters^  for  relief  from  the  penalties  and  disabilities, 
of  the  corporation  and  test  acts,  afforded  another  topic  of, 
discussion,  in  which  Dr.  Priestley  took  an  active  part;  and: 
he  did  not  now  scruple  to  assert  that  all  ecclesiastical  esta-^ 
blishments  were  hostile  to  the  rights  of  private  judgment,, 
and  the  propagation  of  truth,  and  therefore  represented  them, 
as  anti-christian,  and  predicted  their  downfall,  in  a  style  of 
inveteracy  which  made  him  be  considered  as  the  most  dan-, 
gerous  enemy  of  the  established  religion,  in  its  counectioa 
with  the  state.     Some  of  the  clergy  of  Birmingham  having; 
warmly  opposed  the  dissenters'  claims.  Dr.  Priestley  pub-i 
]ished  a  series  of  ^^  Familiar  Letters  to  the  Inhabitants  of- 
Birmingham,"  which,  on  account  of  their  ironical  manner, 
as  well  as  the  matter,  gave  great  offence.     In. this  state  of 
irritation^  another  cause  of  animosity  was  added  by  the  dif- 
ferent feelings   concerning  the  French  revolution.     The 
anniversary  of  the  capture  of  the  Bastille^  July  I4th,  bad; 
been  kept  as  a  festival  by  the  friends  of  the  cause  ;  an,d  it» 
celebration  was  prepared  at  Birmingham  in  1791.     Dr* 
Priestley  declined  joining  the  party  ;  but  a  popular  tumult 
ensued,  in  which  he  was  particularly  the  object  of  fury. 
Bis  house,  with  his  fine  library,  manuscripts,  and  apparatus, 
were  made  a  prey  to  the  flames,,  and  this  at^  time  when  it, 
was  generally  asserted  that  the  mobs  in  other  great  cities* 
were  rather  favourable  to  the  republican  cause.     After  ajT 
legal   investigation,  he  received  a  compensation  for  his^ 
losses,,  which  compensation  he  stated  himself,  at  2,000/. 
abort  of  the  actual  loss  he  sustained.     In  this  he  reckoned 
many  manuscripts,  the  value  of  which  no.  jury  could  esti- 
mate, and  which  indeed  could  have  been  calculated  only 
in  his  own  imagination.     He  was  not,  however,  without. 
f](lpnds,  who  purchased  for  him  a.  library  and  apparatus 
equal|  according  to  bis  own  account,  to  what  he  had  lost. 

»i  B  R  I  E  S  T  L  E  r. 

He  now  came  to  London,  and  took  up  bis  residehcci  at 
Hackney,  where  in  a  rery  short  time  he  was  chosen  to  sac- 
deed  his  deceased  friend,  Dr.  Price,  as  minister  to  a  con- 
•gregation  there ;  and  he  had  at  the  same  time  some  connec- 
tion with  the  new  college  lately  established  in  that  village. 
Resuming  his  usual  occupations  of  every  kind,  he  passed' 
sbme  time  in  comfort  and  tranquillity;  ^<  but,"  say  hift' 
afpologists,  ^'he  soon  found  public  prejudice!  following  him 
in  every  path,  and  himself  and  hh  famity  molested  by  the' 
rude  assaults  of  malignity,  which  induced  him  finally  to 
quit  a  country  so  hostile  to  his  person  and  principled."  On 
the  other  hand,  we  are  told,  that,  "  had  Dr.  Priestley  con- 
ducted himself  at  Hackney  like  a  peaceable  ihem'ber  of  so- 
ciety, and  in  his  appeals  to  the  public  on  the  subject  of 
the  riots  at  Birmingham,  expressed  himself  with  less  acn- 
mony  of  the  government  of  the  country,  the  prejudices  of 
the  people  would  very  quickly  have  given  way  t6  compas- 
sion. But  when  he  persisted  in  accusing  the  magistrates' 
amd  clergy,  and  even  the  supreme  government  of  his  coun- 
try, of  what  had  been  perpetrated  by  a  lawless'  mob,  and' 
afppealed  from  the  people,  and  even  the  lawti  of  England, 
to  the  societies  of  the  *  Friends  of  the  Coi^stitution'  at  Pa- 
ris, Lyons,  Nantz,  &c.  to  the  acadenay  of  sciences  at  Paris, 
when  Condorcet  was  secretary,  and  to  the  united  Irishmen 
of  Dublin,  how  was  it  possible  that  the  prejudit^es  of  loyaf 
Englishmen  could  subside?'* 

Whichever  of  these  opinions  is  the  true  one,  it  is  cer- 
tain that  Dr.  Priestley  felt  his  situation  uncomfortable,  and* 
accordingly,  in'  the  month  of  April  1794,  embarked  for 
America^  and  took  up  his  residence  at  the  town  of  North- 
umberland, in  Pennsylvania.  It  was  a  considerable  la- 
bour, in  this  remote  situation,  to  get  a  well-furnished 
library  and  chemical  laboratory  ;  but  he  at  length  sur-- 
mounted  all  obstacles,  and  effected  his  pulrpose.  He  was 
offered  a  chemical  professorship  in  Philadelphia,  which  be 
declined,  not  meaning  to  engage  in  any  public  duty,  in 
order  that  he  might  be  enabled  to  devote  his  whole  time  to 
his  accustomed  pursuits,  in  which  he  soon  shewed  his  phi- 
losophical friends  that  he  was  not  idle.  Here,  hov^ever^^ 
be  was  not  generally  so  well  received  as  he  expected ;  and' 
during  the  administration  of  Mr.  Adams,  he  was  regarded^ 
by  the  American  government  witht  suspicion  aind  dislike  : 
but  that  of  Mr.  Jefferson  was  afterwards  very  friendly  to' 
Um.    A  severe  illness,  which  he  suffered  in  Pbiladelphiay' 

I>  R  I  E  S  T  L  E  Y.  305 

laid  the  foundation  of  a  debility  of  his  digestive  organs, 
which  gradually  brought  on  a  state  of  bodily  weakness^ 
while  his  mind  continued  in  full  possession  of  ail  its  facuU 
ties.  Of  his  last  illness  and  death,  we  shall  subjoin  the 
account  as  given  in  the  Philadelphia  Gazette. 

^*  Since  his  illness  at  Philadelphia,  in  the  year  1801  he 
^evcr  regained  his  foinmer  good  state  of  health.  His  com- 
plaint was  constant  indigestion,  and  a  difficulty  of  swallow- 
ing food  of  any  kind.  But  during  this  period  of  geoeral 
debility,  he  was  busily  employed  in  printing  his  Church 
History,  and  the  first  volume  of  his  Notes  on  th^  Scrip- 
^iM-es,  and  in  making  new-  and  original  experiments.  Du- 
ring this  period,  likewise,  he  wrote  his  pamphlet  of  J^^us 
„TOd  Socrates  compared,  and  reprinted  his  Essay  on  Pblo^ 
gtston.  ,  '^  . 

**  From  about  the  beginning  of  November  1805,  to  the 
middle  of  January  1804,  his  complaint  grew  more  serious; 
yet,  by  judicious  medical  treatment,  and  strict  attention  to 
diet,  he,  after  some  time,  seemed,  if  not  gaining  strength, 
at  least  not  getting  worse;  and  his  friends  fondly  hopedi 
^bat  his  health  would  continue  to  improve  as  the  season 
advanced.     He,  however,  considered  his  life  as  very  pre- 
carious.    Even  at  this  time,    besides  his   miscellaneous 
reading,  which  was  at  all  times  very  extensive,  he  read 
through  all  the  works  quoted  in  his  "  Comparison  of  the 
different    Systems  of  Grecian  philosophers  with  Chris- 
tianity ;•*  composed  that  work,  and  transcribed  the  whole 
of  it  in  less  than  thre^  months ;  so  that  he  has  left  it  ready 
forlthe  press.     During  this  period  he  composed,  in  one 
^ay,  his  Second  Reply  to  Dr.  Linn. 

"  In  the  last  fortnight  of  January,  his  fits  of  indigestion 
became  morie  alarming,  his  legs  swelled,  and  his  weakness 
increased.  Within  two  days  of  his  death,  he  became  so 
weak,  that  he  could  walk  but  a  little  way,  and  that  with 
great  diflSculty.  For.  some  time  he  found  himself  unable  to 
speak;  but,  on  recovering  a  little,  he  told  his  friends;  that 
be  had  never  felt  more  pleasantly  during  his  whole  life- 
time, than  during  the  time  he  was  unable  to  speak.  He 
was  fully  sensible  that  he  had  not  long  to  liv^,  yet  talked 
whh  cheerfulness  to  all  who  called  on  him.  In  the  course 
of  the  day  he  expressed  his  thankfulness  at  being  per- 
mitted to  die  quietly  in  his  family,  without  pain,  and  with 
every  convenience  and  comfort  that  he  could  wish  for.  He 
ilwelt  upon  the  peculiarly  happy  situation  in  which  it  had 
Vol.  XXV.  X 

806  PRIESTL6V. 


pleased  the  Divine  Being  to  place  hitn  in  life,  and  tbe 
great  advantage  be  had  enjoyed  in  the  acquaintance  and 
friendship  of  some  of  the  best  and  wisest  men  of  the  age  in 
tvbicb  he  lived,  and  the  sati^action  he  derived  from  having 
led  an  useful  as  well  as  happy  life.  He  this  day  gave  di«- 
rections  about  printing  the  remainder  of  bis  Notes  on 
Scripture  (a  work,  in  the  completion  of  which  he  was 
much  interested),  and  looked  over  the  first  sheet  of  the 
third  volume,  after  it  was  corrected  by  those  who  were  to 
attend  to  its  completion,  and  expressed  his  satisfaction  at 
die  manner  of  its  being  executed. 

^*  On  Sunday,  the  5tb,  he  was  much  weaker,  but  sat  np 
in  an  arm-chair  for  a  few  minutes.  He  desired  that  John, 
chap.  xi.  might  be  read  to  him :  he  stopped  the  reader  at 
the  45th  verse,  dwelt  for  some  time  on  the  advantage  he 
had  derived  from  reading  the  Scriptures  daily,  and  recom* 
aiended  this  practice,  saying,  that  it  would  prove  a  sourci 
of  the  purest  pleasure.  ^  We  shall  all  (said  he)  »eet 
finally;  we  only  require  diflerent  degrees  of  discipline 
suited  to  oiir  different  tempers,  to  prepare  us  for  final  hap^^ 

piness.'     Mr. coming  into  his  room^,  he  said,  *  Yon 

iee,  sir,  I  am.  still  living.*     Mr. observed,  *  that  he 

would  always  live.'  *  Yes,  I  believe  I  shall;  we  shall  meet 
again  in  another  and  a  better  world.'     He  said  this  with 

great  animation,  laying  hold  of  Mr. ^'s  hand  in  bodi 

his  own.  After  evening  prayers,  when  his  grand-children 
were  brought  to  his  bed-side,  he  spoke  to  them  sepai'ately, 
tod  exhorted  them  to  continue  to  love  each  other,  &c.  ^  I 
am  going  (added  he)  to  sleep  as  well  as  you,  for  death  it 
only  a  good  long  sound  sleep  in  the  grave,  and  we  shall 
meet  again.' 

*<  On  Monday  morning,  the  9th  of  February,  on  being 
asked  how  he  did,  he  answered  in  a  faint  voice,  that  he 
had  no  pain,  but  appeared  fainting  away  gradually.  About 
eight  o'clock,  he  desired  to  have  three  pamphlets  which 
had  been  looked  out  by  his  directions  the  evening  before^ 
He  then  dictated  as  clearly  and  distinctly  as  he  had  ever 
done  in  his  life,  the  additions  and  alterations  which  he 
wished  to  have  made  in  each.  M-- took  down  the  sub- 
stance of  what  he  said,  which  was  read  to  him.  He  ob- 
served, *  Sir,  you  have^put  in  your  own  language,  I  wish 
it  to  be  minej*  He  then  repeated  over  again^  nearly  word 
for  word,  what  he  had  before  said,  and  when  it  wastrans- 
dribed,  and  read  over  to  him,  he  said,  VThat  is  right,  I 
have  now  done.' 



^  Atit^ttt  half  M  faoih"  after,  be  desired  thd[t  he  might'  be 
Mih^fred  to  a;  cot.  About  ten  mhitrte!^  ^ftec  he  was  re« 
^oved  t<y  it,  he  died  (Feb.  6^  1804) ;  but  breathed  his 
Hsi  SO'  easH^)  ttmt  those  wht>  were  sitting  close  to  him  did 
Hot  fnfimediately^  perceive^  it.  Re  had  pilt  his  hatid  to  hfs 
lace,  ^hich  prerertted  them  ftoth  bbsertidg  it'* 

Therte  are  many  circutnstances  in  this  account  which  tlie 
tead^r  will  consider'  with  prbfotmd  attention;    It  ii  unne- 
cessary to  point  them  oitt,  6t  to  attempt  a  lengthened  cha- 
I'axrter  of  Dr.  Priei^ley.     It  ha)3  been  siaid  with  ttuth  that 
of  his  abilities,  none  cart*  hesitate  to'  pronounce  that  they 
trt  of  first-rate  excellence.     His  philosophical  inquiries 
and  publications  claim  the'  greatest  distinction,  and  have 
ittatenally  c6ntribiited  ta  the  advancement  of  science.     As 
iktl  experimental  philosopher,  he  was  among  the  first  oif 
his  age.     As  a  divine,  bad  he  prbved  as  diligent  in  propa- 
igftting  truth  as  in  disseminating  errbr,  in  establishing  the 
gospel  in  the' minds  of  men,  instead  of  shaking  their  be- 
lief irr  th^  doctrines  of  revelation,  perhaps  few  characters 
of  the  last  century  would  have  ranked  higher  as  learned 
ttien,  or  have  been  held  in  greater  estimation.     Such,  how- 
ever, was  not  the  character  of  his  theological  writings^ 
which,  as  Br.  Johnson  said,  were"  calculated  to  unsettle 
every  thing,  but  to  settle  nothing.     All  this  accords  with 
the  seritlihents  of  the  great  majority,  of  the  nation,  with  re- 
spect to  Br.  Priestley  as  a  divine,  although  we  are  aware 
th&t  the  epithet  of  bigot  will  be  applied  to  him  who  records 
the  fact.    On  the  other  hand,  in  dwelling  on  Dr.  Piriesti- 
ley'd  character  as  a  philosojiher,  his  friends  may  take  the 
itiokt  effectual  method  of  reconciling  all  parties,  and  hand- 
ing down  his  fame  undiminished  to  the  latest  posterity. 
We  have  enumerated  his  principal  Works  in  the  preceding 
Sketch,  but  the  whole  amount  to  about  70  volumes,  or 
tnnets,  in  8vo.     An  analysis  of  then!  is  given  in  the  "  Life>** 
to  which  we  are  principally  indebted  for  the  above  par^ 
ticular^.  * 

.  l^RIM ATieC  lO  (Francis) ,  an  eminent  ftdliari  painter, 
wa^  fl^scended  fVom  a  noble  family  in  fiologiia,  where  he 
was  born  in  1490.  His  friends,  perceiving  that  he  had  a 
strong  inclination  fbt  design,  permitted  him  to  go  to  Mao- 
nlua,  where  he  was  six  yeard  i,  disciple  of  Julio  Romano, 
who  was  then  otni&menting  the  apartments  of  the  palace 

'    "  Memoir^,"  paitJy  written  by  liiraself,  ai)d  partljr  by  (ijs  Soa,  1806-7, 
Sfoli.  8vo.-^eiit.  Mag:  LXXIV.— Rees'i  CyclopeOiai  «c. 

X  2 


del  Te. .  In  this  time  be  became  so  skilful,  tbat  he  repre* 
sented  battles  in  stucco  and  basso  relievo,  better  than  any 
of  the  young  painters  at  Mantua,  who  were  Julio^s  pupila. 
He  assisted  Julio  in  executing  his  designs ;  and  Francis  L  of 
France  sending  to  Rome  for  a  man  that  understood  working 
in  stucco,  Primaticcio  was  the  person  chosen  for  this  service^ 
and  he  adorned  Fontainbleau,  and  most  of  the  palaces  in 
France,  with  his  compositions.     The  king  put  such  confi^ 
dence  in  him,  that  he  sent  him  to  Rome  to  buy  antiques, 
in  1540 ;  on  which  occasion  he  brought  back  one  hundred 
and  fourscore  statues,  with  a  great  number  of  busts.     He 
bad  moulds  niade  by  Giacomo  Baroccio  di  Vignola,  of  the 
statues  of  Venus,  Laocoon,   Commodus,  the  Tiber,  the 
Kile,  the  Cleopatra  at  Belvidere,  and  Trajan^s  Pillar,  in 
order  to  have  them  cast  in  brass.    After  the  death  of  Rosso^ 
who  was  his  rival,  he  succeeded  him  in  the  place  of  super- 
intendant  of  the  buildings ;  and  in  a  little  tioie  finished  the 
gallery  which  his  predecessor  bad  begun.     He  brought  so 
'many  statues  of  marble  and  brass  to  Fontainbleau,  that  it 
seemed  another  Rbme,  as  well  for  the  number  of  the  antique^ 
as  for  his  own  works  in  painting  and  in  stucco.     He  was  bo 
imuch  esteemed  in  France,  that  nothing  of  any  consequence 
\iras.  done  without  him,  which  had  relation  to  painting  or 
building;  and  he  even  directed  the  preparations  for  all 
^festivals,  tournaments,  and  masquerades.     He  was  made 
abbot  of  St.  Martin  at  Troyes,  and  lived  with  such  splen- 
dour, that  he  was  respected  as  a  courtier  as  well  as  a 
painter.  '  He  and  Rosso  taught  the  French  a  good  style} 
for,  before  their  time,  what  they  had  done  in  the  arts  was 
very  inconsiderable,  and  had  something  of  the  Gothic  in  iti 
He  died  in  1 570,  at  the  age  of  eighty,  after  having  been  fa- 
voured and  caressed  in  four  reigns. 

The  frescoes  of  the  palace  del  Te  by  Primaticcio,  cannot 
lioi^,  says  Mr.  Fuseli,  with  certainty  be  discriminated.  His 
oil-pictures  are  of  the  utmost  rarity  in  Italy,  and  even  at 
Bologna.  In  the  great  gallery  Zambeccari  there  is  a  con- 
cert by  him,  with  three  female  figures,  a  most  enchanting 
performance.  The  eye  is  equally  charmed  by  the  forms, 
the  attitudes,  the  tone  of  colour,  the  breadth,  taste,  and 
ease  of  the  draperies,  and  the  original,  air  of  the  whole. 
T^icolo  Abbiiti,  the  partner  of  his  works,  though  not  his 
Ischolar,  was  left  by  him  to  terminate  what  remained  udt 
finished  of  bis  plans  in  France.' 

'  I  Aif  «nyiUe,  toI.  II.— PUkingWn  by  Fiselu 


P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  309 

'  PRINGLE  (Sir  John),  baronet,  president  of  the  Royal 
Society,  was  born  at  Stichel-bouse,  in  the  county  of  Rox- 
burgh, North  Britain,  April  10,  1707.  His  father  was  sir 
John  Pringle,  of  Sticbel,  hart,  and  his  mother,  whose  name 
was  Magdalen  Eliott,  was  sister  to  sir  Gilbert  Eliott  of  Stobs^ 
bart  Both  the  families  from  which  he  descended  were 
▼exy  ancient  and  honourable  in  the  south  of  Scotland,  and 
were  in  great  esteem  for  their  attachment  to  the  religion 
and  liberties  of  their  country,  and  for  their  piety  and  vir« 
toe  in  private  life.  He  was  the  youngest  of  several  sons, 
three  of  whom,  besides  himself,  arrived  to  years  of  matu- 
rity. His  grammatical  education  he  received  at  home, 
nnder  a  private  tutor ;  and  after  having  made  such  a  pro- 
gress as  qualified  him  for  academical  studies,  he  was  re- 
moved to  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  where  he  was  put 
under  the  immediate  care  of  Mr.  Francis  Pringle,  professor 
of  Greek  in  the  college,  and  a  near  relation  of  his/athen 
Having  continued  there  some  years,  he  went  to  Edinburgh 
in  Oct.  1727,  for  the  purpose  of  studying  physic,  that  being 
the  profession  which  he  now  determined  to  follow.  At 
Edinburgh^  however,  he  stayed  only  one  year,  the  reason 
of  which  was,  that  he  was  desirous  of  going  to  Leyden,  at 
that  time  the  most  celebrated  school  of  medicine  in  Eu*- 
rope.  Boerhaave,  who  had  brought  that  university  into 
reputation,  was  considerably  advanced  in  years,  and  Mr. 
Pringle  was  unwilling,  by  delay,  to  expose  himself  to  the 
danger  of  losing  the  benefit  of  that  great  man's  lectures. 
For  Boerhaave  he  had  a  high  and  just  respect:  but  it  was 
not  his  disposition  and  character  to  become  the  implicit 
and  systematic  follower  of  any  man,  however  able  and  dis- 
tinguished. While  he  studied  at  Leyden,  he  contracted 
an  intimate  friendship  with  Van  Swieten,  who  afterwards 
became  so  famous  at  Vienna,  both  by  his  practice  and 
writings^.  Van  Swieten  was  not  only  Pringle's  acquaint- 
ance and  fellow-student  at  the  university,  but  also  his  phy- 
sician when  he  happened  to  be  seized  there  with  a  fit  of 
lEfickness ;  yet  on  this  occasion  he  did  not  owe  his  recoviery 
to  bis  friend's  advice ;  for  Van  Swieten  having  refused  to 
give  him  the  bark,  another  person  prescribed  it,  and  he  was 
cured.  When  he  had  gone  through  his  proper  course  of 
studies  at  Leyden,  he  was  admitted,  Julj^  20,  1730,  to  his 
doctor  of  physic's  degree.  His  inaugural  dissertation, 
"  De  marcore  senili,"  was  printed*  Upon  quitting  Ley- 
den, Dr.  Pringle  settlod  as  a  physician  at  Edinburgh,  where 

HQ  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

»  •  *  *  . 

he  gfAned  the  e&teem  of  the  magUtrates  of  dpe  eiijf  ^ nd 
of  the  professiors  of  the  colleg^y  ky  his  abiUties  and  gop4 
conduct;  and^  su^h  vf^s  Ijiis  known  acquaioiaiiee  with  etibiv 
cal  subjects,  that,  March  28,  1734,  he  was  apppipte(},  by 
the  magistrates  and  counc^  of  the  jcity  of  £ijllubur^b>.  to  bf^ 
joint  prof/es^or  pi  {^neumati/cs  and  mora}  philosophy  witii 
Mr.  Scott,  during  that  gentleman's  life,  and  S9]e  prpfes^|r 
^fter  hM  decease ;  and,  in  consequence  of  thi^  appoiotiu^J^tp 
Pr.  P^ingle  wa^f  admittejd,  on  the  sa^pe  day^  a  no^oobef  of 
the  un^yer^ity.  Ii^  discl^grging  the  duties  of  thi^  n^sff  eiBt 
pjoyo^ep):,  his  te^t-bop^  wai^  <<  Puffejidorff  de  Q^aip  Ho^ 
minis  et  Civis,*'  agreeably  to  ithe  mietbod  he  pursue^ 
through  life,  of  makiqg  fact  and  experiment  the  basis  of 
8ci^p.CjB.  Dr.  Pringle  continued  in  the  practice  pf  phy^ 
^t  Edipbi^rgb,  and  ip  perfor^iiug  fbhe  obligations  of  his  pro^ 
fessprship,  till  1742,  ^\xen  he  was  appointed  physician  tp 
the  earl  of  Stair,  who  then  con>nianded  the  3ritisb  army, 
^or  t}us  appoiutfpent  he  was  chiefly  indebted  to  his  friei)4 
Dr.  SteyepsQp,  an  epiipent  physiciao  at  Edi^bi^rgh,  wha 
kad  ap  intiniate  acquaintance  with  lofd  Staijr.  By  the  in<v 
fQirest  of  this  Pobleman,  Pr.  Pringle  was  CQp»titpted,  Auj^ 
^^f  ^742,  physiician  to  the  miliary  bpspita^  ip  Flapder^^ 
apd  it  was  provided  in  Ithe  ooaimisision,  that  bp  should  re-? 
^eive  9  salary  pf  twenty  shiljipgs  a«day,  apd  be  entitled  ibqi 
h^lf-pay  for  life,  0e  did  not,  on  this  pcpasioii,  resign  his 
professorship  of  ipprai  philosophy ;  the  university  permitted 
|)im  to  relfaiu  it,  and  Messrs*  Muirhead  and  Cl^ghpro  werQ 
allowed  tp  teach  in  bis  absf^pce,  a^  )ong  as  he  continued  to 
request  itf  The  f^i&efpplary  attention  wt^ich  Dr.  Pringl^ 
paid  tp  hi^  <lnty  a^  ap  a^my  pbysiciap  is  apparent  from 
^very  pag^  of  hi^  **  Tr^atjse  on  .the  Diseases  pf  the  Army.'' 
Opf^  thipgi  howevpr,  de^ierye^  particularly  to  be  m^ptioped, 
fis  it  is  highly  probable  that  if:  was  owing  to  bis  suggestion^ 
I|  b^d  hitherto  h^ep  u^ualj  for  the  security  pf  the  sick, 
ivhep  the  ep^my  w^s  near,  to  remove  them  a  great  way 
froB|  the  camp ;  the  consequence  pf  which  was,  that  many 
fver^  lost  befpre  thf^y  camp  under  th^  care  of  the  physi^^ 
^ians.  The  earl  of  Stair,  beipg  sensible  of  this  evil,  prp- 
ppsed  tp  the  duke  de  Noaillps,  when  the  army  was  eon 
fsatnppd^t  Aschaffeuburg,  in  1743,  that  the  ho;^pitals  op 
both  sides  should  be  cppsidered  ^s  san^tparies  for  the  sick,^ 
s^nd  m.utually  protected.  The  French  general,  whp  wa^ 
distinguished  fpr  hi?  humapity^  readily  agrepd  tp  the.  pro « 
ppaal,  and  tppk  the  i^rst  oppor^upity  pf  shewing  a  propei; 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  ail 

c«gard  to  bis  engigement.  At  the  battle  of  Dettiiigei^ 
Dr.  PxiDgle  was  iu  a  coach  with  lord  Carteret  during  the 
whole  time  of  the  engagement,  and  the  situation  they  were 
placed  in  was  dangerous.  They  had  been  taken  unawares^ 
amd  were  kept  betwixt  the  fire  of  the  line  in  frpnt,  a 
French  battery  on  the  left,  and  a  wood  full  of  iiussars  on 
the  right.  The  coach  was  occasionally  shifted,  to  avoid 
being  in  the  eye  of  the  battery.  3opn  after  this  event. 
Dr.  Pringle  met  with  no  small  afBiction  in  the  retirenoent 
pf  his  great  friend,  the  earl  of  Stair>  from  the  army.  He 
offered  to  resign  with  his  noble  patron,  but  was  not  per- 
mitted. He^  therefore,  contented  himself  with  testifying 
bis  respect  and  gratitude  to  his  lordship,  by  accompanying 
him  forty  miles  on  his  return  to  England ;  after  which  he 
took  leave  of  him  with  the  utmost  regret. 

But  though  Dr,  Pringle  was  thus  deppved  of  the  imme* 
diate  protection  of  a  nobleman  who  knew  and  esteemed 
his  worth,  his  conduct  in  the  dqties  of  his  station  procured 
him  effectual  support.  He  attended  the  army  in  Flanders, 
through  the  campaign  of  1744,  and  so  powerfully  recom- 
mended himself  to  the  duke  of  Cumberland,  that,  in  the 
spring  following,  March  11,  he  had  a  commission  from  his 
royal  highness,  appointing  him  physic.ian  general  to  his 
majesty's  forces  in  the  Low  Countries,  and  parts  beyond 
the  seas ;  and  on  the  next  day  he  received  a  second  coiin- 
missioo  ifrom  the  duke,  by  which  he  was  constituted  phy« 
siciau  to  the  royal  hospitals  in  the  same  countries.  On 
March  5,  he  resigned  bis  professorship  in  consequence  pf 
these  promotions.  In  1745  he  was  with  the  army  in  Flan- 
ders,  but  was  recalled  from. that  country  in  the  latter  end 
of  the  year,  to  attend  the  forces  which  were  to  be  setnt 
against  the  rebels  in  Scotland.  At  this  time  he  had, the 
honour  of  being  chosen  F.  R.  S.  Dr.  Pringle,  at  the  be- 
ginning of  1746,  in  his  official  capacity,  accompanied  the 
duke  of  Cumberland  in  his  expedition  against  the  rebels, 
und  remained  with  the  forces,  after  the  battle  of  Culloden, 
till  their  return  to  England,  in  the  middle  of  August.  We 
do  not  find  that  he  was  in  Flanders  during  any  part  of  that 
.year.  In  1747  and  1743,  he  again  attended  the  army 
abroad ;  and  in  the  aatomn  of  1748  he  embarked  with  the 
forces  for  England,  upon  the  conclusion  of  the  treaty  of 
Aix-la-Ohapeile.  From  that  time  he .  principally  resided 
}fk  Londpn,  where,  from  his  known  skill  and  experiencej 
Mpd  the  reputation  he  had  acquired,  he  mcight  reasonably 

512  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

Expect  to  succeed  as  a  physician.  In  April  1749,  Dfl 
Pringle  was  appointed  physician  in  ordinary  to  his  royal 
highness  the  duke  of  Cumberland.  In  1750  he  published, 
in  a  letter  to  Dr,  Mead,  ^^Observations  on  the  Gaol  or 
Hospital  Fever.^' .  This  work,  which  passed  through  two 
editions,  and  was  occasioned  by  the  gadl-distemper  that 
broke  out  at  that  time  in  the  city  of  London,  was  well  re* 
ceived  by  the  medical  world,  though  he  himself  afterwards 
considered  it  as  having  been  hastily  written.  After  sup- 
plying, some  things  that  were  omitted,  and  rectifying  a 
few  mistakes  that  were  made  in  it,  he  included  it  in  his 
grand  work  on  the  **  Diseases  of  the  Army,'*  where  it  coni 
stitutesf  the  seventh  chapter  of  the  third  part  of  that  trea« 
tise.  It  was  in  the  same  yeiar  that  Dr.  Pringle  began  to 
communicate  to  the  Royal  Society  his  famous  *^  Experi^ 
xnents  upon  Septic  and  Antiseptic  substances^  with  re- 
marks  relating  to  their  use  in  the  theory  of  Medicine.*' 
These  experiments,  which  comprehended  several  papers, 
were  read  at  different  meetings  *of  the  society ;  the  first  in 
June,  and  the  two  next  in  the  November  following ;  three 
inore  in  the  course  of  1751 ;  and  the  last  in  Feb.  1752. 
Only  the  three  first  numbers  were  printed  in  the  *^  Philo-i 
sophical  Transactions,"  as  Dr.  Pringle  had  subjoined  the 
whole,  by  way  of  appendix,  to  his  **  Observations  on  the 
Diseases  of  the  Army.*'  These  experiments  lipon  septic 
and  antiseptic  substances,  which  have  accompanied  eveiy 
subsequent  edition  of  the  treatise  just  mentioned,  pro* 
cured  for  him.  the  honour  of  sir  Godfrey  Copley's  gold 
medal.  Besides  this,  they  gained  him  a  high  and  just  re-^ 
putation,  as  an  experimental  philosopher.  In  February 
1753,  he  presented  to  the  Royal  Society  "'An  Account  of 
several  Persons  seized  with  the  Gaol  Fever  by  working  in 
Newgate ;  and  of  the  manner  by  which  the  Infection  waft 
communicated  to  one  entire  family."  This  is  a  very  cu'* 
rious  paper;  and  was  deemed  of  such  importance  by  the 
excellent  Dr.  Stephen  Hales,  that  he  requested  the  author's 
permission  to  have  it  published,  for, the  common  good  of 
the  kingdom,  in  the  "  Gentleman's  Magazine ;"  where  it 
was  accordingly  printed,  previous  to  its  appearance  in  the 
Transactions.  Dr.  Pringle's  next  communication  was, 
*^  A  reniarkable  Case  of  Fragility,  Flexibility,  and  Disso* 
lutiou  of  the  Bones."  In  the  49th  volume  of  the  ^'  Trans- 
actions," we  meet  with  accounts  which  he  had  given  of  an 
earthquake  felt  at  Brussels^  of  another  at  Glasgow  and 

^  R  I  N  G  L  e!,  3li 

t)unbarton;  and  of  the  agitation  of  the  waters,  Nov.  1^ 
1156,  in  Scotland  and  at  Hamburgh.  The  50th  volume 
contains.  Observations  by  him  on  the  case  of  lord  Walpole^ 
of  Woolterton ;  and  a  relation  of  the  virtues  of  Soap  id 
dissolving  the  Stone,  as  experienced  by  the  reverend  Mr. 
Matthew  Simson.  The  next  volume  is  enriched  with  two 
of  the  doctors  articles,  of  considerable  length,  as  well  as 
value.  In  the  first,  be  has  collected,  digested,  and  re- 
lated th6  different  accounts  that  had  been  given  of  a  very 
extraordinary  Bery  meteor,  which  appeared  on  Sunday  the 
26th  of  November,  1758,  between  eight  and  nine  at  night; 
and,  in  the  second,  he  has  made  a  irariety  of  remarks 
upon  the  whole,  in  which  no  small  degree  of  philosophical 
sagacity  is  displayed.  It  would  be  tedious  to  mention  the 
various  papers,  which,  bbth  before  and  after  he  became 
president  of  the  Royal  Society,  were  transmitted  through 
bis  hands.  Besides  his  communications  in  the  Philosophi- 
cal Transactions,  he  wrote,  in  the  Edinburgh  Medical 
Essays,  Volume!  the  fifth,  an  ^'  Account  of  the  success  of 
the  Vitrum  erratum  Antimonii.'* 

April  14,  1752,  Dr.  Pririgle  married  Charlotte,  the  se- 
cond daughter  of  Dr.  Oliver,  an  eminent  physician  at 
Bath,  and  who  had  long  been  at  the  head  of  his  profession 
in  that  City.  This  connection  did  not  last  long,  the  lady 
dying  in  the  space  of  a  few  years.  Nearly  about  the  time 
of  his  marriage,  Dr.  Pringle  gave  to  the  public  the  first 
edition  of  his  "  Observations  on  the  Diseases  of  the  Army.*' 
it  was  reprinted  in  the  year  following,  with  some  additions! 
To  the  third  edition,  which  was  greatly  improved  from  the 
further  experience  the  author  had  gained  by  attending  the 
camps,  for  three  seasons,  in  England,  an  Appendix,  was 
annexed,  in  answer  to  some  remarks  that  professor  De 
Haen,  of  Vienna,  and  M.  Gaber,  of  Turin,  had  made  on 
the  work.  A  similar  attention  was  paid  to  the  improve- 
ment of  the  treatise,  in  every  subsequent  edition.  The 
work  is  divided  into  three  parts ;  the  first  of  which,  being 
principally  historical,  may  be  read  with  pleasure  by  every 
gentlemati.  The  latter  parts  lie  more  within  the  province 
of  physicians,  who  are  the  best  judges  of  the  merit  of  the 
performance ;  and  to  its  merit  the  most  decisive  and  am- 
ple testimonies  have  been  given.  It  hath  gone  through 
seven  editions  at  home  ;  and  abroad  it  has  been  translated 
into  the  French,  German,  and  Italian  languages.  Scarcely 
kny  medical  writer  bath  mentioned  it  without  some  tribute! 

914  P  R  I  N  G  L  £. 

of  applause*  Ludwig,  in  tbe  second  volume  of  bis  '<  Coow 
mentarii  de  Rebus  in  Scienda  Natural!  et  Medicina  gestis^" 
speaks  of  it  highly;  and  gives  an  account  of  it,  which 
comprehends  sixteen  pages.  The  celebrated  and  eminent 
baron  Haller,  in  his  **  Bibliotheca  Anatomica,^'  with  a 
particular  reference  to  the  treatise  we  are  speaking  of, 
styles  the  author  ^^  Vir  illustris — de  omnibus  bonis  artibus 
bene  meritus.''  It  is  allowed  to  be  a  classical  book  in  the 
physical  line ;  and  has  placed  the  writer  of  it  in  a  rank 
with^the  famous  Sydenham.  Like  Sydenham,  too,  he  has 
become  eminent,  not  by  the  quantity,  but  the  value  of  his 
productions ;  and  has  afforded  a  happy  instance  of  the 
great  and  deserved  fame  which  may  sometimes  arise  from 
a  single  performance.  The  reputation  that  Dr.  Pringle 
gained  by  his  ^^  Observations  on  the  Diseases  of  the  Army/' 
was  not  of  a  kind  which  is  ever  likely  to  diminish.  The 
utility  of  it,  however,  was  of  still  greater  importance  than 
its  reputation.  From  the  time  that  he  was  appointed  a 
physician  to  the  army,  it  seems  to  have  been  his  grand 
object  to  lessen,  as  far  as  lay  in  his  power,  the  calamities 
of  war^;  nor  was  he  without  considerable  success  in  his 
jipble  and  benevolent  design.  By  the  instructions  received 
from  this  book,  the  late  general  Melville,  who  united  with 
bis  military  abilities  the  spirit  of  philosophy,  and  the  spirit 
of  humanity,  was  enabled,  when  governor  of  the  Neutral 
Islands,  to  be  singularly  useful.  By  taking  care  to  have 
bis  men  always  lodged  in  large,  open,  and  airy  apartments, 
and  by  never  letting  his  forces  remain  long  enough  in 
swampy  places,  to  be  injured  by  the  noxious  air  of  such 

J)]aces,  the  general  was  the  happy  instrument  of  saving  the 
ives  of  seven  hundred  soldiers.  Ijn  1763,  Dr.  Pringle  was 
chosen  one  of  the  council  of  the  Royal  Society.  Though 
be  had  not  for  some  years  been  called  abroad,  he  still  held 
his  place  of  physician  to  the  army;  and,  in  the  war  tha( 
began  in  1755,  attended  the  camps  in  England  during  three 
reasons.  This  enabled  him,  from  further  experience,  to 
correct  some  of  his  former  observations,  and  to  give  addi« 
(ional  perfection  to  the  third  edition  of  his  great  work.  In 
1758,  he  entirely  quitted  the  service  of  the  army;  and 
being  now  determined  to  fix  wholly  in  London,  be  was 
admitted  a  licentiate  of  the  college  of  physicians,  July  5, 
it)  the  same  year.  The  reason  why  this  matter  was  so  long 
delayed  might  probably  be,  his  not  having  hitherto  come 
to  a  final  resolution  with  regard  to  his  settlement  in  tb^ 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  SIS 

metropolis.  After  the  accession  of  king  George  III.  td 
tbe  tbrpne  of  Great  Brits^in,  Dr.  Pringle  was  appointed,  in 
176^,  pby9ician  to  tbe  oueen^s  household  ;  and  this  honour 
was  succeeded,  by  his  being  constituted,  in  1763,  physi- 
<:ian  extraordioary  to  her  majesty.  In  April  in  the  same 
ye^r,  be  had  been  chosen  a  member  of  the  Academy  of 
Sciences  at  Haarlem  ;  and,  June  following,  he  was  elected 
a  fellow  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  London.  la 
j^h^  succeeding  November,  he  was  returned  on  the  ballot^' 
1^  second  time,  one  of  the  counciPof  the  Royal  Society  ; 
liud,  in  1704,  on  the  decease  of  Dr.  Wollaston,  he  was 
made  physician  in  ordinary  to  the  queen.  In  Feb.  17^6^ 
be  w^s  fleeted  a  foreign  member,  in  the  physical  line,  of 
tbe  Royal  Society  of  Sciences  at  Gottingen  ;  and,  on  the 
jftb  of  June  in  that  year,  his  majesty  was  graciously  pleased 
to  testify  bis  sense  of  Dr.  Pringle^s  abilities  and  merit,  bj 
raising  him  to  tbe  dignity  of  a  baronet  of  Great  Britain^ 
Jn  July  1768,  sir  John  Pringle  was  appointed  physician  in 
^ordinary  to  her  late  royal  highness  the  princess  dowager  of 
Wales ;  to  which  office  a  salary  was  annexed  of  1 00/.  a«year« 
In  1770,  be  was  chosen,  a  third  time,  into  the  council  of 
the  Royal  Society;  as  he  was,  likewise,  a  fourth  time,  for 
J772.  . 

On  Nov.  30,  in  that  year,  in  consequence  of  the  death 
of  James  West,  esq.  he  was  elected  president  of  that  illus* 
trious  and  learned  body.  His  election  to  this  high  station^ 
though  he  had  so  respectable  an  opponent  as  the  late  siir 
James  Porter,  was  carried  by  a  very  considerable  naajority^ 
This  was  undoubtedly  tbe  highest  honour  that  sir  John 
pringle  ever  received ;  an  honour  with  which  bis  other 
literary  distinctions  could  not  be  compared.  It  was  at  9, 
▼ery  auspicious  time  that  sir  John  Pringle  was  called  upon 
to  preside  over  tbe  Royal  Society.  A  wonderful  ardour 
•for  philosophical  science,  and  for  the  advancement  of  na* 
tural  knowledge,  had  of  late  years  displayed  itself  througb 
£urope,  and  had  appeared  with  particular  advantage  in 
our  own  country.  He  endeavoured  to  cherish  it  by  all  tbQ 
methods  that  were  in  his  power ;  and  he  happily  strucl( 
upon  a  new  way  to  distinction  anxl  usefulness,  by  the  dis-* 
courses  which  were  delivered  by  him  on  the  annual  assign* 
ment  of  sir  Godfrey  Copley's  medal.  This  gentleman  bad 
originally  bequeathed  Ave  guineas,  to  be  given  at  each 
impiversary  meeting  of  the  Royal  Society,  by  the  deter^ 
faination  of  the'  president  and  council,  to  the  person  wba 

Sl^  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

fiad  been  the  author  of  the  best  paper  of  experimental  ob«' 
servations  for  the  year  past.  In  process  of  time,  this  pe- 
cuniary reward,  which  could  never  be  an  important  con- 
sideration to  a  man  of  an  enlarged  and  philosophical  mind, 
however  narrow  his  circumstances  might  be,  was  changed 
into  the  more  liberal  form  of  a  gold  medal ;  in  which  fom^ 
it  is  become  a  truly  honourable  mark  of  distinction,  and  a 
just  and  laudable  object  of  ambition.  It  was,  no  doubt^ 
always  usual  with  the  president,  on  the  delivery  of  the 
nfedal,  to  pay  some  cdrnplimeilt  to  the  gentleman  on  whom 
it  was  bestowed  i  but  the  custom  of  making  a  set  speech  on 
the  occasion,  and  of  entering  into  the  history  of  that  part 
of  philosophy  to  which  the  experiments  related,  was  first 
introduced  by  Mr.  Martin  P'olkes.  The  discourses,  how- 
ever, which  he  and  his  successors  delivered  were  very 
short,  and  were  only  inserted  in  the  minute-books  of  the 
society.  None  of  them  had  ever  been  printed  before  sir 
John  Pringle  was  raised  to  the  chair.  -  The  first  speech 
that  was  made  by  him  being  much  more  elaborate  and  ex- 
tended than  usual,  the  publication  of  it  was  desired ;  and 
with  this  request,  it  is  said,  he  was  the  more  ready  to  com- 
ply, as  an  absurd  account  of  what  he  had  delivered  had  ap- 
peared in  a  newspaper.  Sir  John  Pringle  was  very  happy 
in  the  subject  of  his  primary  discourse.  The  discoveries 
in  magnetism  and  electricity  had  been  succeeded  by  the 
inquiries  into  the  various  species  of  air.  In  these  en- 
quiries Dr.  Priestley,  who  had  already  greatly  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  electrical  experiments,  and  his 
other  philosophical  pursuits  and  labours,  took  the  principal 
lead.  A  paper  of  his,  entitled  "Observations  on  different 
kinds  of  Air,'*  having  been  read  before  the  society  in 
March  1772,  was  adjudged  to  be  deserving  of  the  gold 
medal;  and  sir  John  Pringle  embraced  with  pleasure  the 
occasion  of  celebrating  the  important  communications  of 
bis  friend,  and  of  relating  with  accuracy  and  fidelity  what 
had  previously  been  discovered  upon  the  subject.  At  the 
close  of  the  speech,  he  earnestly  requested  Dr.  Priestley 
to  continue  his  liberal  and  valuable  inquiries;  and  we  have 
recently  said  how  well  he  fulfilled  this  request.  It  was 
not,  we  believe,  intended,  when  sir  John  Pringle's  first 
speech  was  printed,  that  the  example  should  be  followed  : 
but  the  second  discourse  was  so  w'eW  received  by  the  Royal 
Society,  that  the  publication  of  it  was  unanimously  re-i^ 
quested.    Both  the  discourse  itself,    and  the  subject  oa 

P  H  I  N  G  L  E.  ?17 

iMch  it  was  delivered,  merited  such  a  distinction.  Th^ 
composition  of  tbe  second  speech  is  evidently  superior  to 
that  of  the  former;  sir  John  having  probably  being  ani- 
mated by  the  favourable  reception  of  his  first  effort.  His 
account  of  tbe  torpedo,  and  of  Mr.  Walshes  ingenious  and, 
admirable  (experiments  relative  to  the  electrical  properties 
of  that  extraordinary  fish,  is  singularly  curious.  The 
whole  discourse  abounds  with  ancient  and  modern  learning, 
and  exhibits  sir  John  Pringle's  knowledge  in  natural  his^ 
tory,  as  well  as  in  medicine,  to  great  advantage.  The  third 
time  that  he  was  called  upon  to  display  his  abilities  at  the 
delivery  of  sir  Godfrey's  medal,  was  on  an  eminently  im- 
portant occasion.  This  was  no  less  than  Mr.  (the  late  Dr.) 
Maskelyne^s  successful  attempt  con)pletely  to  establish  sir 
Isaac  Newton's  system  of  the  universe,  by  his  "  Observa- 
tions made  on  the  mountain  Scbehallien,  for  finding  its  at- 
traction." Sir  John  Pringle  took  advantage  of  this  oppor- 
tunity, to  give  a  perspicuous  and  accurate  relation  of  the 
several  hypotheses  of  tbe  ancients,  with  regard  to  the  revor 
lutions  of  the  heavenly  bodies,  and  of  the  noble  discoveries 
with  which  Copernicus  enriched  the  astronomical  world. 
IHe  then  traced  the  progress  of  the  grand  principle  of  gra- 
vitation down  to  sir  Isaac's  illustrious  confirmation .  of  it ; 
to  which  he  added  a  concise  narrative  of  Messrs.  Bour 
guar's  and  Condamine^s  experiment  at  Chimboraco,  and  of 
Mr.  Maskelyne's  at  Schehallien.  If  any  doubts  yet  re^ 
inained  with  respect  to  the  truth  of  the  Newtonian  system, 
they  were  now  totally  removed.     Sir  John  Pringle  had 

Jeason  to  be  peculiarly  satisfied  with  the  subject  of  his 
burth  discourse ;  that  subject  being  perfectly  congenial 
to  his  disposition  and  studies.  His  own  jife  had  been  much 
epiployed  jn  pointing  out  the  means  which  tended  not  only 
to  cure,  but  to  prevent,  the  diseases  of  mankind ;  and  it 
is  projbable,  from  his  intimate  friendship  with  capt.  Cook» 
that  be  might  suggest  to  that  sagacious  commander  some 
of  the  rules  which  be  followed,  in  order  to  preserve  the 
health  of  the  crew  of  bis  majesty's  ship  the  Resolution,^ 
during  her  voyage  round  the  world.  Whether  this  was  the.^ 
case,  or  whether  the  method  pursued  by  the  captain  to 
attain  so  salutary  an  end,  was  the  result  alone  of  his  own 
reflections,  the  success  of  it  'was  astonishing;  and  this  fa- 
mous voyager  seemed  well  entitled  to  every  honpur  which 
could  be^  bestowed.  To  him  tbe  society  assigned  their 
|;old  medal,  but  he  was  not  present  to  receive  the  honour* 

SIS  P  R  I  N  G  L  E-. 

He  was  gone  out  upbn  that  voyagfe  from  vtMeh  he  ittfet 
teturned.  In  this  last  voyage  he  c6ntitrued  ctijiiaSy  stic* 
cessfui  in  maintaining  the  health  of  his  liben. 

Sir  John  Pringle,  in  his  next  annual  dissertatton,  haJatt 
6pportanity  of  displaying  his  knowledge  in  a  way  in  whrch 
it  bad  not  hitherto  appeared.     The  discourse  tobfe  its  the 
from  the  prize  niedars  being  adjudged  to  Mr.  Mudge,  arf 
eminent  sinrgeon  at  Plymouth,  upon  account  of  his  valii^ 
ab?le  paper,  containing  "  Directions  for  making  the  best 
composition  for  the  metals  of  Reflecting  Tetescopes,  to- 
gether with  a  description  of  the  pocess  for  grinding,  po- 
Ksfaing,  and  giving  the  great  speculum  the  trud  paraboKt 
form."     Sir  John  has  accurately  related  a  variety  of  parti^ 
eulatrsy  concerning  the  invention  of  reflecting  telescopes, 
the  subsequent  improvements  of  thes^  instruments,  and  the 
«ate  in  which  Mr.  Mudge  found  them,  when  he  l5tst  set 
about  working  them  to  a  greater  perfection,  till  be  had 
tmly  realized  the  expectation  of  sir  Isaac  Newton,  who, 
tfbove  an  hundred  years  ago,,  presaged  that  tb^  poblicr 
would  one  day  possess  a  parabolic  *specdlum,  Hot  acpom^ 
l^iished  by  mathematical  rules,  but  by  mechanical  deviees. 
Sir  John  Pnngle's  sixth  discourse,  to  which  he  w^s  led  by 
the  assignment  of  the  gold  medal  to  Mr.  (now  Dr.)  fifutton, 
Cn  account  of  his  curious  paper,  entitled  **The  Poi*ce  of 
fired  Gnsnpowder,  and  the  initial  Velocity  of  Cannon-balW, 
determined  by  experiments,"  was  the  theory  of  gunnery; 
Though  sir  John  had  so  long  attended  the  arwy,  this  wai 
probably  a  subject  to  which  he  had  heretofore  pdd  ierf 
fittle  attention.     We  cannot,  however,  help  admiring  <vWi 
what  perspicuity  and  judgment  he  has  stated  tt^e  pr6gres^ 
l^at  was  made,  from  time  to  time,  in  the  knowledge  6f 
projectiles,  and  the  scientific  perfection  to  which  his  friend 
Mr.  Hutton  had  carried  this  knowledge.     Sir  John  l^riugld 
was  not  one  of  those  who  delighted  ij^l  war,  and  in   Hh^ 
shedding  of  human  blood  ;  he  was  happy  in  being  able  to 
shew  that  even  the  study  af  artillery  might  be  useful  to 
mankind  ;  and,  therefore,  this  is  a  topic  which  he  h&s  not 
forgotten  to  mention.     Here  ended  his  discourses  upon  the 
delivery  of  sir  Godfrey  Copley's  medal.     If  he  had  con- 
tinued to  preside  in  the  chair  of  the  Royal  Society,  h^f 
would,  no  doubt,  have  found  othei:  occasions  of  displaying 
bis  acquaintance  with  the  history  of  philosophy.     But  thef 
opportunities  which  he  had  of  signalizing  himself  in  this- 
respect  were  importairt  in  themselves,  happily  varied,  anrf 
•uflicient  to  gain  him  a  solid  and  lasting  reputation. 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  SI9 

Sererat  marks  of  Kterary  distinctiob,  as  we  have  already 
ieex}f  had  bieen  coiifearred  upon  sir  John  Pringle,  beft)iPB  he 
was  raised  to  the  president's  chair;  but  after  ttest  event,  they 
were  bestowed  upon  him  with  great  abundance ;  and,  not 
again  to  resume  the  subject,  we  shall  here  collect  them  to- 
gether. Previously,  however^  to  these  honours  (excepting 
his  having  been  chosen  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries of  London),  he  received  the  last  promotion  thaft 
was  given  him  in  his  medical  capacity,  which  wa«,  htk 
being  appointed,  Nov.  4,  1174,  physician  eittraordinary 
to  his  majesty.  In  the  year  1776  be  was  enrolled  in  the 
list  of  the  members  of  no  less  than  four  learned  bodies; 
These  were,  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Madrid  ; 
the  Society  of  Amsterdam,  for  the  promotion  of  Agricul- 
ture ;  the  Royal  Academy  of  Medical  Correspondence  at 
Paris;  and  the  Imperial  Academy  of  Sciences  at  St.  Pe*^ 
tersburg.  In  July  1777,  sir  John  Pringfe  was  nominated^ 
by  his  sevene  highness  the  landgrave  of  Hesse,  an  honorary 
member  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  at  Cassel.  In  1778 
he  succeeded  the  celebrated  Linnaeus,  as  one  of  the  foreign 
members  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Paris.  Thit 
honour  was  then  extended,  by  that  illustrious  body,  only^ 
to  eight  persons,  on  which  account  it  was  justly  esteemed 
a  most  eminent  mark  of  distinction  ;•  and  we  beireve  there 
have  been  few  or  no  instances  wherein  it  has  been  con* 
ferred  on  any  other  than  men  of  great  and  acknowledged 
abilities  and  reputation.  In  October  in  the  same  year^ 
our  author  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Medical  Society  at 
Hanau.  In  the  succeeding  year,  March  29,  he  wa's 
elected  a  foreign  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sci- 
ences and  Belles  Lettres  at  Naples.  The  last  testimony 
^f  respect  which  was,  in  this  way,  bestowed  upon  sir  Johti 
Pringle,  was  his  being  admitted,  in  1781,  into  the  num^ 
ber  of  the  felbws  of  the  newly-erected  Society  of  Anti-* 
quaries  at  Edinburgh,  the  particular  design  of  which  is  to 
investigate  the  history  and  antiquities  of  Scotland. 

It  was  at  a  late  period  of  life,  when  sir  John  Pringle 
was  in  the  sixty-sixth  year  of  his  age,  that  he  was  chosen 
to  be  president  of  the  Royal  Society.  Considering,  there- 
fore, the  extreme  attention,  that  was  paid  by  him  to  the  va-? 
i^ious  and  important  duties  of  his  oi£ce,  and  the  great  pains 
he  took  in  the  preparation  of  his  discourses,  it  was  natural 
to  expect  that  the  burden  of  his  honourable  station  should 
grow  heavy  Upon  him  in  a  course  of  time.     This  burden  was 

MQ  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

^iDcreased  not  only  by  the  weight  of  years,  but  by  the  acd^ 
.dent  of  a  fall  in  the  area  in  the  back  part  of  his  house,  frooi 
^lvhich  he  received  considerable  hurt,  and  which,  in  its  con- 
sequences, affected  his  health  and  weakened  his  spirits. 
.Such  being  the  state  of  his  body  and  mind,  he  began  to  en- 
.tertain  thoughts  of  resigning  thei  president's  chair.     It  ha3 
J)een  said  likewise,  and  believed,  that  he  was  much  hurt  by 
■the  disputes  introduced  into  the  society,  concerning  the 
^qi|estion,, whether  pointed  or  blunted  electrical  conductors 
^re  the  most  efficacious  in  preserving  buildings  from  the 
pernicious  effects  of  lightning.     Perhaps  sir  John  Pringle's 
declining  years,,  and  the  general  state  of  his  health,  will 
form  sufficient  reasons  for  his  resignation.     His  intention, 
)iowever,  was  disagreeable  to  many  of  his  friends,  and  to 
many  distinguished  members  of  the  Royal  Society.     Ac* 
cordingiy,  they  earnestly  solicited  him  to  continue  in  the 
chair ;  but,  his  resolution  being  fixed,  he  resigned  it  at  the 
Mniversary  meeting  in  1778.    Joseph  Banks,  esq.  (now  sir 
Joseph  Banks)  was  unanimously  elected  president  in  his 
fQom,   a  gentleman  whose  life,  and  the  services  he  has 
rendered  to  science,  will  hereafter  form  an  importapt  article 
in  bjographicai  works.     Though  sir  John  Pringle  quitted 
his  particular  relation  to  the.  Royal  Society,  and  did  nof 
attend  its  meetings  so  constantly  as  he  had  formerly  done^- 
he  still  retained  his  literary  connexions  in  general.  ,  His 
house  continued  to  be  the  resort  of  ingenious  and  philoso- 
phical .men,  whether  of  his  own  country  or  from  abroad^ 
and  he  was  frequent  in  his  visits  to  his  friends.  .  He  wa^ 
hel^  in  particular  esteem  by  eminent  and  learned  foreigners, 
pone  of  whom  came  to  England  without  waiting  upon  bim^ 
and  paying  him.  the  greatest  respect*     He  treated  them,  in 
return,  with  distinguished  civility. and  regard.     When  a 
number  of  gjentlemen  met  at  bis  table,  foreigners  were 
usually  a  part  of  the  company..    Sir  John  Pringle's  infirmi** 
ties  incrieasing,  he  hoped  that  he  might  receive  aii  advan- 
tage from  an  excursion  to   Scotland,    and  spending  the 
summer  there  ;  which  he  did  in  1780,  principally  at  Edin- 
burgh.. He  had  probably  then  formed  some  design  of  fixing 
his  residence  in  that  city.     However  this  may  have  been, 
he, was  so  well  pleased  with  a  place  to  which  be  had  been- 
habituated  in  his  younger  days,  ^nd  with  the  respect  shewn 
him  by  bis  friend^,  that  he  purchased  a  house  there^  whi- 
ther he  iqtended  to  return  in  the  following  spring.     Whea. 
he  came  back  to  London,  in  the  autunui  of  the  jear  abo?e 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  321 

iiientioii«d,  he  began  to  pirepare  for  patting  bis  scbeme 
into  execution.     Accordingly,  having  first  disposed  of  th« 
greatest  part  of  his  library,  he  sold  his  house  in  PalUmall^ 
in  April  1781,  and  some  few  days  after  removed  to  Edin* 
burgh.     In  this  city  he  was  treated,    by  persons  of  ali 
ranks,  with  every  mark  of  distinction.    But  Edinburgh  was 
not  now  to  him  what  it  had  been  in  early  life.     The  viva« 
eity  of  spirits,  which  in  the  days  of  youth  spreads  such  a 
charm  on  the  objects  that  surround  us,  was  fled.     Many, 
if  not  most,  of  sir  John  Pringle^s  old  friends  and  contem* 
poraries,  were  dead  ;  and  though  some  of  them  remained, 
they  could  not  meet  together  with  the  same  strength  of 
eonstitotion,  the  same  ardour  of  pursuit,  the  same  anima- 
tion of  hope,  which  they  had  formerly  possessed.     The 
younger  men  of  eminence  paid  him  the  sincerest  testi- 
monies of  esteem  and  regard  ;  but  it  was  too  late  in  life  for 
him  to  form  new  habits  of  close  and  intimate  friendship. 
He  found,  likewise,  the  air  of  Edinburgh  too  sharp  and 
cold  for  his  frame,  which  had  long  been  peculiarly  sensible 
to  the  severities  of  weather.-    These  evijs  were  exaggerated 
by  his  increasing  infirmities,  and  perhaps  by  that  restless* 
ness  of  mind,  which,  in  the  midst  of  bodily  complaints,  is 
still  hoping  to  derive  some  benefit  from  a  change  of  place. 
He  determined,  therefore,  to  return  once  more  to  London, 
where  he  arrived  in  the  beginning  of  September.     Before 
sir  John  Prin^le  entirely  quitted  Edinburgh,  he  requested 
his  friend.  Dr.  John  Hope,  to  present  ten  volumes  folio, 
of  *^  Medical  and  Physical  Observations,"  in  manuscript, 
to  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians  in  that  city.     This  be- 
nefaction was  conferred  on  two  conditions ;  first,  that  the 
observations  should  not  be  published  ;  and  iecondly,  that 
they  should  not  be  lent  out  of  the  library  on  any  pretence 
whatever.   A  meeting  of  the  college  being  summoned  upon 
the  occasion,  sir  John's  donation  was  accepted  with  much 
gratitude,  and  a  resolution  passed  to  comply  with  the  terms 
on'  which  it  was  bestowed.     He  was,  at  the  same  time, 
preparing  two  other  volumes  to  be  given  to  the  university, 
containing  the  formulas  referred  tb  in  his  annotations. 

Sir  John  Pringle,  upon  his  arrival  at  the  metropolis, 
found  his  spirits  somewhat  revived.  He  was  greatly  pleased 
with  revisiting  his  London  friends,  and  he  was  received 
by  them  with  equal  cordiality  and  affection.  His  Siaikiday 
evening  conversations  were  honoured  with  the  attendance 
•of  many  respectable  men ;  and,  on  th*e  other  nights  of  the 

Vol.  XXV.  Y  V 

322  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

week)  be  had  the  pleasure  of  spending  a  couple  of  bour^ 
with  his  firiends,  at  a  society  that  had  lon^  been  established^ 
and  which  had  met,  for  some  time  past,  at  Mr.  Wutson\s,  a 
grocer,  iii  the  Strand.  Sir  Jobn'u  connection  with  thi* 
society,  and  his  constant  attendance  upon  it,  formed,  to 
the  last,  one  of  his  principal  entertainments.  The  morning 
was  chiefly  employed  by  him  in  receiving  and  returning 
the  visits  of  his  various  acquaintance ;  and .  he  had  fre-« 
quently  a  small  and  select  party  to  dine  with  him  at  his 
apartments  in  King-street,  St.  James's-square.  All  this 
while  his  strength  declined  with  a  rapidity  which  did  not 
permit  his  friends  to  hope  that  his  life  would  long  be  con- 
tinued. On  Monday  evening,  Jan.  14,  1782,  being  with 
the  society  at  Watson's,,  he  was  seized  with  a  fit,  from 
which  he  never  recovered.  He  was  accompanied  home  by 
Dr.  Saunders,  for  whom  he  had  the  highest  regard  ;  and  in* 
whom  he  had,  in  every  respect,  justly  placed  the  roost 
unreserved  confidence.  The  doctor  afterwards  attended 
him  with  unwearied  assiduity,  but,  to  any  medical  puf-* 
pose,  entirely,  in  vain ;  for  he  died  on  the  Friday  follo\*'- 
ing,  being  the  18th  day  of  the  month,  in  the  seventy-fifth 
year  of  his  age ;  and  the  account  of  his  death  was  every 
where  received  in  a  manner  which  shewed  the  high  sense 
.that  was  entertained  of  his  merit.  On  the  7th  of  Februarv 
he  was  interred  in  St.  Jameses  church,  with  great  funeral 
solemnity,  and  with  a  Tery  honourable  attendance  of  emi- 
nent and  respectable  friends.  As  a  testimony  of  regard  to 
jiis  memory,  at  the  first  meeting  of  the  College  of  Pby* 
sicians  at  Edinburgh,  after  his  decease,  all  the  members 
appeared  ifi  deep  mourning. 

Sir  John  Pringle,  by  long  practice,  had  acquired  » 
handsome  fortune,  which  he  disposed  of  with  great  pru*- 
dence  and  propriety.  The  bulk  of  it,  as  might  naturally 
and  reasonably  be  expected,  be  bequeathed  to  his  worthy 
uepheLW  and  heir,  sir  James  Pringle,  of  Stichel,  bart. 
.whom  he  appointed  bis  sole  executor.  But  the  whole  was 
not  immediately  to  go  to  sir  James ;  for  a  sum  equal|  we 
believe,  to  seven  hundred  poinds  a  year,  was  appropriated 
to  annuities,  revertible  to  that  gentleman  at  the  decease  of 
the  annuitants.  By  these  means,  sir  John  exhibited,  an 
important  proof  of  his  regard  and  affection .  for  several  of 
bis  i^luable  relations  and  friends.  Sir  John  Pringle*s  eQii- 
nent  character  as  a  practical  physician,  as  well  as  a  medical 
author,  is  so  well  known,  and  so  universally  acknowledge, 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  32$ 

that  an  enlargei|ient  upon  it  cannot  be  necessary.  In  the 
exercise  of  his  profession .  he  was  not  rapacioas ;  being 
ready,  on  various  occasions,  to  give  his  advice  without  pe- 
cuniary views.  The  turn  of  sir  John  Pringle's  mind  led 
him  chiefly  to  the  love  of  science,  which  he  built  on  the 
firm  basis  of  fact.  With  regard  to  philosophy  in  general, 
he  was  as  averse  to  theory,  unsupported  by  experiments, 
as  he  was  with  respect  to  medicine  in  particular.  Lord 
Bacon  Was  his  favourite  author ;  and  to  the  method  of 
investigating  recommended  by  that  great  man  he  steadily 
adhered.  Such  being  his  intellectual  character,  it  will  not 
be  thought  surprising  that  he  had  a  dislike  to  Plato.  To 
inetapbysical  disquisitions  he  lost  all  regard  in  the  latter 
part  of  his  life ;  and,  though  some  of  his  most  valued 
friends  had  engaged  in  discussions  of  this  kind,  with  very 
different  views  of  things,  he  did  not  choose  to  revert  to  the 
studies  of  his  youth,  but  contented  himself  with  the  opi* 
nions  he  had  then  formed. 

Sir  John  Pringle  had  not  much  fondness  for  poetry.  He 
had  not  even  any  distinguished  relish  for  the  immortal 
Shakspeare  :  at  least,  he  seemed  too  highly  sensible  of  the 
xlefects  of  that  illustrious  bard,  to  give  him  the  proper 
degree  of  estimation.  Sir  John  Pringle  had  not,  in  his 
youth,  been  neglectful  of  philological  inquiries ;  and, 
after  having  omitted  them  for  a  time,  he  returned  to  tliem 
again;  so  far,  at  least,  as  Co  endeavour  to  obtain  a  more 
exact  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language,  probably  with  a 
view  to  a  better  understanding  of  the  New  Testament.  He 
paid  a  great  attention  to  the  French  language ;  and  it  is 
said  that  he  was  fond  of  Voltaire's  critical  writings.  Among 
all  his  other  pursuits,  sir  John  Pringle  never  forgot  the 
study  of  the  English  language.  This  he  regarded  as  a 
matter  of  so  much  consequence,  that  he  took  uncommon 
pains  with  respect  to  the.  style  of  his  compositions ;  tind  it 
cannot  be  denied  that  he  excels  in  perspicuity,  correctness, 
and  propriety  of  expression.  Though  he  slighted  poetry, 
he  was  very  fond  of  music.  He  \vas  even  a  performer  on 
the  violoncello,  at  a  weekly  concert  given  by  a  society  of 
gentlemen  at  Edinburgh.  Besides  a  close  application  to 
medical  and  philosophical  science,  sir  John  Pringle,  during 
the  latter  part  of  his  life,  devoted  much  time  to  the  study 
of  divinity  :  this  was,  with  him,  a  very  favourite  and  inte- 
resting object.  He  corresponded  frequently  with  Mi* 
cbg^lis  on  theological  subjects ;  and  that  celebrated  pro- 


324  P  R  I  N  G  L  E. 

fessor  addressed  to  hiai  some  letters  on  ^*  Daniel's  Pro« 
phecy  of  the  Seventy  Weeks,"  which  sir  John  thought 
worthy  of  being  published  in  this  country.   He  was  accord- 
ingly at  considerable  pains,   and   some  expence,   in'  the 
publication,  which  appeared  in  1773,  under  this  following 
title:  '^ Joannis Davidis  Michaelis,  .Prof.  Ordin.  Philos.  et 
Soc.  Reg.  Scient.  Goettingensis  Collegse,  EpistolsB,  de  LXX 
Hebdomadibus  Danielis,  ad  D.  Joannem  Pringie,  baronet- 
tum  :  primo  privatim  roissse,  nunc  vero  utriosque  consensu 
publice  editee,"  8vo.     Sir  John  Pringie   was   likewise   a- 
diligent  and  frequent  reader  of  sermons,  which  form  so 
valuable  a  part  of  English  literature.     If,  from  the  intel- 
lectual, we  pass  on  to  the  moral  character  of  sir  John 
Pringie,  we  shall  find  that  the  ruling  feature,  of  it  was  inte- 
grity.    By   this   principle   he   was  uniformly  actuated  in 
the  whole  of  his  behaviour.     All  his  acquaintance  with  one 
voice  agreed  that  there  never  was  a  man  of  greater  inte- 
grity.    He  was  equally  distinguished  for  his  sobriety.     He 
told  Mr.  Boswell,  that  he  had  never  in  his  life  been  intoxi- 
cated with  liquor.     In  his  friendships,   sir  John  Pringie 
was  ardent  and  steady.    The  intimacies  which  were  formed 
by  him,  in  the  early  part  of  bis  life,  at  Edinburgh,  con- 
tinued unbroken  to  the  decease  of  the  gentlemen  with 
whom  they  were  made ;  and  were  sustained  by  a  regular 
correspondence,  and  by  all  the  good  o$ces  that  lay  in  his 
power.     With  relation  to  sir  John  Pmngle's  external  man- 
ner of  deportment,  he  paid  a  very  respectful  attention  to 
those  whom  he  esteemed ;  but  he  had  a  kind  of  reserve 
in  his  behaviour,  when  be  was  not  perfectly  pleased  with 
the  persons  who  were  introduced  to  him,  or  who  happened 
to  be  in  his  company.     His  sense  of  integrity  and  dignity 
would  not  permit  him  to  adopt  that  false  and  superficial 
politeness,  which  treats  all  men  alike,  however  different 
in  point  of  real  estimation  and  merit.      He  was  above 
assuming  the  professions,  without  the  reality  of  respect. 
On  the  religious  character  of  sir  John  Pringie  it  is  more 
particularly  important  to  enlarge.     The  principles  of  piety 
and  virtue,  which  were  early  instilled  into  him  by  a  strict 
education,  do  not  appear  ever  to  have  lost  their  influence 
upon  the  general  conduct  of  his  life,     Nevertheless,  when 
h^  travelled  abroad  in  the  world,  his  belief  of  the  Christian 
revelation  was  so  far  unsettled,  that  he  becaitie  at  least  a 
sceptic  on  that  subject.     But  it  was  not  the  disposition  of 
sir  Jphn  Pringie  to  rest  satisfied  in  his  doubts  and  difficul- 

P  R  I  N  G  L  E.  325 

ties,  with  respect  to  a  matter  of  such  high  importance. 
He  was  too  great  a  lover  of  truth,  not  to  make  religion 
the  object  of  his  serious  inquiry.  As  he  scorned  to  be  an 
implicit  believer,  he  was  equally  averse  to  the  being  an 
iioplicit  unbeliever;  which  is  the  case  of  large  numbers  who 
reject  Christianity  with  as  little  knowledge,  and  as  little 
examination,  as  the  most  determined  bigots  embrace  their 
systems.  The  res^ult  of  this  investigation  was,  a  full  con- 
viction  of  the  divine  original  and  authority  of  the  Gospel. 
The  evidence  of  revelation  appeared  to  him  to  be  solid 
and  invincible,  and  the  nature  of  it  to  be  such  as  must 
demand  the  most  grateful  acceptance.  Such  having  been 
the  character  and  eminence  of  sir  John  Pringle,  it  wa& 
highly  proper  that  a  tribute  to  his  merit  should  be  placed 
in  Westminster  abbey.  Accordingly,  under  the  direction 
and  at  the  expence  of  his  nephew  and  heir,  a  monument 
with  an  English  inscription  was  erected,  of  which  Mr.  NoU 
lekens  was  the  sculptor*^ 

PRIOLO  ^Benjamin),  in  Latin  Priolus,  author  of  an 
History  of  France  from  the  death  of  Louis  XIIL  in  1643  to 
1664,.  was  born  in  1602.  He  was  descended  from  the 
Prioli,  an  illustrious  family,  some  of  whom  had  been  doges 
of  Venice.  He  underwent  some  difficulties  from  losina 
bis  father  and  mother,  when  young;  but  these  did  not 
abate  bis  passion  for  learning,  which  he  indulged  day  and 
night.  He  studied  first  at  Orthez,  next  at  Montauban^ 
and  afterwards  at  Leyden ;  in  which  last  city  he  profited  by 
the  lectures  of  Heinsius  and  Vossius.  He  went  to  Paris, 
for  the  sake  of  seeing  and  consulting  GrotiusN*,  and  after* 
wards  to  Padua,  where  he  learned  the  opinions  of  Aristotle 
and  other  ancient  philosophers,  under  Cremoninus  and 
Licetus.  After  returning  to  France, .  he.  went  again  into 
Italy,  in  order  to  be  recognized  by  the  house  of  Prioli,  a^ 
one  of  their  relations.  He  devoted  himself  to  the  duke 
of  Rohan,  then  in  the  Venetian  service,  and  became  one 
of  fais(  most  intimate  confidents;  but,  uncertain  what  his 
fate  would  be  after  this  duke's  death,  he  retired  to  Geneva, 
having  married,  three  months  "before,  a  lady  of  a  very 
noble  family.  The  duke  de  Loirgueville  drew  him  from 
this  retirement,  upon  his  being  appointed  plenipotentiary 
from  the  court  of  France  for  the  treaty  of  Munster,  as  a 
person  whose  talents  n)ight  be  of  service  to  him ;  and 
Priolo  resided  with  him  a  year  at  Munster,  where  he  con* 

*  Life  by  Dr.  Kippis,  prefixed  to  sir  John's  "  Six  Discourse!,"  17S3,  8vo. 

326  P  R  I  O  L  D. 

tracted  a  very  intimate  friendship  with  Chigi  the  nuncio/ 
who  was  afterwards  pope  Alexander  VII.  From  Munster 
he  returned  to  Geneva;  whence  he  went  to  France,  in 
order  to  settle  at  Paris.  He  stayed  six  months  in  Lyons, 
and  there  had  frequent  conferences  with  cardinal  Francis 
Barberini ;  the  effect  of  which  was,  that  himself  and  his 
whole  family  abjured  the  Protestant  religion,  and  imme- 

'  diately  received  the  communion  from  the  hands  of  the 
cardinal.  He  was  not,  however,  long  easy  at  Paris ;  for,  the 
civil  war  breaking  out  soon  after,  he  joined  with  the  male- ' 
contents,  which  proved  the  ruin  of  his  fortune.  He  was 
obliged  to  retire  to  Flanders,  his  estate  was  confiscated, 
and  his  family  banished.  Being  afterwards  restored  to  the 
favour  of  his  sovereign,  he  resolved  to  lead  a  private  life, 
and  to  devote  himself  to  study.  It  was  at  this  time,  and 
to  divert  his  melancholy,  that  be  wrote,  without  the  least 

-  flattery  or  partiality,  his  "  History  of  France,"  in  Latin. 
It  has  gone  through  several  impressions;  but  the  best  edi- 
tion is  that  of  Leipsic,  1686,  8vo.  He  was  again  em- 
ployed in  negociations ;  and  set  out,  in  J  667,  upon  a 
secret  affair  to  Venice  ;  but  did  not  arrive  at  the  end  of  bis 
journey,  being  seized  with  an  apoplectic  fit,  of  which  he 
died  in  the  archbishop^s  palace  at  Lyons.  He  left  seven 
children  ;  who,  by  virtue  of  his  name,  and  their  own  accom- 
plishments and  merit,  rose  to  very  flourishing  circum- 

PRIOR  (Matthew),  an  English  poet  of  considerable  emi- 
nence, was  born  July  21,  1664,  but  there  is  some  difficulty  in 
settling  his  birth-place.  In  the  register  of  his  college  he 
is  called,  at  his  admission  by  the  president,  Matthew  Prior, 
of  Winburn  in  Middlesex  ;  by  himself,  next  day,  Matthew 
Prior  of  Dorsetshire  ;  in  which  county,  not  in  Middlesex, 
Winborn,  or  Winborne  as  it  stands  in  the  Villare,  is. 
found.'  When  be  stood  candidate  for  his  fellowship,  five 
years  afterwards,  he  was  registered  again  by  himself  as  of 
Middlesex.  The  last  record  (says  Dr.  Johnson)  ought  to 
be  preferred,  because  it  was  made  upon  oath  ;  yet  there  is 
much  reason  for  thinking  that  he  was  actually  of  Wimborn  in 
Dorsetshire,  and  that  his  county  was  concealed,  in  order  to 
entitle  him  to  a  fellowship.  (See  Gent.  Mag.  LXII.  p.  b02.) 
By  the  death  of  his  father,  the  care  of  him  devolved 
upon  an  uncle,  Samuel  Prior,  who  kept  the  Rummer 
tavern,  near  Charing- cross,  and  who  discharged  the  trust 

»  Gen.  Dict.*-.-NiceroD,  vol.  XXXIX. 

PRIOR.  S27 

teposed  in  bim  with  a  tenderness  truly  paternal,   and  at  a 
proper  age  sent. him  to  Westminster  school,  where  he  was 
admitted  a  scholar  in   1681,  and  distinguished  himself  to 
great  advantage.     After  remaining  here  for  a  short  time, 
he  was  taken  home  by  his  uncle,  in  order  to  be  bred  to  his 
trade.     At  leisure  hours,  however,  he  pursued  the  study 
of  the  classics,  on  which  account  be  was  soon  noticed  by 
the  polite  company  who  resorted  to  his  uncle's  house.     It 
happened,  one  day,  that  the  earl  of  Dorsiet  and  other  gen-  ■ 
tiemen  being  at  this  tavern,  the  discourse  turned  upon  a 
passao^e  in  an  ode  of  Horace,  who  was  Prior's  favourite 
author:    and   the  company  being  divided   in    their  senti- 
ments, one  of  the  gentlemen  said,  *^  Ifind  we  are  not  like* 
to  agree  in   our  criticisms;   but,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,' 
there  is  a  young  fellow  in  the  house  who  is  able  to  set  us' 
all  right"     Upon  which  he  named  Matt.  Prior^  who  being 
called  in,  gave  the  company  the  satisfaction  they  want